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178 Cards in this Set

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Diphenhydramine
Benadryl H1 Blocker
chlorpheniramine maleate
Chlor Trimeton H1 Blocker
promethazine
Phenergan H1 Blocker
Loratidine
claritan H1 blocker, 2nd gen
fexofenadine
allegra H1 blocker, 2nd gen
cetirizine
zyrtec H1 blocker, 2nd gen
ranitidine
H2 blocker Zantac
cimetidine
Tagamet H2 blocker
Salmeterol
Serevent Diskus, b2 agonist, inhaled, long acting
Advair Diskus
salmeterol + fluticasone, long acting b2 agonist + steroid
albuterol
short b2 agonist
terbutaline
b2 short agonist
fluticasone
CORT, allergic rhinitis
theophylline
methylxanthine, COPD
acetylcysteine
mucolytic. Uses: filamentary keratitis, dry eye, corneal burn
Cimetidine
Tagamet H2 blocker
Ranitidine
H2 blocker; GERD
Omeprazole
prilosec, GERD, proton pump inhibitor
esomeprazole
nexium, GERD, proton pump inhibitor
colloidal bismuth compounds
pepto bismol, inhibits pepsin activity, stimulates mucous secretion, used w/ antibiotics. SE: tinnitus, black tongue
methotrexate
Antibmetabolite. rheumatrex. folic acid analog. inhibits dihydrofolate reductase. inhibits DNA synth. Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriases, leukemias, lymphomas
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
Efudex. folic acid analog. inhibits dihydrofolate reductase. inhibits DNA synth. Uses: colon cancer, BCC, trabeculectomy to prevent wound healing
Tamoxifen
Nolvadex. Estrogen antagonist. Use: breast cancer. SE: crystalline retinopathy. >6.5 mg/kg/day for 5+ years.
rifampin
mRNA synth blocker. Use: TB
trimethoprim
folic acid synth inhibitor -> nucleic acid/protein inhibitor
sulfisoxazole
sulfonamide. gantrisin; inhibits folic acid synth. bacteriostatic. Gram +/-
sulfacetamide
sulamyd. sulfonamide. inhibits folic acid synth. bacteriostatic. Gram +/-
sulfamethoxazole
gantanol. sulfonamide. inhibits folic acid synth. bacteriostatic. Gram +/-
pyrimethamine
Daraprim. inhibits folic acid synth. bacteriostatic. Gram +/-. Oral med for toxo in the eye.
trimethoprim
SE: bone marrow suppression. TMP = treats marrow poorly. NO PREGNANT. Steven Johnsons.
Amphotericin B
Amphocin. Binds ergosterol. Forms leaky pores in fungi. ung & soln. SE: nephrotoxicity w/ IV
Nystatin
Mycostatin. Binds ergosterol, forms leaky pores in fungi. topical only.
Natamycin
Natacyn. Fungal keratitis. Preg class C.
ketoconazole
inhibits ergosterol synth.. SE: liver dysfunc. inhibits cp450, fever, chills.
fluconazole
diflucan. inhibits ergosterol synth.. SE: liver dysfunc. inhibits cp450, fever, chills.
miconazole
monostat-derm. inhibits ergosterol synth.. SE: liver dysfunc. inhibits cp450, fever, chills.
Griseolfulvin
Grifulvin. Oral antifuntal. Blocks MT formation during cell-wall development. Use: scalp, skin, nails
Bacitracin
Gram + antibac. Blocks cell wall synth. blocks peptidoglycan precursor. ung only.
polysporin
bacitracin + polymixin B (gram -)
neosporin
bacitracin, polymixin b, neomycin
vancomycin
blocks pptidocglycan/cell wall synth. for MRSA/endophthalmitis. Gram +. SE: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man's syndrome at IV site.
MRSA are resistant to...
cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides
ciprofloxacin
ciloxan, cipro. fluoroquin. inhibits bact DNA synth by inhibiting DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV. Use: urinary/GI infections
ofloxacin
ocuflox. fluoroquin. inhibits bact DNA synth by inhibiting DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV.
levofloxacin
quixin. fluoroquin. inhibits bact DNA synth by inhibiting DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV.
gatifloxacin
zymar. fluoroquin. inhibits bact DNA synth by inhibiting DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV. 4th gen. gram +/-.
moxifloxacin
vigamox, avelox. fluoroquin. inhibits bact DNA synth by inhibiting DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV. gram +/-. 4th gen. Avelox = respiratory quinolone.
fluoroquinolone SE
gi infections, skin rashes, HA, dizziness. Oral: tendonitis, no preg, no children <18.
penicillin G
IV. inhibits peptidoglycan crosslinks. Gram + vs strep, syphillis, meningitis, pneumococcal. inhibited by food.
PCN
inhbiits transpeptidase.
ampicillin
gram +/-. Use: otitis media, respiratory infections in kids. vs. haemophilus influenzae gram -. NOT resistant to penicillinase. SE: hypersenstivity, analphylaxis, hemolytic anemia.
amoxicillin
gram +/-. Use: otitis media, respiratory infections in kids. vs. haemophilus influenzae gram -. NOT resistant to penicillinase. SE: hypersenstivity, analphylaxis, hemolytic anemia.
augmentin
amoxicillin + beta lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid
methicillin
penicillinase resistant. narrow spectrum vs S. aureus, epidermidis.
SE: interstitial nephritis
nafcillin
penicillinase resistant. narrow spectrum vs S. aureus, epidermidis. Use: IV for orbital cellulitis.
dicloxacillin
penicillinase resistant. narrow spectrum vs S. aureus, epidermidis. Oral. Uses: hordeolums, bleph
Cephalexin
Keflex. 1st gen. Gram +. inhibit peptidoglycan cross-linking. beta lactam. bactericidal. less suceptible to penicillinase.
Uses: dacryoadenitis, preseptal cellulits. SE: hypersentiviity, nephrotoxicity, dec Vit K abs
Ceftrioxone
Rocephin. 3rd gen. more gram -. inhibit peptidoglycan cross-linking. beta lactam. bactericidal. less suceptible to penicillinase.
Use: meningitis, gonorrhea, gono conjunc IV. SE: hypersentiviity, nephrotoxicity, dec Vit K abs
Gentamicin
Garamycin. binds 30s subunit. Gram +/- . Fortified w/ cefazolin for corneal ulcers.
SE: nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, SPK
Tobramycin
Tobrex. binds 30s subunit. Gram +/- . Fortified w/ cefazolin for corneal ulcers.
SE: nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, SPK
Tetracycline
binds to 30s. blocks tRNA. bacteriostatic.
Use: chlamydia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lyme disease. no food. No pregnant, no children, no renal failure. SE: pseudotumor cerebri, bone retardation, teeth discolor, photosens, GI distress
doxycycline
binds to 30s. blocks tRNA. bacteriostatic.
Use: chlamydia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lyme disease, meibomianitis, acne rosacea. ok for renal failure. No pregnant, no children. SE: pseudotumor cerebri, bone retardation, teeth discolor, photosens, GI distress
minocycline
binds to 30s. blocks tRNA. bacteriostatic.
Use: chlamydia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lyme disease, acne. no food. No pregnant, no children, no renal failure. SE: pseudotumor cerebri, bone retardation, teeth discolor, photosens, GI distress
Chloramphenicol
chloroptic. blocks 50s. Gram +/-.
SE: aplastic anemia, optic neuritis, grey baby syndrome
erythromycin
binds 50s. macrolide. bacteriostatic. More Gram +. qid
Use: staph bleph, prophylaxis of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, chlamydia. SE: GI
azithromycin
binds 50s. macrolide. bacteriostatic. More Gram +. qd.
Empty stomach. Use: chlamydia trachoma, inclusion conj. SE: GI
clarithromycin
binds 50s. bacteriostatic, more gram +.
Use: respiratory infections. SE: GI
lincomycin
binds 50s. bacteriostatic, more gram +
Use: methacillin resistant bac. SE: GI
clindamycin
binds 50s. bacteriostatic. More gram +
Use: methacillin resistant bac. SE: GI
metronidazole
metrogel. disrupts DNA/nucleic acid synth.
Use: acne rosacea
rifampin
RNA polymerase inhibitor.
Use: TB. SE: orange-pink tears.
isoniazid
Use: latent TV
SE: optic neuritis
pyrazinamide
Use: TB
ethambutol
Use: TV
SE: optic neuritis, bilat, retrobulbar, dec acuity
rifabutin
new rifampin.
SE: uvetis, optic neuropathy, corneal endo deposits, pink tears
Oseltaminivir
Tamiflu. Inhibits Influenza A/B neuraminidase.
Amantidine
used to be used for influenza A.
Trifluiridine
viroptic. inhibits DNA polymerase. antiviral.
acyclovir
zovirax. vs. HZO, HSV. inhibits DNA polymerase. antiviral.
SE: GI
valacyclovir
valtrex. prodrug of acyclovir. only oral. antiviral for herpes, cold sores, HZO, HSV keratitis. inhibits DNA polymerase. antiviral.
Famciclovir
Famvir. inhibits DNA polymerase. antiviral. vs. HSV1/2, VZV
Ganciclovir
cytovene. Use: CMV via IV.
SE: bone marrow suppression/neutropenia.
Foscarnet
Foscavir. CMV retinitis in AIDS patients whne ganciclovir fails.
SE: nephrotoxicity
Zidovudine
Retrovir/AZT. HIV drug. inhibits viral reverse transcriptase. used during pregnancy to lower risk to fetus.
SE: bone marrow suppression, GI, HA, lactic acidosis, myalgias
HAART
triple therapy for HIV. 2 nucleosies, protease inhibitor e.g. saquinavir/ritonavir.
Chloroquine
aralen. antiparasitic. buildup of heme in RBC vs malaria. inhibits PLA. vs rhematoid arthritis, lupus.
SE: bull's eye maculopathy, >3 mg/kg, >5 yrs, poor renal func.
Kwell
Lindane. vs. lice/scabies.
SE: conj when used on eyelashes.
prednisone
steroid. inhibits PLA2/arachidonic acid.
SE: diabetes, weight gain, fat , immune suppression, poor wound healing, PSC CAT, GLC, infections
trimacinolone
kenalog. Use: macular edema, Graves orbitopathy, post uveitis, chalazion removal, CME post CAT.
SE: diabetes, weight gain, fat , immune suppression, poor wound healing, PSC CAT, GLC, infections, depig of eyelid in chalazion injections
Aspirin
NSAID. irreversible non-selective COX inhibitor. inhibits PGs, thromboxane.
Use: antipyresis, antiinflam, analgesic. SE: GI, CV effects, respiratory effects, Reye's syndrome
ibuprofen
advil, motrin. reversible COX inhibitor. NSAID
antipyresis, anti-inflam, analgesia. SE: GI. can be used in kids 6 mo+
naproxen
naprosyn. reversible COX inhibitor. NSAID
antipyresis, anti-inflam, analgesia. SE: GI.
naproxen sodium
Aleve. reversible COX inhibitor. NSAID
antipyresis, anti inflam, analgesia
indomethacin
indocin. non-selective cox inhibitor. NSAID
Use: gout. SE: whorl keratopathy, retinal hemorrhages, pigmentary changes in macula, GI,
Celecoxib
celebrex. inhibits COX2.
Use: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis. SE: edema, GI, No pregnant, no sulfa allergies
hydroxychloroquine
plaquenil. inhibits PLA2.
Use: lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria. SE: bull's eye maculopathy >400 mg/day or 6.5 mg/kg >5 yrs.
acetaminophen
ok for pregnant. SE: overdose = hepatotoxicity
morphine
opioid analgesic.
Uses: analgesia, anxiety, pulmonary edema, sickle cell crisis. SE: miosis, respiratory depression, drowsiness, sedation, euphoria, nausea, vomiting, GI, orthostatic hypotension
codeine
opioid analgesic.
SE: miosis. Use: coughing. Similar to dextromethorphan, meperidine
Tramadol
Ultram. opioid analgesic.
Use: pain. SE: dry mouth, sedation, dizziness, nausea.
alprazolam
xanax. benzodiazepine. binds GABA. dec NT.
Use: anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks, sedative and alcohol withdrawal. SE: mydriasis, nystagmus. No alcohol!
diazepam
valium. benzodiazepine. binds GABA. dec NT.
Use: anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks, sedative and alcohol withdrawal. SE: mydriasis, nystagmus. No alcohol!
Chlorpromazine
thorazine. antipsychotic. D2 antagonist.
Use: schizophrenia. SE: pigment on endo. anterior stellate CAT, dry eye, mydriasis, inc IOP, hyperpig of RPE, parkinson's.
thioridazine
mellaril. antipsychotic. D2 antagonist
Use: schizophrenia. SE: pigment on endo, anterior stellate CAT, inc IOP, dry eye, mydriasis, hyperpig of RPE, parkinson's.
levodopa
antiparkinson's. Sinemet = levodopa + carbidopa.
SE: arrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dyskinesia, schizophrenia. Contra: angle-closure GLC, schizophrenia, arrhythmias, melanoma.
bromocriptine
parlodel. dopamine agonist. Use: prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas.
SE: arrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dyskinesia, schizophrenia. Contra: angle-closure GLC, schizophrenia, arrhythmias, melanoma.
selegeline
eldepryl. MAOI. reduces metabolism of dopamine.
amantadine
symmetrel. thought to potentiate dopamine effects in brain
phenelzine
nardil. MAOI. blocks breakdown of NE/serotonin. Use: depression, panic attacks
orthostatic hypotension, sedation, excessive central stimulation, weight gain, sexual dysfunc. Contra: tyramine foods -> HTN crisis. SSRI -> serotonin syndrome
amitriptyline
elavil. TCA. inhibits NE/serotonin reuptake. 2-4 wks -> downreg of Rcs.
Use: pain, fibromyalgia, migraines, sedation. No suicidals.
selegeline
eldepryl. MAOI. reduces metabolism of dopamine.
Fluoxetine
prozac. SSRI.
Use: depression, panic disorder, OCD, bulimia, PTSD, PMS. SE: serotonin syndrome
amantadine
symmetrel. thought to potentiate dopamine effects in brain
sertraline
zoloft. SSRI
Use: depression, panic disorder, OCD, bulimia, PTSD, PMS. SE: serotonin syndrome
phenelzine
nardil. MAOI. blocks breakdown of NE/serotonin. Use: depression, panic attacks
orthostatic hypotension, sedation, excessive central stimulation, weight gain, sexual dysfunc. Contra: tyramine foods -> HTN crisis. SSRI -> serotonin syndrome
phenytoin
dilantin. anticonvulsant. acts on NE, ACh, GABA.
SE: nystagmus, diplopia, ataxia, gingival hyperplasia
amitriptyline
elavil. TCA. inhibits NE/serotonin reuptake. 2-4 wks -> downreg of Rcs.
Use: pain, fibromyalgia, migraines, sedation. No suicidals.
Fluoxetine
prozac. SSRI.
Use: depression, panic disorder, OCD, bulimia, PTSD, PMS. SE: serotonin syndrome
Phenobarbital
Luminal sodium. anticonvulsant. AMPA Rc blocker. dec glutaminergic.
Use: seizures, epilepticus
sertraline
zoloft. SSRI
Use: depression, panic disorder, OCD, bulimia, PTSD, PMS. SE: serotonin syndrome
cyclobenzaprine
flexeril. muscle relaxant. depresses spinal polysynaptic reflexes
Use: muscle spasm. SE: drowsiness, loss of coordination, anticholenergic
phenytoin
dilantin. anticonvulsant. acts on NE, ACh, GABA.
SE: nystagmus, diplopia, ataxia, gingival hyperplasia
nicotine
mimics ACh at preganglionic synapse for para and sympathetic.
Withdrawal: anxiety, irritability, restlessness, inc appetite, heart rate, BP. Tx: wellbutrin, zyban, bupropion
Phenobarbital
Luminal sodium. anticonvulsant. AMPA Rc blocker. dec glutaminergic.
Use: seizures, epilepticus
cyclobenzaprine
flexeril. muscle relaxant. depresses spinal polysynaptic reflexes
Use: muscle spasm. SE: drowsiness, loss of coordination, anticholenergic
nicotine
mimics ACh at preganglionic synapse for para and sympathetic.
Withdrawal: anxiety, irritability, restlessness, inc appetite, heart rate, BP. Tx: wellbutrin, zyban, bupropion
alcohol
thiamine deficiency -> wernicke's encephalopathy. korsakoff syndrome--amnesia, confabulation
withdrawal: anxiety, tremors, delirium tremens. tx: chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, clonidine
opioids
jwaoefj
withdrawal: mydriasis, anxiety, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, sweating, anorexia, tremor, nausea, vomiting heart rate, HTN, dehydration, acid-base. tx: clonidine
cocaine
blocks dopamine/NE reuptake in reward centers
SE: mydriasis, chest pain, heart palp, heart attack
Esters
LA. cocaine, rhinorrhea, ophthaine, benoxinate. blocks Na channels along axons.
amides
LA. lidocaine (xylocaine)
levothyroxine
synthroid. T4.
Use: hypothyroidism. SE: hyperthyroidism, pseudotumor cerebri in kids
insulin
activates tyrosine kinase Rcs.
glipizide
glucotrol. sulfonylurea. increases insulin secretion, dec glucagon, inc insulin sensitivity.
metabolized by liver, excreted by kidney.
glyburide
diabeta, micronase. sulfonylurea. increases insulino secretion/sensitivity. dec glucagon.
metabolized by liver, excreted by kidney
metformin
glucophage. biguanide. dec liver glucose production, inc glucose uptake.
contra: renal insuf. SE: alctic acidosis.
acarbose
precose. a-glucosidase inhibitor. inhibits carb breakdown/intestinal uptake.
use: dec high post-prandial glucose. SE: gas/diarrhea.
pioglitazone
actos. TZD. enhance insulin Rc. combat insulin resistance.
SE: weight gain, edema
rosiglitazone
avandia. TZD. enhance insulin Rc. combat insulin resistance.
SE: weight gain, edema
sitagliptin
januvia. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. inhibit glucagon.
SE; upper respir infections.
estrogen
stimulates growth of endometrium
Use: hypogonadism, hypopituitarism, pms, osteoporosis, dysmenorrhea,. SE: dry eyes, DVT, breast tenderness, hyperpig, migraines, HTN
progestin
inhibits growth of endometrium. maintains vascular supply. withdrawal -> menstruation
testosterone
promotes erythropoeisis, treats osteoporosis.
spironolactone
aldactone. mineralocorticoid/androgen Rc antagonist. blocks aldosterone at late DCT/collecting duct. spares K+.
Use: hirsutism, K+ depletion, CHF. SE: hyperkalemia, gynecomastia,
finasteride
5-alpha reductase inhibitor -> dec androgen prod.
Use: BPH
hydrochlorothiazide
hydrodiuril. diuretic. inhibits NaCl reabs in DCT. dec Ca excretion.
Use: HTN, CHF, hypercalciuria.
lisinopril
prinovil, zestril. ACEI. blocks metabolism of bradykinins (vasodilation).
Use: HTN
SE: cough, rash, inc renin, proteinuria, taste changes, angioedema
benazepril
lotensin. ACEI. blocks metabolism of bradykinins
Use: HTN.
SE: cough, rash, inc renin, proteinuria, taste changes, angioedema
captopril
capoten. ACEI. blocks metabolism of bradykinins (vasodilation)
Use: HTN
SE: cough, rash, in renin, proteinuria, taste changes, angioedema
losartan
cozaar. angiotensin II Rc antagonist. dec BP.
Use: HTN. No cough
propranolol
inderal. non-selective beta blocker. blocks renin release from kidney
Use: HTN
labetalol
trandate. non-selective beta blocker. blocks renin release from kidney
Use: HTN
metoprolol
beta 1 blocker
Use: HTN
atenolol
beta 1 blocker
Use: HTN
tamsulosin
flomax. alpha 1 blocker.
Use: BPH. SE: floppy iris syndrome
prazosin
minipress. alpha 1 blocker.
Use: HTN
nifedipine
procardia. L type Ca channel blocker. dec intracell free Ca. dec vascular resistance. dilates coronary arteries.
Use: angina/HTN.
SE: HA, hypotension, GI, rash
verapamil
calan, isoptin. L type Ca channel blocker. dilates coronary arteries. dec vascular resistance. negative inotropism, neg chronotropism. dec oxygen requirements.
Use: angina, HTN, arrhythmias. SE: cardiac depression, constipation.
diltiazem
cardizem. l type Ca channel blocker. dec intracell free Ca. dec vascular resistance. dilates coronary arteries. . neg inotropism, neg chronotropism, dec oxygen requirements
Use: angina, HTN, arrhythmias, SE: cardiac depression, constipation.
clonidine
catapres. a 2 agonist. dec symp. inc parasymp. dec vascular resistance/HR.
Use: HTN, analgesia, opioid, tobacco withdrawal. SE: dry mouth, sedation, impotence, withdrawal symp, rebound HTN.
hydralazine
apresoline. vasodilator. inc cGMP -> smooth muscle relaxation. arterioles>veins. dec afterload.
Use: HTN, CHF. SE: tachycardia, fluid retention, lupus
digoxin
lanoxin. inhibits Na/K ATPase. Inc int cell Ca.
Use:CHF. SE: retrobulbar optic neuritis, B/Y color defects, entopic phenomenon.
CHF
Use diuretics, beta blockers, ACEIs
Class I Antiarrhythmic
Na channel blocker
Class II antiarrhythmic
beta blocker
Class III antiarrhythmic
K channel blocker
Class IV antiarrhythmic
Ca channel blocker
amiodarone
K channel blocker. antiarrhythmic Class III.
Use: supraven/ventricular arrhythmias. SE: whorl keratopathy, ant subcaps lens deposits >600 mg/day, >6 mo tx
Tx for unstable angina
nitroglycerine, 325 mg aspirin, oxygen, morphine, Ca channel blockers, beta blockers
nitroglycerine
nitrate. releases NO in sm muscle ->vasodilation.
sublingual rapid. Use: angina, pulmonary edema
heparin
antithrombin II -> inactivation of thrombin. dec clotting.
Use: IV for DVT, stroke, angina, pulmonary embolism
warfarin
coumadin. Vit K antag. dec clotting factors II, VII, IX. 36-72 hr onset. anticoagulation.
no pregnant. SE: bleeding, skin necrosis, alopecia, diarrhea. Reverse effects w/ Vit K.
Plavix
clopidogrel. inhibits platelet Rc. dec platelet aggreg/clotting
Use: post heart attack. SE: GI, bleeding
lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin
mevacor, zocor, lipitor. HMF CoA reductase inhibitor, dec cholesterol synth.
Use: cholest/TG levels. SE: GI, HA, hepatotoxicity, myopathy. no pregnant/lact
fenofibrate
tricor. binds PPAR-a. inc lipoprotein lipase.
Use: dec VLDL/TGs. SE: GI, skin rash, hives, myositis
cholestyramine
questran. binds bile acids in intestine, prevents bile acid reabsorption.
SE: constipation, fatty stools
furosemide
lasix. diuretic. inhibits Na 2CL K cotransporter in ascend LOH. Inc Ca secretion.
Use: CHF, HTN, cirrhosis, nephritic syndrome, pulmonary edema, hypercalcemia.
SE: ototoxicity, hypokalemia, dehydration, sulfa allergies, nephritis, gout
mannitol
osmitrol. increases plasma conc. draws water out of eye in AACG or brain in cerebral edema.
SE: pulmonary edema, dehydration, CHF.