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45 Cards in this Set

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Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Definition:
inflammatory disease potentially involving all layers; Damage results in chronic condition; Involves primarily scarring and deformity of the heart valves
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Risk/ Etiology
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Patho:
inflammatory process, abnormal immune response to streptococcal cells antigens bind to receptors on the organs
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Cardiac Involvement
1. Cardiac Involvement: All Cardiac Layers
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
doesn't affect just the heart. It is also found in:
2. Extra cardiac lesion
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
s/sx
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Dx tests
Throat cultures, WBC, ESR
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Treatment
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
Nursing
1. Primary: early detection
2. Secondary
–Identify at risk
–Prophylactic
–At risk for bacterial endocarditis
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis):Definition
Infection of the endocardium; usually involves valves
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis):
Etiology & Risk factors
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis):
s/sx
No universal s/s
1. nonspecific (infection): fever, malaise, fatigue, joint pain
CHF: dyspnea, edema, cough; heart murmur
2. Secondary to embolism (30%)
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis):
Dx tests
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis): TX
Infectious Endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis):
Nursing considerations
Myocarditis: Definition
Inflammation of the heart muscle; usually both ventricles
Myocarditis: etiology/risks
Myocarditis: s/sx/dx tests
Myocarditis: tx
Pericarditis:definiton
inflammation of the parietal and visceral pericardium sac. Can take up to 2L of fluid..takes a while...then trauma happens and you die quickly. Lining is dry or fluid filled.
Pericarditis:Etiology/Risk factors
Pericarditis:Signs & Symptoms/Diagnostic Tests
1. Chest pain: sudden, severe, sharp, aggravated with inspiration and movement; Radiates to L shoulder; Decreases if sitting up and leaning forward
2. Friction rub: short, scratchy or grating; synchronized with heart beat; transient; L middle to lower sternal border
3. Fever, chills, malaise
4. EKG changes (
Pericarditis:TX
Pericardial Effusion:definition
escape of fluid into pericardial sac
Pericardial Effusion: s/sx
Muffled heart sounds--sound distant (w/fluid in sac)
Pericardial Effusion: TX
Pericardiocentesis
Cardiac Tamponade:def
a life threatening complication caused by accumulation of fluid in the pericardium: Can be blood, pus, or air.(trauma, bullet wound, open heart surgery)
Cardiac Tamponade:Signs & Symptoms
Cardiac Tamponade:Tx
Pericardiocentesis
Cardiomyopathies:
any disease of the muscle or any part of the muscle. These are the heart transplant people.
Cardiomyopathies:etiology
Primary: unknown etiology
Cardiomyopathies:Signs & Symptoms/Diagnostic Tests
CHF: heart failure
ECHO< ECG, X-ray
Cardiomyopathies:TX
CHF treatment
Types of Cardiomyopathy:Dilated (Congestive) cardiomyopathy:
Most common; Both ventricles dilated; Fibrotic tissue replaces healthy tissue
Types of Cardiomyopathy:Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:
disproportionate thickening of septum wall--grows inside the heart
Types of Cardiomyopathy:Restrictive Cardiomyopathy:
Least common; Excessively rigid ventricular walls; Can no longer stretch;
3 types of cardiomyopathies
Dilated (Congestive) cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy,Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Valvular Disorders:Functional Murmurs
Stenosis: orifice is restricted, fused/thick
Valvular Disorders:Regurgitation: incompetence, insufficiency
leaflets don’t close
Valvular Disorders:
Characteristics of Murmurs
Mitral Valve Diseases:Mitral Stenosis (MS):
MS):RHD, endocarditis, Ca+ deposits
S/S: murmur, diastolic

LA dilation--L pulmonary--CHF--SOB
Mitral Valve Diseases: Mitral Regurgitation (MR, MI)
RHD, MVP, after an MI
S/S: murmur, systolic

LV hypertrophy--LA dilation--LV failure--CHF
Mitral Valve Diseases:Aortic Stenosis
Congenital, RHD, Calcifications
S/S: murmur, systolic

LVH, LVD --LV failure --CHF --Syncope and/or angina
Mitral Valve Diseases:Aortic Regurgitation (AR):
: RHD, syphilis, connective tissue diseases, HTN
S/S: murmur diastolic

LVH, LVD--LV failure--CHF --syncope, angina
Treatment for Valvular Disorders
Conservative: Treat CHF
Surgery: palliativ--valve replacement