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30 Cards in this Set

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the study of how medications enter the body reach their site of action, metabolize and exit the body
PHARMACOKINETICS
the effects of the medications combined is greater than the effect of the medication when given seperately.
Synergistic effect
expected or predictable response a medication causes
Therapeutic effect
unintended, secondary effects a medication predictably will cause
-harmless, injurious
Side effect
severe responses to medications
Adverse effect
excessive amounts of meds within the body may have lethal effects
Toxic effect
unpredictable effects a client overreacts or underreacts to a medicatio, or has a reaction different from normal.
Idiosyncratic reaction
unpredictable response
makes up 5 to 10% of all meds reactions
client becomes sensitized immunologically to a dose
allergic reaction
sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of pharynx, wheezing, SOB
Anaphylactic Shock
Name factors that influence medication absorption?/
route of administration
ability of meds to dissolve
blood flow to site of admini
body surface area
lipid solubility of medicatio
food in stomach
time of absorption?
Skin?
Mucous membranes?
Oral?
IV injection?
Skin= slow
mucous membrances= quick
oral= slow
IV,injection= MOST RAPID
time of absorption?
oral meds?
solutions/preparation?
acidic meds?
basic meds?
oral meds=depends on preparation
sol/prep= liquid(quicker)
acidic=RAPID (STOMACH)
basic=absorb in sm.intestine
Blood Flow absorption?
Body surface area?
Lipid solubility?
rich blood supply=fast absorption time
larger surface area=faster rate of absorption
high lipid solubility=easy absorption
all medication orders to include?
-date
-time
-pt name
-drug name
-dosage(amount,frequency)
-route
-signature
The highest serum concentration of the medication usually occurs just before the last of the medication is absorbed
PEAK CONCENTRATION
MINIMUM BLOOD SERUM CONCENTRATION OF MEDICATION REACHED JUST BEFORE THE NEXT SCHEDULE DOSE?
TROUGH CONCENTRATION
when is the trough level drawn?
when is the peak level drawn?
trough: 30 minutes before the drug is administered
peak: whenever the the drug is expected to reach its peak concentration
the time it takes for excretion processes to lower the serum medication concentration by half?
SERUM HALF LIFE
given via epidural space via a catheter,
most commonly used for the administration of analgesia?
Epidural
given through a catheter placed into the subarachnoid space or into one of the ventricles of the brain?
Intrathecal
involves the infusion of medication directly into the bone marrow.
commonly used in infants and toddlers who have poor accesst o their intravascular space?
Intraosseous
given into the peritoneal cavity,
used in dialysis patients?
Intraperiotoneal
given through the chest wall and directly into the pleural spce.
chemo pts use this method
Intrapleural
6 rights of medication administration?
Medication
Dose
Client
Route
Time
Documentation
Nurse checks the medication lable 3 times, Name the steps?
-before removing from shelf
-before opening package
-before discarding package
Assessment before giving meds
Name the steps?
1-review clients medical history
2-history of allergies
3-Medication data
4-diet history
5-clients ability to prepare doses and take medications correctly
6-assess physical or mental status
7-observe clients behavior for evidence of dependence or avoidance to meds
8-client knowledge to meds
9-determine need for intruction of meds
contraindications for giving oral medications via mouth is ?
GI alterations
inability to swallow
gastric suction
which medications cannot be crushed?
buccal
sublingual
enteric-coated
sustained-released
how to administer crushed meds in Ng, GI tube?
dissolve crushed tablets,gelatin capsules, powders in 15 to 30 ml of warm water.
give each meds seperately between 1 and 30 ml of water
total amt of volume to the client 60 to 150 ml of water
administer nasal drops?
posterior pharynx?
ethmoid or sphenoid sinus?
frontal and maxillary sinus?
posterior pharynx: tilt head backwards
ethmoid or sphenoid sinus: tilt head back over edge of bed or place small pillow under shoulder and tilt head back
frontal and maxillary sinus: tilt head back over edge of bed or pillow with head turnes toward side to be treated.