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310 Cards in this Set

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Risk factors for eye disorders...
Aging
Trauma
Heredity
Diabetes
Which of the following would not be considered an age-related disorder of the eye?
a) Lens opacities
b) Increased orbital fat
c) Loss of skin elasticity
d) Loss of accomodation
b) Increased orbital fat
What is Glaucoma?
Increased intraocular pressure
What does Glaucoma cause?
-Optic nerve damage
-progressive loss of peripheral and night vision
What are the clinical manifestations of Glaucoma?
Halos
Headache
Types or Glaucoma
Acute closed angle
Chronic closed angle
Chronic open angle
What type of Glaucoma causes a sudden increase of pressure in the eye?
Acute closed angle
Which type of Glaucoma is considered the "silent thief of sight'?
Chronic open angle
What does Glaucoma lead to?
damage to the optic disc
What is Cataracts?
Opacity of the lens
What are the clinical manifestations of Cataracts?
Blurred vision
Decreased visual acuity
Decreased color perception
What medications are used for cataracts?
Mydriatics
Cycloplegics
What type of surgery is done for cataracts?
Removal of the lens
-extracapsular extraction
-intracapsular extraction
Nursing management of Glaucoma
Prevent further vision loss
Explain action and effects of medications
Aid the patient in adjusting to vision loss or potential vision loss
Nursing management of Cataracts
Preoperative care
Dilating eyedrops or other meds
Call physician for vision changes, flashing lights, redness, swelling, significant pain
Corneal Transplant Surgery

R.S.V.P.
R-Redness
S-swelling
V-vision decrease
P-pain
What is retinal detachment?
separation of the retina (light-sensitive membrane) of the eye
Is there pain with retinal detachment?
No Pain
What are the clinical manifestations of Retinal detachment?
Flashes of light
Floaters
Increased blurred vision
Loss of a portion of FOV
Medical management of Retinal detachment
Surgery is the only treatment
Post-op Nuring considerations for Retinal detachment
Same as corneal transplant
Avoid reading for 3-5 weeks
What is Macular degeneration?
Deterioration of the macula
What is the macula?
the area of the retina where light rays converge.
What causes Macular degeneration?
Aging - thinning of the macular tissues
What are the clinical manifestation sof Macular degeneration?
Decrease in central vision Decrease in near vision
Blurred vision
How is Macular degeneration diagnosed?
Amsler grid
How is Macular degeneration treated?
Laser
Infectious and Inflammatory eye disorders?
Dry eye syndrome
Conjunctivitis
Uveitis
Orbital cellulitis
What is Conjunctivitis?
"Pink Eye"

Can be bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, allergic, or toxic
Is conjunctivitis contaigious?
Yes...All forms
What is Uveitis?
inflammation of the middle layer of the eye
-causes photophobia
What are the signs of an eye infection?
Fever
Pain
Red eyelids
Swelling
What is Diabetic Retinopathy?
vascular changes in retinal blood vessels
What is the most common incidence in diabetics?
diabetic retinopathy
What is the most common manifestation of diabetic retinopathy?
floaters
What is the best way to prevent diabetic retinopathy?
Teach good diabetes management
What is conductive hearing loss?
sound waves are blocked due to external or middle ear disorders
Is conductive hearing loss permanent?
No
How is conductive hearing loss corrected?
with minimal or no damage to hearing
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
Pathological process of inner ear
Is sensorineural hearing loss permanent?
Yes
Causes of sensorineural hearing loss
Damage to inner ear structures
Damage to cranial nerve VII
Prolonged exposure to loud noise
Medications Trauma
Infections
Meniere's Syndrome
Medical Management of Hearing loss
Cochlear Implant
Hearing Aids
Which type of hearing loss are hearing aids most effective in?
Conductive Hearing Loss
What is Presbycusis?
Degeneration of ganglion cells in the cochlea
Loss of elasticity of Basilar membranes
Clinical Manifestations of Presbycusis
Gradual, Bilateral hearing loss
Pt thinks people are mumbling
Difficulty understanding words
What is the best tone to use to spek to a person with presbycusis?
Low, pitched voice
What is External Otitis?
Infective inflammatory or allergic response

"Swimmer's Ear"
What are the clinical manifestations of External otitis?
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Conductive Hearing Loss
What does External Otitis usually stem from?
Staph Infection
What is Otitis Media?
Acute or Chronic infective inflammatory or allergic response involvong structures of the middle ear.
If otitis media is left untreated, what is the result?
Mastoiditis
Clinical manifestations of otitis media
Pain from pressure
Hearing loss
Tinnitis, dizziness, vertigo
Fever, malaise
N&V
Bulging Tympanic membrane
Which type of ear infection is most common in children
Otitis Media
What is Otosclerosis
Disease of the Labyrinthine capsule of the middle ear
What does otosclerosis result in?
bony overgrowths, causing fixation of bones
What does otosclerosis lead to?
Conductive hearing loss
What happens if otosclerosis spreads to the inner ear?
sensorineural hearing loss
Clinical manifestations of otosclerosis
Slow, progressive hearing loss
Tinnitus
May involve both ears
Pinkish coloring of Tympanic membrane
What is Gout?
A type of arthritis where uric acid builds up in the joints
Acute gout
typically affects one joint
Chronic gout
repeated episodes of pain and inflammation
May involve more than one joint
Symptoms of Gout?
Develop suddenly and usually only involve only one or a few joints
May be fever
attack may go away in several days
Which joints are most commonly affected in gout?
Big toe, knee, ankle
When does gout pain usually start?/
During the night
What does a gouty joint look like?
Warm, red and very tender
What kind of pain is associated with gout?
throbbing, crushing, excruciating
Tx for Gout
NSAIDs
Prescription strength pain meds for 4-10 days
Corticosteroids
Foods to avoid with Gout

*fatty,
Alcohol
Anchovies, sardines, oils, herring
Organ Meat (liver, kidney)
Legumes
Gravies
Mushrooms
Spinach, Asparagus, cauliflower
What is Labyrinthitis?
INfection of the labyrinth of the inner ear
What is Labyrinthitis a complication of?
acute or chronic otitis media
What are the S/Sx of labyrinthitis?
Hearing loss on affected side
Tinnitus
Vertigo
N/V
Nystagmus to affected side
What is Meniere's Syndrome?
Build up of fluid in the inner ear
What is the pathophysiology of Meniere's Syndrome?
dilation of the endolymphatic system by overproduction or decreased reabsorption of endolymphatic fluid
What does repeated damage to the cochlea lead to?
Permanent hearing loss
What is the most important nursing interaction with Meniere's Syndrome?
SAFETY!!
What are the clinical manifestations of meniere's Syndrome?
Feeling of fullness in the ear
Tinnitus
Hearing loss worsens during attacks
Intense vertigo
N/V
Nystagmus
Headaches
What is Nystagmus?
twitching muscle spasm of the eye
What is acoustic neuroma?
benign tumor of the vestibular or acoustic nerve
What happens in Acoustic neuroma?
May cause damage to hearing and to movement/sensation
Rarely recurs after removal
What are the S/Sx of acoustic neuroma?
Gradual sensorineural hearing loss
Damage to adjacent cranial nerves
Medical management of acoustic neuroma
Surgical removal via craniotomy
Does acoustic neuroma respond well to chemo and radiation?
No
What are post-op considerations for acustic neuroma?
Monitor for facial nerve paralysis
Drainage
Cerebral Edema
Important consideration for appendicitis?
DO NOT LIE FLAT!
What is the purpose of a cast?
Immobilizes body part
Types of cast composition? Benefits to each?
Plaster - Stronger
Fiberglass - waterproof
Nursing care of client with a cast
Neurovascular checks
Assess for infection
Teach proper crutch walking
Complications R/T fractures
Compartment Syndrome
Fat embolism
DVT
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
What is compartment syndrome?
Increased pressure from hemorrhage or edema
Pressure from cast being too tight
What does compartment syndrome result in?
Nerve, vessel, and muscle damage
What is priority nursing consideration for patient with compartment syndrome?
Maintain affected extremity at heart level
What is Fat embolism syndrome?
globules of fat, released from fractured bone, mix with platelets
S/Sx of Fat embolus
Dyspnea, hypoxia, agitation

Same as pulmonary embolus
What is the difference between a fat embolus and a pulmonary embolus?
Petechiae
Tx of fat embolus
Maintain pulmonary function
Fluid balance
Steroid treatment
STABILIZE LONG BONE FX!!
What is reflex sympathetic dystrophy?
excitation of nervous tissue
S/Sx of reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Persistent pain
Hyperasthesias
Swelling
Skin color changes
Temperature changes
Tx of reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Threat Symptoms

Alpha or Beta blockers
Post op considerations for hip replacement
Hip precautions for 6 weeks
No leg crossing, internal rotation, or adduction
Potential complications of hip replacement
Hemorrhage
Peripheral neurovascular dysfunction
DVT
Pulmonary complications
Pressure ulcers
Pain relief after hip fx/replacement
Administer analgesics
Buck's traction
Handle extremity gently
Support extremity with pillows
Positioning
Alternative pain relief measures
Interventions for hip fx/replacement
Orient to environment
Safety
Participation in self care
Coughing, deep breathing
Adequate hydration
TED hose or SCDs
Ankle exercises
Teaching (pt & fam)
What are the common causes for an amputation?
PVD
Trauma
Infections
Tumors
Goals of care for amputation
Pain relief
Wound healing
Acceptance of altered body image
Resolution of grieving processes
absence of complications
Teaching for a client with an amputation
Wrap stump
Positioning stump
Stump exercises
Physical activities
Household modifications
Referrals for social services
How to wrap a stump
figure 8 pattern
How to position stump for first 24 hours after amputation?
elevate
How to position a stump after the 1st 24 hours
Gentle range of motion to prevent contracture
Pain relief for amputation
Analgesics
Position changing
TENS unit
Light sandbag on residual limb
Nursing care of the patient with low back pain
Pain relief
Improved physical mobility
Proper body mechanics
Improved self esteem
Weight reduction
What is Osteoporosis?
Loss of total bone mass, by increased rate of bone resorption, decreased rate of bone formation
What happens to the bones in Osteoporosis?
become porous, brittle, fragile, and break easily under stress
What does Osteoporosis result in?
Compression fractures of the spine
Femur/hip fractures
Colles fx of the wrist
Prevention of Osteoporosis
Balanced Diet
High calcium and Vitamin D intake
Regular weight bearing exercises
Calcitonin
What does regular weight bearing exercise promote?
Stimulates bone mineral density
What do you want to assess for in a pt with osteoporosis?
Corticosteroid use
Alcohol, caffeine intake
Smoking
Interventions for osteoporosis
Pain relief
Improve bowel elimination
Injury prevention
What is Osteomalacia?
metabolic bone disease characterized by inadequate bone mineralization
What does osteomalacia do?
softens and weakens the long bones, causing pain, tenderness and deformities
What causes osteomalacia?
Activated vitamin D deficiency
-GI disorders
-severe renal insufficiency
-hyperparathyroidism
-dietary deficiency
Treatment of Osteomalacia
Correct underlying cause
Increased Vitamin D and calcium intake
Handle pt carefully
Address pain and discomfort
Why must the patient with osteomalacia be handles carefully?
increased risk of fractures
What is Paget's Disease?
Disorder of localized bone turnover
(rapid bone turnover)
What is Paget's Disease also known as?
Osteitis Deformans
What are pts with Paget's Disease at risk for?
fractures, arthritis and hearing loss
S/Sx of Paget's Disease
Skeletal deformities
Mild to mod aching pain
Tenderness and warmth over the bones

May be attributed to old age or arthritis
What is Osteomyelitis?
Infection of the bone
Why does osteomyelitis occur?
Extension of sift tissue infection
Direct bone contamination
Blood-borne spread from another infection site
What causes Osteomyelitis?
Staphylococcus aureus
Pseudomonas
E. coli
What are risk factors for Osteomyelitis?
Elderly
Obesity
Lupus
Previous bone injury
S/Sx of Osteomyelitis
localized pain
edema
erythema
fever
drainage
when does fever occur with chronic osteomyelitis?
low grade fever in the afternoon or evening
Interventions for osteomyelitis
Pain relief
Restricted activity
Gentle ROM
ADLs
Vitamin C and protein
Adequate hydration
#1 remedy for sprains and strains
RICE!

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation
Contusion
soft tissue injury produced by blunt force
Strain
pulled muscle injury to the musculoteninous unit
Sprain
Injury to ligaments and supporting muscle fiber around a joint
Dislocation
articular surfaces of the joint are not in contact
S/Sx of contusion
pain, swelling, and discoloration
S/Sx of Strain
Pain, edema, muscle spasms, ecchymosis, loss of function
S/Sx of Sprain
Joint is tender, movement is painful, edema, disability

Pain increased during first 2-3 hours
S/Sx of Dislocation
change in contour, axis and length of limb, loss of mobility
What is tendonitits?
inflammation of tendon from overuse
What is GERD?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease

acidic secretions reflux into the esophagus
S/Sx of GERD
Heartburn
Regurgitation
Dysphagia
Bleeding
Complications of GERD
Aspiration
Scar tissue
How is GERD diagnosed?
Barium Swallow
Esophagoscopy
GERD Interventions

Lifestyle changes
Dietary (avoid alcohol, sweets, caffeine, spicy, acidic)
medical interventions for GERD
Antacids
H2 receptor antagonists (prevacid)
Proton pump inhibitors (nexium)
Why to avoid dairy products with GERD
Stimulates acid secretion
What is gastritis?
inflammation of the stomach lining
What are the S/Sx of gastritis?
Abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia
Tx of Gastritis
Remove irritating substance
-Meds, aspirin, NSAIDS, steroids
Bland diet
Antacids
Small, frequent meals
Common sign of gastritis
Bloating, belching
When do antacids work the best?
When taken after a meal
What bacteria causes gastritis?
helicobacter pylori
what does chronic gastritis lead to?
Pernicious Anemia
What is the biggest complication of Gastritis?
Malnutrition
The biggest complicatiopn of gastritis?
Malnutrition
What is dumping syndrome?
Rapid gastric emptying
Complications of gastric surgery
Hemorrhage
Gastric distention
Nutritional problems
What is necessary after gastric surgery?
Lifelong B12 injections
Complications of gastric surgery
Steatorrhea
Pyloric obstruction
Dumping syndrome
What is the first sign of appendicitis?
Pain around belly button (periumbilical)
Where does appendicitis pain radiate?
RLQ - McBurney's Point
What does sudden pain relief in appendicitis indicate?
ruptured appendix
What is peritonitis?
Abdominal infection caused by ruptured appendix
what can peritonitis lead to?
septic shock
What are risk factors for diverticulitis/osis?
Low fiber diet
Increased age
Chronic constipation
Therapeutic interventions for diverticulitis/osis?
Prevent constipation
IV antibiotics
Pain control
Surgery
What are fistulas?
Abnormal tunneling connecting two body cavities
Tx of fistulas
surgery
What is ulcerative colitis?
inflammatory bowel disease of the large colon and rectum
S/Sx of ulcerative colitis
Abdominal pain
5-20 stools per day
Rectal bleeding
Fecal urgency
Weight loss
Vomiting
Ulcerative causes increased risk of...?
colon cancer
Therapeutic interventions for ulcerative colitis
Avoid offending foods
-spicy, fatty, gaseous, dairy, acidic
Medications used for ulcerative colitis
Antiinflammatories
Antidiarrheals
Immunosuppressants
Corticosteroids
What is irritable bowel syndrome?
Altered intestinal motility
Increased sensitivity to visceral sensations
What are risk factors for colon cancer?
Polyps
Increased red meat intake
Age over 60
Treatment of colon cancer
depends on the stage of the cancer
Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Increase fiber
Avoid trigger foods
Smaller, more frequent meals
Stress management
What is Hepatitis?
Inflammation of the cells of the liver
Usually caused by a virus
How is Hepatitis A transmitted?
Fecal/Oral
How are Hepatitis B and C transmitted?
Blood/Body fluid
Which Hepatitis viruses cause cirrhosis of the liver?
B and C
Which Hepatitis virus causes no permanent liver damage?
A
How to prevent Hepatitis
Cleanliness
Vaccines (A&B only)
Standard precautions
Therapeutic interventions for Hepatitis
Rest
Nutrition
INTERFERON
Antivirals
What causes cirrhosis of the liver?
Chronic alcohol ingestion
Hepatotoxins
Hepatitis
Gallbladder obstruction
Heart failure
Is cirrhosis reversible?
NO
S/Sx of Cirrhosis
Hepatic encephalopathy
Jaundice
Oliguria
Bruising
Abnormal Bleeding
What is esophageal varices?
dilated blood vessels in the esophagus
Sign of esophageal varices?
Increased amount of blood in emesis
Tx of Cirrhosis
Decrease alcohol intake
Low protein diet
Lactulose
Better nutrition
Signs of liver transplant rejection
Pulse >100bpm
Temp >101
RUQ pain
Increased jaundice
Elevated liver enzymes
Decreased bile from t-tube
Cancer of the liver
Usually mets from another site
Risk factors for liver cancer
Chronic Hep B
Nutritional deficiencies
Exposure to hepatotoxins
S/Sx of liver cancer
Encephalopathy
Bleeding
Jaundice
Ascites
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gall bladder
cholelithiasis
Gall stones
Choledocholithiasis
Stones in common bile ducts
Pain in appendicitis
Starts dull and steady in periumbilical area, progresses to RLQ over 4-6 hours
#1 sign of peritonitis
Board-like abdomen
Biggest nursing consideration for bowel obstruction
Identify!!
the higher the bowel obstruction...
...the quicker the symptoms
Vomiting with bowel obstruction...
...may turn malodorous with fecal smell
S/Sx of bowel obstruction
Extreme constipation
Failure to pass flatus
When does Crohn's Disease peak?
ages 15-40
Later S/Sx of Crohn's Disease
Weight loss
Dehydration
Electrolyte imbalance
Anemia
Which GI disease affects both the large and small intestines?
Crohn's Disease
Important nutritional considerations with Dumping syndrome
No fluids with meals
No high carbs
Eat small meals
Watch carbs and starches
Osteoporosis Risk factors

*ACCESS*
Alcohol use
Corticosteroid use
Calcium low
Estrogen low
Smoking
Sedentary lifestyle
Access leads to...
Osteoporosis
Hepatitis with a vowel comes from the...
Bowel
Hepatitis D
Super infection with Hep B
Increased intracranial pressure S/Sx

(opposite if shock)
Increased BP
Decreased pulse
Decreased respirations
What is Parkinson's Disease?
A progressive degenerative disease of the extrapyramidal system
What is Parkinson's associated with?
Dopamine deficiency
Causes of Parkinson's
Imbalance of dopamine and acetylcholine in basal ganglia
Cerebrovascular disease
Drugs
Head trauma
Key S/Sx of Parkinson's
"Pill rolling" tremors
Shuffling gait
Stiff joints
Masklike facial expression
Dyskinesia
Stooped posture
"Cogwheel" rigidity
Treatment of Parkinsons
High-residue, High-calorie, high-protein diet
Soft foods
Anticholinergics
Antidepreesants
Dopamine receptor agents
Key Nursing interventions for Parkinsons
Assess neurovascular and respiratory status
Prevent falls
Reinforce gait training
Key complications of Parkinsons
Depression
Injury
Aspiration
Corneal ulceration
What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?
Progressive immune-mediated demyelinating disease of motor and sensory neurons
Causes of MS
Autoimmune disease
Virus
Genetic Disposition
Key S/Sx of MS
Weakness
Nystagmus
Diplopia
Blurred vision
Paresthesia
Impaired sensation
Optic neuritis
Treatment of MS
Plasmapheresis
Muscle relaxant
Glucocorticoids
Immunosuppressant
Skeletal muscle relaxant
Key nursing interventions for MS
Assess neurologic status
Maintain active and passive ROM
Establish bowel and bladder elimination
Key complications of MS
UTI
Rep tract infection
Depression
What is Myasthenia Gravis?
Neuromuscular disorder that results in weakness of voluntary muscles
Causes of Myasthenia Gravis
Insufficient acetylcholine
Autoimmune disease
Key S/Sx of Myasthenia Gravis
Muscle weakness (increases with activity)
Dysphagia
Dysarthria
Dysphonia
Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis
High-calorie diet
Activity as tolerated
Plasmaphoresis
anticholinasterases
Key nursing interventions for Myasthenia Gravis
Assess neurologic and Respiratory status
Assess swallow and gag reflexes
Administer meds before meals to maximize muscles for swallowing.
What does interferon do?
Helps regulate immune system
When does MS strike?
20-40s
What is Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Inflammation of spinal and cranial nerves
What is characteristic of Guillain-Barre?
Ascending paralysis
S/Sx of stage 1 Guillain-Barre
Abrupt onset weakness and paralysis
May affect respiration
ANS effects
S/Sx of stage 2 Guillain-Barre
Plateau
Progression stopped
S/Sx of stage 3 Guillain-Barre
Recovery
Complications of Guillain-Barre
Repiratory failure
Infection
Depression
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
Steroids
Plasmapheresis
Life support
Rehab
Simple partial seizure
symptoms are confined to one hemisphere
Complex partial seizure
Symptoms begin in one focal area, and spread to both hemispheres
Types of Generalized seizures
Absence (petit mal)
Myoclonic
Clonic
Tonic
Tonic-Clonic (grand mal)
Atonic
Akinetic
What is an absence (petit mal) seizure?
Loss of responsiveness
Continued ability to maintain posture control and not fall
What is a tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure?
Violent total body seizure
S/Sx of absence seizure
Can have 100 daily
Twitching eyelids
Lip smacking
Staring
No postictal symptoms
S/Sx of tonic-clonic seizure
Aura
Tonic first (20-40 seconds)
Clonic next
Postictal symptoms
Incontinence
Causes of seizures
Idiopathic
Head injury
Brain tumor
Treating seizure disorders
Seizure precautions
Anticonvulsants
Diazepam (status epilipeticus)
Care during seizure
Pad side rails
Prevent injury
Monitor airway
Observe and document
Complications of seizure disorder
Musculoskeletal injury
Hypoxia
Status Epilepticus
Life threatening
30 minutes of seizure activity
What is a TIA?
"mini-stroke"
Temporary impairment of cerebral circulation
Resolves within 24 hours
S/Sx of TIA
Depends on part of the brain affected
-Visual disturbances
-Speech difficulty
-Weakness
-Paralysis
-Confusion
What causes TIA?
Atherosclerosis
Emboli
Treatment of TIA
Coumadin
Antihypertensives
Antiplatelet agents
What is CVA?
Stroke, Brain accident
Infarction and death of brain tissue
Permanent Damage
What causes CVA?
Deficient blood supply (thrombotic, embolic)
Bleeding into the brain
Non-modifiable risk factors for CVA
Age
male gender
African american
Modifiable risk factors for CVA
Hypertension
CV disease
Elevated cholesterol
Obesity
Diabetes
Smoking
Alcohol use
What does Right CVA affect?
Motor function
What does Left CVA affect
Cognitive
Effects of Right Sided CVA
Left side paralyzed
Spacial-perceptual deficits
Short attention span
Impaired judgement
Impulsive
Effects of Left Sided CVA
Right side paralyzed
Impaired speech and language
Slow performance
Aware of deficits
Impaired comprehension
Treatment of CVA
TIME IS BRAIN!!
Thrombolytic therapy must be given within 3 hours to be effective
Anticoagulants
Airway management
Surgery
Long term effects of CVA
Motor function
Aphasia
Emotional lability
Impaired judgement
Unilateral neglect
What is an aneurysm?
Weakness in artery wall
What is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
Bleed from aneurysm, AV malformation, or Head trauma
S/Sx of hemorrhage
Severe headache
IICP
Photophobia
Vomiting
Seizures
Stiff neck
Treatment of hemorrhage
Craniotomy
Blood pressure control
Invasive monitoring
Complications of hemorrhage
Rebleed
Hydrocephalus
Vasospasm
What does Head trauma result in?
Hemorrhage
Contusion
Laceration
Warning signs the first 24 hours after head injury
Changes in LOC
Seizures
Drainage from the nose (blood, H2O)
Pupils slow to react or unequal
Vision problems
Loss of sensation
Slurred speech
Projectile vomiting
Treatment for head injury
Surgical removal of hematoma
Control IICP
Therapeutic coma
Complications of head injury
Diabetes Insipidus
acute hydrocephalus
Labile vital signs
Posttraumatic syndrome
Cog and personality changes
Spinal cord injury does not mean...
...that the spinal cord is broken!
What is a spinal cord injury?
damage to nerve fibers
*interference with blood flow and brain/body communication
Causes of spinal cord injury
MVA
Falls
Sports injuries
Assault
S/Sx of Cervical injury
Paralysis
Paresthesias
Impaired respiration
Loss of bladder/bowel control
Quadriplegia/paresis
Spinal injury at C2 or above...
...fatal
S/Sx Thoracic/Lumbar injury
Paraplegia/paresis
Bowel and bladder control affected
What is meningitis?
infection and inflammation of pia mater, subarachnoid and arachnoid space
Possible cranial nerve involvement
S/Sx of meningitis
Similar to the Flu!!
-Severe headache
-Fever
-Photophobia
-Petechial rash
Late S/Sx of meningitis
Nuchal rigidity
N/V
Encephalopathy
Changes in LOC
Complications of meningitis
Hydrocephalus
Seizures
Resp impairment
Ensephalitis is passed by...
...mosquitos
What is encephalitis?
Inflammation of brain tissue
What does encephalitis result in?
nerve damage
IICP
Neuro effects depend on area of brain affected
S/Sx of encephalitis
Headache
Fever
N/V
Nuchal rigidity
confusion
seizures
photophobia
Complications of encephalitis
cognitive disabilities
personality changes
ongoing seizures
motor deficits
blindness
Treatment of encephalitis
treat the symptoms
What is trigeminal neuralgia?
Neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve
Affects sensory portion of nerve
S/Sx of trigeminal neuralgia
Pain on one side of face
TX of trigeminal neuralgia
Anticonvulsants (muscle relaxants)
Nerve blocks
Surgery
What is Bell's Palsy?
Inflammation and edema of facial nerve
What is Huntington's disease?
Degeneration of parts of the brain
S/Sx of Huntington's
Dementia
Choreiform movements
Dysphagia
Depression
Death
Tx of Huntington's
Antipsychotics
Antidepressants
Antichorea agents
Fetal tissue transplants
S/Sx of Stage 1 Alzheimer's
Increasing forgetfulness
S/Sx of Stage 2 Alzheimer's
Progressive memory loss
Irritability
Depression
Aphasia
Sleep disruption
Hallucinations
Seizures
S/Sx of Stage 3 Alzheimer's
Complete dependency
Loss of bowel and bladder control
Loss of emotional control
Inability to recognize significant others
Medical Treatment of Alzheimer's
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Antianxiety agents
Best method of mental stimulation for Alzheimer's
Crossword puzzles
Memory games
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
(ALS, Lou Gherig's Disease)
Degeneration of peripheral motor neurons
Blocked nerve impulse transmission
Muscle weakness and atrophy
S/Sx of ALS
Progressive muscle weakness
Decreased coordination
Muscle spasms
Speech difficulty
Pulmonary comprimise
Death in 3-5 years
Treatment of ALS
*Focus on symptomatic relief
Muscle relaxants
PT/OT/ST
Pain control
Tube feedings
Prevent infection