Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What color is G+?
Purple/Blue
What color is G-?
Red/Pink
Steps of the Gram Stain and associated color?
Crystal violet - Purple/Blue
Gram's Iodine - Purple/Blue
Alcohol- Purple/Blue G+; Colorless G-
Safranin - Purple/Blue: G+; Red/Pink G+
Color of AFB?
Red
Color of Non AFB?
Blue
All cocci are G+ except?
Neisseria and Moraxella
What are all spore formers?
G+
What is the AFB? and partially AFB?
Mycobacterium
Nocardia
All other bacteria are Non-AFB except Legionella micdadei
What are the Acid Fast protazoans?
Cryptosporidium and Isopora have acid fast oocytes
What are the bacterial ribosomal components?
70s
30s
50s (23s and 5s)
What are the bacteria with superantigens?
Mechanism of SuperAg?
S.aureus: TSST-1
S.pyogenes: Scarlet fever-strain SPE toxin causes toxic shock like syndrome

Bind directly to MHCII and TCR instead of individual peptide presentation on MHCII to CD4 resulting in large T (non-specific) cell stimulation - large release of cytokines
What are the ADP ribosylating A-B toxins?
C. diptheria: Inactivates EF-2 (similar to Pseudomonas exotoxin A)

Vibrio: ADP ribosylation of G-alpha keeping it on continously stimulates adenylyl cyclase - loss of Cl and water into lumen

E.coli: Heat labile toxin stimulaes adenylate cyclase (cholera-like); Heat stable toxin stimulates Guanylase cyclase

B. pertussis: ADP ribosylates Gi subunit tuning of the inhbitor; inhibits chemokine receptors causing lymphocytosis
Toxins that increase cAMP?
Cholera
Anthrax
(M) E. coli
Pertussis
Mechansim of C. tetani toxin?
Blocks the inhibitory NT glycine
Mechansim of C. botulinum toxin?
Blocks the release of Ach
Bacteria that do not Gram stain well?
These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color

Treponema (too thin)- Dark field microscopy
Rickettsia (Intracel) - Geimsa
Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
Mycobacterium (high lipid content)
Legionella (primarily intracellular) - Silver stain
Chlamydia (Intracellular) - Geimsa
Fermentation pattern of Neisseria?
MeninGococci ferment Maltose and Glucose
Gonococci ferment Glucose
Which bacteria produce pigments?
S.aurea - Gold
Serratia marcescens - Red
Pseudomonas - Bluish-green
Bacteria that have IgA protease?
Fxn?
S. pneumo
Neisseria Menin and Gonorr
H. influ
Defintion of conjugation?
DNA transfer from one bacteria to another
Definition of Transduction?
DNA transferred by a virus from 1 cell to another
Definition of Transformation?
Purified DNA taken up by a cell - can be eukaryotic in this case as well as prokaryotic
What are the obliagte aerobes?

Why?
Nagging Pest Must Breath
Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Mycobacterium
Bacillus

Use oxygen-dependent system to generate ATP
Obligate anaerobes?

Why?
Clostridium
Bacteroides
Acintomyces

They lack catalse and SODand thus suseptible to oxidative damage
What is the general clinical presentation characteristic of obligate anaerobes?

What Abx is ineffective at Tx
Foul-smelling (short chain fatty acids), produce gas in tissue (co2 and H2), difficult to culture

Can Tx with aminoglycosides b/c requires O to enter bacterial cell
What are the obligate intracellular pathogens?
Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Can't make own ATP
What are the Facultative intracellular pathogens?
Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY
Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Legionella, Fracisella, Listeria, Yersinia
What are examples of encapsulated bacteria?

What is necessary for an immune response
S. peumo, H.influ, Neisseria Mening, Klebsellia

IgG2 is necessary for immune response
Alhpa hemolytic bacteria?
S. pneumo (Catalse -, optochin sensitive)
Viridan
Beta hemolytic bacteria?
GAS (bacitracin sensitive)
GBS
S.aurea (Coagulase +)
Listeria (tumbuling motilty, menigitis in newborn / pregnant, unpast milk)
E.coli