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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is MODY
genetically caused forms of diabetes
define dysplasia?
an abnormality in the appearance of cells indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia
this is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). It is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus
Burkitt's lymphoma
presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
Hodgekin's
what is the gold standard treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
the ABVD chemotherapy regimen
what are the risk factors of colorectal CA
Age
fam hx
polyps
heredity
UC/Crohns
diet
phys inactivity
smoking
viruses
sclerosing cholangitis
How do you screen for prostate CA?
DRE
PSA
when is PSA elevated?
prostate cancer
BPH
Infection of prostate
ejaculation
irritation
sun exposure related skin conditions
Precancerous-actinic keratosis
Cancerous-Basal Cell, squamous cell, melanoma
screening test for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Alpha Feto Protein
causes of HCC
Viral Hep B & C, cirrhosis of liver
what causes DIC?
Tissue trauma
Malignancies
Vascular disorders
Exogenous-snake venom

sepsis, malignancy, advanced liver disease, and other disorders that trigger endotoxin release or cause severe tissue damage
what is DIC
nonimmune peripheral platelet destruction
this lung CA causes paraneoplastic syndromes such as the SIADH and Cushing's syndrome
small cell
this lung CA usually starts centrally as an endobronchial lesion
Squamous cell carcinoma
Drugs to treat Hodgkin's
MOPP
ABVD
what does MOPP stand for?
Mustargen
Oncovin
Procarbazine
Prednisone
How do you treat Non-Hodgekin's?
CHOP

Cyclophasphamide
hydroxydoxorubicin(adriamycin)
Oncovin(vincristine)
Prednisone
What is MAHA(microangiopathic hemolytic anemia)?
traumatic destruction of RBCs as they pass through blood vessels
MCC of MAHA
DIC
TTP/HUS
Preeclampsia/eclampsia
HELLP
Drugs
Metastatic CA
spleenomegaly
infection
the most common lung cancers
Adenocarcinomas
genes that play an important role in normal cellular proliferation.
proto-oncogenes
treatment for small cell lung cancer
combination chemotherapy
what are some complications of Cancer?
Brain mets
spinal cord compression
SVC syndrome
hypercalcemia
paraneoplastic syndromes
which cancers are assoc. with genetic mutations?
CML- abl to bcr
CLL- bcl2
breast/ovarian-BRCA1
Sarcoma,breast,brain,adrenal-TP53
Burkitt's- mutation of c-myc
smoking increases risk of which cancers?
Lung, esophagus, head and neck, renal cell, bladder, pancreatic cancer
mammogram for moderate risk women should be done at what age?
40
which cancer has no effective screening test?
Ovarian cancer
a rare B-cell lymphoma in adults that is highly aggressive, with a propensity to involve the bone marrow and central nervous system
Burkitt's lymphoma
causes of >PSA
Carcinoma
BPH
Prostatitis
UTI
Prostatic trauma (urethral catheterization or prostatic massage)
Cause and Tx of HIV pt with Dysphagia
Candida-flucanazole
CMV-Gancyclovir
Herpes-Acyclovir
Apthae-Prednisone
bone pain, lytic bone lesions,pathologic fractures, plasmacytoma
multiple myeloma
Tumor marker CA 15-3
Breast
Lung
Ovarian
Tumor marker CA 19-9
Pancreatic
Colorectal
CA 72-4
Ovarian
CA 125
Ovarian
what is the ROME criteria?
used to Dx IBS
Dukes Classification for colon CA
A. mucous membrane of bowel only
B. Muscle
C1. Few nodes
C2. Many nodes
D. distant metastasis
MCC of strangulated hernias
Indirect hernia where the hernia follows the descent of the gonads
MCC of ventral hernia
laparoscopy incision in the linea alba
MC type of colon cancer
Adenocarcinoma 95% malignancies in large bowel
screening test for colon CA
DRE
FOBT
proctosigmoidoscopy
colonoscopy-hight risk pts
sudden onset of LLQ pain
UC
columnar metaplasia of the esophagus known as?
Barrett’s Esophagus

A premalignant lesion of adenocarcinoma
MC esophageal CA
squamous cell CA 90-95% of cases
predisposition to barrett's
GERD
Virchow node- a
solitary enlarged left sided supraclavicular lymph node is seen in?
Gastric CA
Viruses that predispose to CA
HPV (cervical)
H. Pylori (Gastric Cancer)
Hepatitis B & C (HCC)
EBV (Burkitt’s)
HIV (Karposi’s Sarcoma)
Herpes Virus (HSV)
how can you tell between the Dawn effect and Simogyi?
take glucose level at 2-3 AM, if low it's Simogyi; if its normal or high then it's Dawn
T/F Epi and norepi lowers insulin
True, can give you hyperglycemia
GTT results for pregnant women should be
Fasting = should be 95
After one hour = 180
After 2 hours = 155
After 3 hours = 140
Treatment of esophageal varices
Stop bleeding:
endoscopy with banding or sclerotherapy

Prophylaxix:
BBs
Nitrates
what test are done to Dx dysphagia?
Chest Xray
Barium Swallow
Endoscopy
Manometry
dysphagia with solid food/liquid, heart burn
Scleroderma or
esophageal CA
Tx of Dawn phenomena
no food after dinner
Metformin
Eat breakfast
Tx of Simogyi
Higher glucose levels before bedtime

Cause of Simogyi: extra insulin levels in body