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843 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organs of the Endocrine System
Adrenal glands
Ovaries
Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
Parathyroid glands
Pineal glands
Pituitary gland
Testes
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
acr/o
extremities
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
andr/o
male
calc/o
calcium
crin/o
secrete
estr/o
female
glyc/o
sugar
glycos/o
sugar
gonad/o
sex glands
home/o
sameness
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
ophthalm/o
eye
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pineal/o
pineal gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
somat/o
body
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
tox/o
poison
-crine
to secrete
-dipsia
thirst
-emia
blood condition
-tropin
stimulate
-uria
urine condition
Cortisol
Regulates carbohydrate levels in the body
Aldosterone
Regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in body
Androgen, estrogen, progesterone
Responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Intensifies response during stress; "fight or flight" response
Norepinephrine
Chiefly a vasoconstrictor
Estrogen
Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
Progesterone
Prepares for conditions of pregnancy
Glucagon
Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
Insulin
Regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
Parathyroid hormone
Stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium level in the blood
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Regulates function of adrenal cortex
Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH)
Stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males
Growth hormone (GH)
Stimulates growth of the body
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Stimulates pigment in skin
Prolactin
Stimulates milk production
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Regulates function of thyroid gland
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
Testosterone
Promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
Thymosin
Promotes development of cells in immune system
Calcitonin
Stimulates deposition of calcium into bone
Thyroxine
Stimulates metabolism in cells
Triiodothyronine
Stimulates metabolism in cells
Edema
Condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid
Exophthalmos
Conditions in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Grave's Disease. This is generally caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone
Gynecomastia
The development of breast tissue in males. May be a symptom of adrenal ferminization
Hirsutism
Condition of having an excessive amount of hair. Term generally used to describe females who have the adult male pattern of hair growth. Can be the result of a hormonal imbalance.
Hypersecretion
Excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland
Hyposecretion
Deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical and physical changes that take place in the body
Obesity
Having an abnormal amount of fat in the body
Syndrome
Group of symptoms and signs that, when combined, present a clinical picture of a disease or condition.
Acidosis
Excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis
Acromegaly
Chronic disease of adults that results in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities. There can also be mood changes. Due to an excessive amount of growth hormone in an adult.
Addison's disease
Disease named for Thomas Addison, a British physician, that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones. There may be an increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss.
Adenocarcinoma
A cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland. One cause of hypersecretion pathogens.
Adrenal feminization
Development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male. Often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal Virilism
Development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in a female. Often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
Cretinism
Congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid may result in arrested physical and mental development.
Cushing's syndrome
Set of symptoms named after Harvey Cushing, an American neurosurgeon, that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of a tumor of the adrenal glands. The syndrome may present symptoms of weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, and osteoporosis.
Diabetes Insipidus
Disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of a hormone by th eposterior lobe of the pituitary gland. There may be polyuria and polydipsia. This is more common in the young.
Diabetes mellitus
Chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. There are two distinct forms of diabetes mellitus; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1, and non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2.
Diabetic Retinopathy
Secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness.
Dwarfism
Condition of being abnormally short in height. It may be the result of a hereditary condition or a lack of growth hormone.
Gigantism
Excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager. The oppostie of dwarfism.
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves' Disease
Condition named for Robert Graves, an Irish physician, that results in overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Also called hyperthyroidism.
Hashimoto's disease
Chronic form of thyroiditis, named for a Japanese surgeon.
Hyperthyroidism
Condition that results from overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Also called Graves' disease.
Hypothyroidism
Result of a deficiency in secretion by the thyroid gland. This results in a lowered basal metabolism rate with obesity, dry skin, slow pulse, low blood pressurem sluggishness, and goiter. Treatment is replacement with synthetic thyroid hormone.
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
Also called Type 1 diabetes mellitus. It develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production. Persons with IDDM must take daily insulin injections.
Insulinoma
Tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin.
Ketoacidosis
Acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies (waste products). A serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed. Also called diabetic acidosis.
Myxedema
Condition resulting from a hypofunction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, enlarged tongue and facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental apathy.
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. It develops later in life when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin. Persons may take oral hypoglycemics to stimulate insulin secretion, or may eventually have to take insulin.
Panhypopituitarinism
Deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Often recognized because of problems with the glands regulated by the pituitary-adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes.
Peripheral neuropathy
Damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include either extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling.
Pheochromocytoma
Usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine. Symptoms include anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea.
Tetany
Painful muscle cramps that result from hypocalcemia.
Thyrotoxicosis
Condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include a rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss.
von Recklinghausen's
Excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones. Named for Friedrich von Recklinghausen, a German histologist.
Basal Metabolic
Somewhat outdated test to measure the energy used when the body is in a state of rest.
Blood serum test
Blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands.
Fasting blood sugar
Blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12-hour fast.
Glucose
Test to determine the blood sugar level. A measured dose of glucose is given to a patient either orally or intravenously. Blood samples are then drawn at certain intervals to determine the ability of the patient to use glucose. Used for diabetic patients to determine their insulin response to glucose.
Protein-Bound Iodine
Blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine circulating in the bloodstream. The iodine becomes bound to the protein in the blood and can be measured. Useful in establishing thyroid function.
Radioactive-iodine Uptake
Test in which radioactive iodine is taken orally (PO) or intravenously (IV). The amount that is eventually taken into the thyroid gland (the uptake) is measured to assist in determining thyroid function.
Radioimmunoassay
Test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood.
Serum glucose
Blood test performed to assist in determining insulin levels and useful for adjusting medication dosage.
Thyroid Echogram
Ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst.
Thyroid Function Test
Blood test used to measure the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function.
Thyroid scan
Test in which a radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland. The gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors.
Total calcium
Blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders.
Two-hour postprandial glucose tolerance test
Blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism. The patient eats a high carbohydrate diet and fasts overnight before the test. A blood sample is then taken 2 hours after a meal.
Chemical thyroidectomy
Large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery.
Iaparoscopic Adrenalectomy
Excision of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments.
Lobectomoy
Excision of only one lobe of the thyroid gland.
Parathyroidectomy
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands. This is performed to halt the progress of hyperparathyroidism.
Thymectomy
Removal of the thymus gland
Thyroidectomy
Removal of the entire thyroid or a portion (partial thyroidectomy) to treat a variety of conditions, including nodes, cancer, and hyperthyroidism.
Thyroparathyroidectomy
Surgical removal (excision) of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
Corticosteriods
Although the function of these hormones in the body is to regulate carbohydrate metabolism, they also have a strong anti-inflammatory action. Therefore they are used to treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term use of corticosteroids has adverse side effects such as osteoporosis and the symptoms of Cushing's disease.
Epinephrine
As a medication, epinephrine is used to constrict blood vessels and block severe allergic reactions.
Human Growth Hormone Therapy
Therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth. Used to treat children with abnormally short stature.
Insulin
Administered to replace insulin for type 1 diabetes or to treat severe type 2 diabetics.
Oral Hypoglycemic agents
Medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar. This is not used for insulin-dependent patients. There is no proof that this medication will prevent the agent long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.
Thyroid replacement
Given to replace thyroid in patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy.
Vasopressin
Given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone
BMR
Basal metabolic rate
DI
Diabetes Insipidus
DM
Diabetes Mellitus
FBS
Fasting blood sugar
GH
Growth hormone
GTT
Glucose tolerance test
IDDM
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
K+
Potassium
LH
Luteinizing hormone
MSH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Na+
Sodium
NIDDM
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
NPH
Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
PBI
Protein-bound iodine
PRL
Prolactin
PTH
Parathyroid hormone
RAI
Radioactive iodine
RAIU
Radioactive iodine uptake
RIA
Radioimmunoassay
T3
Triiodothyronine
T4
Thyroxine
T7
Free Thyroxine index
TFT
Thyroid function test
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Organs of the Nervous System
Brain
Nerves
Spinal Cord
Cephal/o
head
Cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glue
medull/o
medulla
mening/o
meninges
myel/o
spinal cord
narc/o
stupor
neur/o
nerve
phas/o
speech
poli/o
gray matter
pont/o
pons
radicul/o
nerve root
thalam/o
thalamus
ventricul/o
ventricle
-algesia
pain, sensitivity
-esthesia
feeling, sensation
-kinesia
movement
-lepsy
seizure
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
-sthenia
strength
-taxia
muscle coordination
frontal lobe
most anterior portion of the cerebrum; controls motor function, personality, and speech
parietal lobe
the most superior portion of the cerebrum; receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language
occipital lobe
the most posterior portion of the cerebrum; controls vision
temporal lobe
the left and right lateral portion of the cerebrum; controls hearing and smell
dura mater
the name means tough mother; it forms a tough, fibrous sac around the CNS
subdural space
the actual space between the dura mater and arachnoid layers
arachnoid layer
the name means spider-like; it is a thin, delicate layer attached to the pia mater by web-like filaments
subarachnoid space
the space between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater; it contains cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater
the name means soft mother; it is the innermost membrane layer and is applied directly to the surface of the brain
olfactory
transports impulses for sense of smell
optic
carries impulses for sense of sight
oculomotor
motor impulses for eye muscle movement and the pupil of the eye
trochlear
controls oblique muscle of eye on each side
trigeminal
carries sensory facial impulses and controls muscles for chewing; branches into eyes, forehead, upper and lower jaw
abducens
controls an eyeball muscle to turn eye to side
facial
controls facial muscles for expression, salivation, and taste on two-thirds of tongue (anterior)
vestibulocochlear
responsible for impulses of equilibrium and hearing; also called auditory nerve
glossopharyngeal
carries sensory impulses from pharynx (swallowing) and taste on one-third of tongue
vagus
supplies most organ in abdominal and thoracic cavities
accessory
controls the neck and shoulder muscles
hypoglossal
controls tongue muscles
aura
sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling an unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic
chorea
involuntary nervous disorder that results in muscular in muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles
coma
abnormal deep sleep or stupor resulting from an illness or injury
conscious
condition of being awake and aware of surroundings
convulsion
severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. these have a variety of causes, such as epilepsy, fever, and toxic conditions.
delirium
an abnormal mental state characterized by confusion, disorientation, and agitation
dementia
progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with performing the activities of daily living. Patients have little awareness of their condition. Found in disorders such as Alzheimer's.
focal seizure
a localized epileptic seizure often affecting one limb.
grand mal seizure
a type of severe epileptic seizure characterized by a loss of consciousness and convulsions. It is also called a tonic-clonic seizure, indicating that the seizure alternates between strong continous muscle spasms (tonic) and rhythmic muscle contraction and relaxation (clonic).
Hemiparesis
weakness or loss of motion on one side of the body
hemiplegia
paralysis on only one side of the body
intrathecal
pertaining to within the meninges
lethargy
condition of sluggishness or stupor
neurosurgeoun
a physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the nervous systems by surgical means
palsy
temporary or permanent loss of the ability to control movement
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of function or voluntary movement
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs
paesthesia
an abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling
petit mal seizure
a type of epileptic seizure that lasts only a few seconds to half a minute, characterized by a loss of awareness and an absennse of activity. It is also called an absence seizure.
sciatica
pain in the low back that raiates down the back of a leg caused by pressure on the sciatic nerve from a herniated nucleus pulposus.
seizure
sudden attack of severe muscular contractions associated with a loss of consciousness. This is seen in grand mal epilepsy.
sleep disorder
any condition that interferes with sleep other than environmental noises. Can include difficulty sleeping (insomnia), extreme sleepiness (somnolence), nightmares, night tremors, sleepwalking, and apnea.
syncope
fainting
tic
spasmodic, involuntary muscular contraction involving head, face, mouth, eyes, neck, and shoulders.
tremor
involuntary quivering movement of a part of the body
unconscious
condition or state of being unaware of surroundings, with the inability to respond to stimuli.
Alzheimer's disease
chronic, organic mental disorder consisting of dementia, which is more prevalent in adults between 40 and 60. Involves progressive disorientation, apathy, speech and gait disturbances, and loss of memory. Named for Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
disease with muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord. Also called Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees baseball player who died from the disease.
Astrocytoma
Tumor of the brain or spinal cord that is composed of astrocytes, one of the types of neuroglial cells.
Bell's palsy
One-sided facial paralysis with an unknown cause. The person cannot control salivation, tearing of the eyes, or expression. The patient will eventually recover. Named for Sir Charles Bell, a Scottish surgeon.
Brain Tumor
Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant. A benign tumor of the brain can still be fatal since it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue.
Cerebral aneurysm
Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; the result of a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel. A ruptured aneurysm is a common cause of a hemorrhagic.
Cerebral contusion
Bruising of the brain form a blow or impact. Symptoms last longer than 24 hours and include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock.
Cerebral palsy
nonprogressive brain damage resulting from a defect or trauma at the time of birth
cerebrovascular accident
Commonly called a stroke. The development of an infarct due to loss in the blood supply to an area of the brain. Blood flow can be interrupted by a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), a floating clot (embolus), a stationary clot (thrombosis), or compression. The extent of damage depends on the size and location of the infarct and often includes dysphasia and hemiplegia.
Concussion
Injury to the brain that results from the brain being shaken inside the skull from a blow or impact. Can result in unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock. Symptoms last 24 hours or less.
Encephalocele
Congenital gap in the skull with the brain protruding through the gap
Epidural hematoma
mass of blood in the space outside the dura mater of the brain and spinal cord
Epilepsy
Recurrent disorder of the brain in which seizures and loss of consciousness occur as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity of the neurons in the brain.
Guillan-Barre
Disease of the nervous system in which nerves lose their myelin covering. May be caused by an autoimmune reaction. Characterized by loss of sensation and/or muscle control in the arms and legs. Symptoms then move toward the trunk and may even result in paralysis of the diaphragm.
Huntington's Chorea
Disease of the central nervouse system that results in progressive dementia with bizarre involuntary movements of parts of the body. Named for George Huntington, an American physician.
Meningioma
Slow-growing tumor in the meninges of the brain
Hydrocephalus
Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain, causing the head to be enlarged. It is treated by creating an artifical shunt for the fluid to leave the brain.
Meningocele
Congenital condition in which the meninges protrude through an opening in the vertebral column.
Migraine
A specific type of headache characterized by severe head pain, photophobia, vertigo, and nausea.
Multiple Sclerosis
Inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which there is extreme weakness and numbness due to loss of myelin insulation from nerves.
Myasthenia gravis
Disease with severe muscular weakness and fatigue due to insufficient neurotransmitter at a synapse.
Myelomeningocele
Congenital condition in which the meninges and spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column.
Narcolepsy
chronic disorder in which there is an extreme uncontrollable desire to sleep
Parkinson's disease
chronic disorder of the nervouse system with fine tremors, muscular weakness, rigidity, and a shuffling gait. Named for Sir James Parkinson, a British physician.
Reye's syndrome
combination of symptoms first recognized by R.D.K. Reye, an Australian pathologist, in which there is acute encephalopathy and various organ damage. This occurs in children under 15 years of age who have had a viral infection. For this reason, it's not recommended for children to use aspirin.
Shingles
Eruption of vesicles on the trunk of the body along a nerve path. Can be painful and generally occurs on only one side of the body. Thought to be caused by the Herpes Zoster Virus.
Spina Bifida
Congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which the laminae of the vertebra do not meet or close. Results in a meningocele or a myelomeningocele-meninges or the spinal cord being pushed through the opening. Can also result in other defects, such as hydrocephalus.
Spinal Cord injury
damage to the spinal cord as a result of trauma. Spinal cord may be bruised or completely severed.
Subdural hematoma
mass of blood forming beneath the dura mater if the meninges are torn by trauma. May exert fatal pressure on the brain if the hematoma is not drained by surgery.
tic douloureux
painful condition in which the trigeminal nerve is affected by pressure or degeneration. the pain is severe stabbing nature and radiates from the jaw and along the face.
Transient ischemic attack
temporary interference with blood supply to the brain, causing neurological symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, and hemiparesis. May eventually lead to a full-blown stroke (CVA).
Babinski's reflex
Reflex test developed by Joseph Babinski, a French neurologist, to determine lesions and abnormalities in the nervous system. The Babinski reflex is present if the great toe extends instead of flexes when the lateral sole of the foot is stroked. The normal response to this stimulation is flexion of the toe.
Brain scan
Injection of radioactive isotopes into the circulation to determine the function and abnormality of the brain.
Cerebral angiography
X-ray of the blood vessels of the brain after the injection of a radiopaque dye
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
Laboratory examination of the clear, watery, colorless fluid from within the brain and spinal cord. Infections and the abnormal presence of blood can be detected in this test.
Echoencephalography
Recording of the ultrasonic echoes of the brain. Useful in determining abnormal patterns of shifting in the brain.
Electroencephalography
Recording the electrical activity of the brain by placing electrodes at various positions on the scalp. Also used in sleep studies to determine if there is a normal pattern of activity during sleep.
Electromyography
Recording of the contraction of muscles as a result of receiving electrical stimulation.
Lumbar puncture
Puncture with a needle into the lumbar area (usually the fourth intervertebral space) to withdraw fluid for examination and for the injection of anesthesia. Also called spinal puncture or spinal tab.
Myelography
Injection of a radiopaque dye into the spinal canal. An X-ray is then taken to examine the normal and abnormal outlines made by the dye.
Pneumoencephalography
X-ray examination of the brain following withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid and injection of air or gas via spinal puncture.
Positron emisson tomography
Use of positive radionuclides to reconstruct brain sections. Measurement can be taken of oxygen and glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow, and blood volume. The amount of glucose the brain uses indicates how metabolically active the tissue is.
Romberg's test
Test developed by Moritz Romberg, a German physician, that is used to establish neurological function; the person is asked to close his or her eyes and place the feet together. This test for body balance is positive if the patient sways when the eyes are closed.
carotid endarterectomy
surgical procedure for removing an obstruction within the carotid artery, a major artery in the neck that carries oxygenated blood to the brain. Developed to prevent strokes, but is found to be useful only in severe stenosis with TIA.
Cerebrospinal fluid
A surgical procedure in which a bypass is created to drain cerebrospinal fluid. It is used to treat hydrocephalus by draining the excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain and diverting it to the abdominal cavity.
Cordectomy
Removal of part of the spinal cord
Cryosurgery
Use of extreme cold to destroy brain tissue. Used to control bleeding and treat brain tumors.
Laminectomy
Removal of a portion of a vertebra in order to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve.
Nerve block
Method of regional anesthetic to stop the passage of sensory stimulation along a nerve path.
Sympathectomy
Excision of a portion of the sympathetic nervous system. Could include a nerve or a ganglion.
Trephination
Process of cutting out a piece of bone in the skull to gain entry into the brain or relieve pressure.
Analgesic
Non-narcotic medication to treat minor to moderate pain. Includes aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.
Anesthetic
Drugs that produce a loss of sensation or a loss of consciousness.
Anticholinergic
Blocks function of the parasympathetic nervous system. Used to treat intestinal, bladder, and bronchial spasms.
Anticonvulsant
Reduces the excitability of neurons and therefore prevents the uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures.
Barbiturate
A drug that depresses CNS activity. Used as a sedative and an anticonvulsant.
Dopaminergic Drugs
Group of medications to treat Parkinson's disease by either replacing the dopamine that is lacking or increasing the strength of the dopamine that is present.
Hypnotic
Drugs that promote sleep
Narcotic
Morphine and related drugs used to treat severe pain. These drugs have the potential to be habit forming if taken for a prolonged time. Also called opiates.
Sedative
A drug that has a relaxing or calming effect.
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ANS
autonomic nervous system
CNS
central nervous system
CP
cerebral palsy
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
CVD
cerebrovascular disease
EEG
eletroencephalogram, electroencephalography
EMG
electromyogram
HA
headache
ICP
intracranial pressure
LP
lumbar pressure
MS
multiple sclerosis
PET
positron emission tomography
PNS
peripheral nervous system
SAH
subarachnoid hemorrhage
SCI
spinal cord injury
TIA
transient icschemic attack
Structures relating to the eye
choroid
ciliary body
conjunctiva
cornea
eye muscles
eyeball
eyelids
iris
lacrimal glands
lens
lacrimal ducts
pupil
retina
sclera
ambly/o
dull, dim
aque/o
water
blephar/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva
core/o
pupil
corne/o
cornea
cycl/o
ciliary muscle
dacry/o
tear, tear duct
dipl/o
double
glauc/o
gray
ir/o
iris
irid/o
iris
kerat/o
cornea
lacrim/o
tears
ocul/o
eye
ophthalm/o
eye
opt/o
eye, vision
optic/o
eye
papill/o
optic disk
phac/o
lens
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
pupill/o
pupil
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera
uve/o
vascular
vitre/o
glassy
-chalasis
relaxation
-opia
vision
-tropia
to turn
accommodation
ability of the eye to adjust to variations in distance
convergence
the moving inward of the eyes to see an object close to the face
ectropion
term referring to eversion (turning outward) of the eyelid
emmetropia
state of normal vision
entropion
term referring to inversion (turning inward) of the eyelid
esotropia
Inward turning of the eye. An example of a form of strabismus (muscle weakness of the eye).
exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball. can be due to hyperthyroidism
Exotropia
outward turning of the eye. Also an example of strabismus (muscle weakness of the eye).
Nyctalopia
difficulty seeing in dim light. Usually due to damaged rods.
Optician
Specialist in grinding corrective lenses.
Optometrist
A doctor of optometry specializing in testing visual acuity and prescribing corrective lenses.
Papilledema
Swelling of the optic disk. Often as a result of increased intraocular pressure. Also called choked disk.
Photophobia
Although the term translates into fear of light, it actually means a strong sensitivity to bright light. A person with photophobia has a strong aversion to being in bright light.
Presbyopia
Visual loss due to old agem resulting in difficulty in focusing for near vision (such as reading).
Refraction
Eye examination performed to determine and correct refractive errors in the eye
Refractive
Defect in the ability of the eye to accurately focus the image that is hitting it. Occurs in farsightedness and nearsightedness.
Visual field
the size of the area perceived by one eye when it is stationary.
Xerophthalmia
dry eyes
achromatopsia
condition of color blindness-unable to perceive one or more colors; more common in males.
amblyopia
loss of vision not as a result of eye pathology. Usually occurs in patients who see two images. In order to see only one image, the brain will no longer recognize the image being sent to it by one of the eyes. May occur if strabismus is not corrected. This condition is not treatable with a prescription lens. Commonly referred to as lazy eye.
Astigmatism
A condition in which light rays are focused unevenly on the retina, which causes a distorted image, due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea.
Blepharochalasis
In this condition, the upper eyelid increases in size due to a loss of elasticity, which is followed by swelling and recurrent edema of the lids. The skin may droop over the edges of the eyes when the eyes are open.
Cataract
damage to the lens causing it to become opaque or cloudy, resulting in diminished vision. Treatment is usually surgical removal of the cataract.
Chalazion
small hard tumor or mass, similar to a sebaceous cyst, developing on the eyelids. May require incision and drainage.
Corneal abrasion
scraping injury to the cornea. if it does not heal, it may develop into an ulcer.
diabetic retinopathy
these small hemorrhages and edema in the eye develop in the retina as a result of diabetes mellitus. laser surgery and vitrectomy may be necessary for treatment.
glaucoma
increase in intraocular pressure, which, if untreated, may result in atrophy (wasting away) of the optic nerve and blindness. Glaucoma is treated with medication and surgery. There is an incresed risk of developing glaucoma in persons over 60 years of age, in people of African ancestry, in persons who have substained a serious eye injury, and in anyone with a family history of diabetes or glaucoma.
Hemianopia
Loss of vision in half of the visual field. A stroke patient may suffer from this disorder.
Hordeolum
refers to a stye (or sty), a small purulent inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eye; treated with hot compresses and surgical incision.
Hyperopia
with this condition a person can see things in the distance but has trouble reading material at close range. Also known as farsightedness. This condition is corrected with converging or biconvex lenses.
Macular degeneration
Deterioration of the macular area of the retina of the eye. May be treated with laser surgery to destroy the blood vessels beneath the macula.
Monochromatism
Unable to perceive one color.
Myopia
With this condition a person can see things close up but distance vision is blurred. Also known as nearsightedness. This condition is corrected with diverging or biconcave lenses.
Nystagmus
Jerky-appearing involuntary eye movements, usually left and right. Often an indication of brain injury.
pink eye
a common term for conjunctivitis
retinal detachment
occurs when the retina becomes separated from the choroid layer. This separartion seriously damages blood vessels and nerves, resulting in blindness.
Retinitis pigmentosa
progressive disease of the eye that results in the retina becoming hard (sclerosed) and pigmented (colored), and atrophying (wasting away). There is no known cure for this condition.
Retinoblastoma
A malignant eye tumor that occurs in children, usually under the age of 3. Requires enucleation.
Strabismus
An eye muscle weakness resulting in the eyes looking in different directions at the same time. May be corrected with glasses, eye exercises, and/or surgery.
Trachoma
Chronic infectious disease of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by bacteria. Occurs more commonly in people living in hot, dry climates. Untreated, it may lead to blindness when the scarring invades the cornea. Trachoma can be treated with antibotics.
color vision tests
Use of polychromic (multicolored) charts to determine the ability of the patient to recognize colors.
Fluorescein angiography
Process of injecting a dye (fluorescein) to observe the movement of blood and detect lesions in the macular area of the retina. Used to determine if there is a detachment of the retina.
Fluorescein
Applying dye eyedrops that are a bright green fluorescent color. Used to look for corneal abrasions or ulcers.
Gonloscopy
Use of an instrument called a gonloscope to examine the anterior chamber of the eye and determine ocular mobility and rotation.
Keratometry
Measurement of the curvature of the cornea using an instrument called a keratometer.
Ophthalmoscopy
Examination of the interior of the eyes using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. The physician dilates the pupil in order to see the cornea, lens, and retina. Used to identify abnormalities in the blood vessels of the eye and some systemic diseases.
Slit Lamp Microscope
Instrument used in ophthalmology for examining the posterior surface of the cornea.
Snellen's chart
Chart used for testing distance vision named for Hermann Snellen, a Dutch ophthalmologist. It contains letters of varying size and it is administered from a distance of 20 feet. A person who can read at 20 feet what the average person can read at this distance is said to have 20/20 vision.
Tonometry
Measurement of the intraocular pressure of the eye using a tonometer to check for the condition of glaucoma. After a local anesthetic is applied, the physician places the tonometer lightly on the eyeball and a pressure measurement is taken. Generally part of a normal eye exam for adults.
Visual acuity
Measurement of the sharpness of a patient's vision. Usually, a Snellen's chart is used for this test in which the patient identifies letters from a distance of 20 feet.
Cryoextraction
procedure in which cataract is lifted from the lens with an extremely cold probe
Cryoretinopexy
surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold.
enucleation
surgical removal of an eyeball
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea (corneal transplant)
Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis
correction of myopia using laser surgery to remove corneal tissue
Laser photocoagulation
the use fo a laser beam to destroy very small precise areas of the retina. May be used to treat retinal detachment or macular degeneration.
Phacoemulsification
use of high-frequency sound waves to emulsify(liquefy) a lens with a cataract, which is then aspirated (removed by suction) with a needle
Photorefractive keratectomy
use of a laser to reshape the cornea and correct errors of refraction
radial keratotomy
spoke-like incisions around the cornea that result in it becoming flatter. A surgical treatment for myopia.
scleral buckling
placing a band of silicone around the outside of the sclera, which stablizes a detaching retina.
strabotomy
incision into the eye muscles in order to correct strabismus.
anesthetic ophthalmic solution
eyedrops for pain relief assoiated with eye infections and corneal abrasions.
antibiotic ophthalmic solution
eyedrops for the treatment of bacterial eye infections
antiglaucoma medications
a group of eyedrops that reduce intraocular pressure by lowering the amount of aqueous humor in the eyeball. May achieve this by either reducing the production of aqueous humor or increasing its outflow.
artifical tears
medications, many of them over the counter, to treat dry eyes
cyclopegic
drug that paralyzes the ciliary body. Particularly useful during eye examinations and eye surgery.
miotic
any substance that causes the pupil to constrict.
mydriatic
any substance that causes the pupil to dilate. Particularly useful during eye examinations and eye surgery.
Acc
accommodation
ARMD
age-related macular degeneration
Astigm
astigmatism
c.gl.
correction with glasses
cyl. lens
cylindrical lens
D
diopter (lens strength)
DVA
distance visual activity
ECCE
extracapsular cataract extraction
EENT
eye, ear, nose, and throat
EM
emmetropia (normal vision)
EOM
Extraocular movement
ICCE
intracarsular cataract extraction
IOL
Intraocular lens
IOP
intraocular pressure
LASIK
laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis
OD
right eye
Ophth.
ophthalmology
OS
left eye
OU
each eye
PERRLA
pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation
PRK
photorefractive keratectomy
REM
rapid eye movement
s.gl.
without correction or glasses
SMD
senile macular degeneration
ST
esotropia
VA
visual activity
VF
visual field
XT
exotropia
Structures relating to the ear
auditory canal
auricle
cochlea
eustachian tube
incus
labyrinth
malleus
oval window
semicircular canals
stapes
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
acous/o
hearing
audi/o
hearing
audit/o
hearing
aur/o
ear
auricul/o
ear
cochle/o
cochlea
labyrinth/o
labyrinth
myring/o
eardrum
ot/o
ear
salping/o
eustachian tube
staped/o
stapes
tympan/o
eardrum, middle ear
-cusis
hearing
-otia
ear condition
American sign language (ASL)
Nonverbal method of communicating in which the hands and fingers are used to indicate words and concepts. Used by both persons who are deaf and persons with speech impairments.
binaural
referring to both ears
decibel
measures the intensity or loudness of a sound. Zero decibels is the quietest sound measured and 120 dB is the loudest sound commonly measured.
fingerspelling
use of various hand and finger shapes and positions that represent the written alphabet. These positions can be strung together to form words.
hertz (Hz)
Measurement of the frequency or pitch of sound. The lowest pitch on an audiogram is 250 Hz. The measurement can go as high as 8000 Hz, which is the highest pitch measured.
interpreter
person with training in areas such as sign language, fingerspelling, and speech, who can transmit verbal or written messages to people with hearing impairments.
monaural
referring to one ear
otorhinolaryngologist
a physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat
otorhinolaryngology
branch of medicine tha treats diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Also referred to as ENT.
Presbycusis
normal loss of hearing that can accompany the aging process.
residual hearing
amount of hearing that is till present after damage has occurred to the auditory mechanism.
Signing Exact English (SEE-2)
Translation of English into signs. American Sign Language (ASL) is used in combination with other sign languages and fingerspelling to correspond exactly to the spoken English.
Tinnitus
ringing in the ears
vertigo
dizziness
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor of the eighth cranial nerve sheath. the pressure causes symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, dizziness, and progressive hearing loss.
anacusis
total absence of hearing; inability to perceive sound. Also called deafness.
deafness
the inability to hear or having some degree of hearing impairment
hearing impairment
loss of hearing sufficient to interfere with a person's ability to communicate
labyrinthitis
also referred to as an inner ear infection. May affect both the hearing and equilibrium portions of the inner ear.
Meniere's disease
Abnormal condition within the labyrinth of the inner ear that can lead to a progressive loss of hearing. The symptoms are dizziness or vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Named for Prosper Meniere, a French physician.
otitis externa
external ear infection. Most commonly caused by fungus. Also called otomycosis and commonly referred to as swimmer's ear.
otitis media
Commonly referred to as a middle ear infection; seen frequently in children. Often preceded by an upper respiratory infection. Fluid accumulates in the middle ear cavity. The fluid may be watery, serous otitis media, or full of pus, purulent otitis media.
otosclerosis
loss of mobility of the stapes bone, leading to progressive hearing loss.
audiometry
Test of hearing ability by determining the lowest and highest intensity (decibels) and frequencies (hertz) that a person can distinguish. The patient may sit in a soundproof booth and receive sounds through earphones as the technician decreases the sound or lowers the tones.
falling test
Test used to observe balance and equilibrium. The patient is observed balancing on one foot, then with one foot in front of the other, and walking forward with eyes open. The same test is conducted with the patient's eyes closed. Swaying and falling with the eyes closed can indicate an ear and equilibrium malfunction.
hearing level
Audiometer reading in decibels (dB) corresponding to the listener's hearing threshold ratio that corresponds to the softest sound the listener can hear.
otoscopy
Use of a lighted otoscope to examine the auditory canal and middle ear.
Rinne and Weber tuning-fork tests
The physician holds a tuning fork, which is an instrument that produces a constant pitch when it is struck, against or near the bones on the side of the head. These tests assess both nerve and bone conduction of sound. Friedrich Rinne was a German otologist, and Ernst Weber was a German physiologist.
tympanometry
Measurement of the movement of the tympanic membrane. Can indicate the presence of pressure in the middle ear.
amplification
used to increase certain sounds for people with hearing impairments. Also known as hearing aid.
cochlear implant
Mechanical device surgically placed under the skin behind the outer ear (pinna) that converts sound signals into magnetic impulses to stimulate the auditory nerve. Can be beneficial for those with profound sensorineural hearing loss.
hearing aid
Apparatus or mechanical device used by persons with impaired hearing to amplify sound. Same as amplification device.
myringotomy
Surgical puncture of the eardrum with removal of fluid and pus from the middle ear to eliminate a persistent ear infection and excessive pressure on the tympanic membrane. A polyethylene tube is placed in the tympanic membrane to allow for drainage of the middle ear cavity.
otoplasty
corrective surgery to change the size of the external ear or pinna. the surgery can either enlarge or decrease the size of the pinna.
otoscopy
examination of the ear canal, eardrum, and outer ear using the otoscope. Foreign material can be removed from the ear canal with this procedure.
polyethylene
small tube surgically placed in a child's eardrum to assist in drainage of infection.
stapedectomy
removal of the stapes bone to treat otosclerosis (hardening of the bone). A prosthesis or artifical stapes may be implanted.
typmanoplasty
Another term for the surgical reconstruction of the eardrum. Also called myringoplasty.
antibiotic otic solution
eardrops to treat otitis externa
antihistamines
some types of antihistamine medications are effective in treating the nausea associated with vertigo.
anti-inflammatory otic solution
reduces inflammation, itching, and edema associated with otitis externa.
oral antibiotics
Oral antibiotics are required to treat otitis media and labyrinthitis because the tympanic membrane prevents eardrops from reaching the middle ear cavity.
AD
right ear
AS
left ear
ASL
American Sign Language
AU
both ears
BC
bone conduction
dB
decibel
EENT
eyes, ears, nose, throat
ENT
ear, nose, and throat
HEENT
head, ears, eyes, nose, throat
Hz
hertz
OM
otitis media
Oto
otology
PE tube
polyethylene tube placed in th eardrum
PORP
partial ossicular replacement prosthesis
SEE-2
Signing Exact English
SOM
serous otitis media
TORP
total ossicular replacement prosthesis
aer/o
air
bucc/o
cheek
chem/o
drug
cutane/o
skin
derm/o
skin
lingu/o
tongue
muscul/o
muscle
or/o
mouth
pharmac/o
drug
rect/o
rectum
toxic/o
poison
vagin/o
vagina
ven/o
vein
intra-
within
sub-
under
trans-
across
oral
this method includes all drugs that are given by mouth. the advantages are ease of adminstration and a slow rate of absorption via stomach and intestinal wall. the disadvantages include slowness of absorption and destruction of some chemical compounds by gastric juices. In addition, some medications, such as aspirins, can have a corrosive action on the stomach lining.
sublingual
these are drugs that are held under the tongue and not swallowed. the medication is absorbed by the blood vessels on the underside of the tongue as the salvia dissolves it. the rate of absorption is quicker than the oral route. nitroglycerin to treat angina or chest pain is adminstered by this route.
inhalation
includes drugs that are inhaled directly into the nose and mouth. Aerosol sprays are adminstered by this route.
Parenteral
this is an invasive method of administering drugs since it requires the skin to be punctured by a needle. the needle with syringe attached is introduced either under the skin or into a muscle, vein, or body cavity.
Transdermal
the medication coats the underside of a patch, which is applied to the skin. the medication is then absorbed across the skin. Examples include birth control patches and nicotine patches.
rectal
this medication is introduced directly into the rectal cavity in the form of suppositories or solution. Drugs may have to be administered by this route if the patient is unable to take them by mouth due to nausea, vomiting, or surgery.
topical
this medication is applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes. they are distributed in ointment, cream, or lotion form, and are used to treat skin infections and eruptions.
vaginal
tablets and suppositories may be inserted vaginally to treat vaginal yeast infections and other irritations
addiction
acquired dependence on a drug
additive
the sum of the action of two (or more) drugs given. In this case, the total strength of the medications is equal to the sum of the strength of each individual drug.
antidote
substance that will neutralize poisons or their side effects
broad spectrum
ability of a drug to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms
contraindication
condition in which a particular drug should not be used.
cumulative action
action that occurs in the body when a drug is allowed to accumulate or stay in the body
dilute
to weaken the strength of a substance by adding something else
drug interaction
occurs when the effect of one drug is altered because it was taken at the same time as another drug
drug tolerance
decrease in susceptibility to a drug after continued use of the drug.
habituation
development of an emotional dependence on a drug due to repeated use.
latrogenic
usually an unfavorable response that results from taking a medication
idiosyncrasy
unusual or abnormal response to a drug or food
placebo
inactive, harmless substance used to satisfy a patient's desire for medication. This is also used in research when given to a control group of patients in a study in which another group receives a drug. The effect of the placebo versus the drug is then observed.
potentiation
giving a patient a second drug to boost (potentiate)the effect of another drug. The total strength of the drugs is greater than the sum of the strength of an individual drugs.
prophylaxis
prevention of disease. for example, an antibiotic can be used to prevent the occurrence of a disease.
side effect
response to a drug other than the effect desired. also called an adverse reaction.
tolerance
development of a capacity for withstanding a large amount of a substance, such as foods, drugs, or poison, without any adverse effect. A decreased sensitivity to further doses will develop.
toxicity
extent or degree to which a substance is poisonous
unit dose
drug dosage system that provides prepackaged, prelabeled, individual medications that are ready for immediate use by the patient.
@
at
a
before
ac
before meals
AD
right ear
ad lib
as desired
am, AM
morning
amt
amount
ante
before
APAP
acetaminophen (Tylenol)
aq
aqueouse (water)
ASA
aspirin
bid
twice a day
C
100
c
with
cap(s)
capsule(s)
cc
cubic centimeter
d
day
d/c, DISC
discontinue
DC,disc
discontinue
DEA
drug enforcement agency
dil
dilute
disp
dispense
dr
dram
dtd
give of such a dose
Dx
diagnosis
elix
elixir
emul
emulsion
et
and
FDA
Federal Drug Adminstration
fl
fluid
gm
gram
gr
grain
gt
drop
gtt
drops
hs
at bedtime
i
one
ID
intradermal
ii
two
iii
three
IM
intramuscular
inj
injection
IU
international unit
IV
intravenous
kg
kilogram
L
liter
liq
liquid
mcg
microgram
mEq
milliequivalent
mg
milligram
mL
milliliter
noc
night
no sub
no substitute
non rep
do not repeat
NPO
nothing by mouth
NS
normal saline
od
overdose
oint
ointment
OTC
over the counter
oz
ounce
p
after
pc
after meals
PCA
patient-controlled adminstration
PDR
Physician's Desk Reference
per
with
PM, pm
evening
PO
phone order
po
by mouth
prn
as needed
pt
pint, patient
q
every
qam
every morning
qd
once a day/every day
qh
every hour
qhs
at bedtime
qid
four times a day
qod
every other day
qs
quantity sufficient
Rx
take
s
without
SC
subcutaneous
Sig
label as follows/directions
sl
under the tongue
sol
solution
ss
one-half
stat
at once/immediately
Subc, SubQ
subcutaneous
suppos, supp.
suppository
susp
suspension
syr
syrup
T, tbsp
tablespoon
t, tsp
teaspoon
tab
tablet
tid
three times a day
tinc, tr
tincture
TO
telephone order
top
apply topically
u
unit
ung
ointment
VO
verbal order
wt
weight
x
times
anxi/o
anxiety
ment/o
mind
phren/o
mind
psych/o
mind
schiz/o
divided
somato/o
body
somn/o
sleep
-iatrist
physician
-mania
excessive preoccupation
-philia
affinity for, craving for
-phobia
irrational fear
Anxiety disorders
Characterized by persistent worry and apprehension; includes: panic attacks, anxiety, phobias (irrational fear, such as photophobia, or fear of light), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD- performing repetivitvie rituals to reduce anxiety)
Cognitive disorders
deterioration of mental functions due to temporary brain or permanent brain dysfunction; also called organic mental disease; includes: dementia(progressive confusion and disorientation), degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease
Disorders diagnosed in infancy and childhood
Mental disorders associated with childhood; includes: mental retardation, attention deficit disorder (ADD), autism (extreme withdrawal)
Dissociative disorders
disorders in which severe emotional conflict is so repressed that a split in the personality occurs; includes: amnesia- loss of memory, multiple personality disorder
eating disorders
abnormal behaviors related to eating; includes: anorexia nervosa-refusal to eat, bulimia-binge eating and intentional vomiting
factitous disorders
intentionally feigning illness symptoms in order to gain attention; includes: malingering-pretending illness or injury
impulse control disorders
inability to resist an impulse to perform some act that is harmful to the individual or others; includes: kleptomania-stealing, pyromania-setting fires, explosive disorder-violent rages, pathological gambling
mood disorders
characterized by instability in mood; includes: major depression with suicide potential, mania- extreme elation, bipolar disorder-(BPD) alternation between periods of deep depression and mania
personality disorders
Inflexible or maladaptive behavior patterns that affect person's ability to function in society; includes: paranoid personality disorder-exaggerated feelings of persecution, narcissistic personality disorder-abnormal sense of self-importance, antisocial personality disorder-behaviors that are against legal or social norms, passive aggressive personality-indirect expression of hostility or anger.
Schizophrenia
Mental disorders characterized by distortions of reality such as: delusions-a false belief held even in the face of contrary evidence. Hallucinations- perceiving something that is not there
sexual disorders
disorders include aberrant sexual activity and sexual dysfunction; includes: peduphilia-sexual interest in children, masochism-gratification derived from being hurt or abused, voyeurism-gratification derived from observing others engaged in sexual acts, low sex drive, premature ejaculation
sleeping disorders
disorders relating to sleeping; includes: insomnia-inability to sleep, sleepwalking
somatoform disorders
patient has physical symptoms for which no physical disease can be determined; includes: hypochondria- a preoccupation with health concerns, conversion reaction- anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, paralysis, or blindness
Substance-related disorders
overindulgence or dependence on chemical substances including alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs.
Psychotherapy
a method of treating mental disorders by mental rather chemical or physical means. It includes psychoanalysis, humanistic therapies, and family and group therapy.
psychoanalysis
a method of obtaining a detailed account of the past and present emotional and mental experiences from the patient to determine the source of the problem and eliminate the effects. It is a system developed by Sigmund Freud that encourages the patient to discuss repressed, painful, or hidden experiences with the hope of eliminating or minimizing the problem.
Humanistic psychotherapy
The therapist does not delve into the patients' past when using these methods. Instead, it is believed that patients can learn how to use their own internal resources to deal with their problems. The therapist creates a therapeutic atmosphere, which builds patients' self-esteem and encourages them to discuss their problems, thereby gaining insight in how to handle them. Also called client-centered or nondirective psychotherapy.
Family and group psychotherapy
often described as solution focused, the therapist places minimal emphasis on patients' past history and strong emphasis on having patients state and discuss their goals and then find a way to achieve them.
Psychopharmacology
The study of the effects of drugs on the mind and particulatly the use of drugs in treating mental disorders. The main classes of drugs for the treatment of mental disorders are antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs, minor tranquilizers, and lithium
Antipsychotic drugs
The major tranquilizers include chlorpromazine (Thorazine, haloperidol (Haldol) clozapine (Clozaril), and risperidone. These drugs have transformed the treatment of patients with psychoses and schizophrenia by reducing patient agitation and panic and shortening schizophrenic episodes. One of the side effects of these drugs is involuntary muscle movements, which approximately one-fourth of all adults who take the drugs develop
antidepressant drugs
These drugs are classified as stimulants and alter the patient's mood by affecting levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. Antidepressants, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, are nonaddictive but they can produce unpleasant side effects such as dry mouth, weight gain, blurrd vision, and nausea.
Minor tranquilizers
Includes Valium and Xanax. These are also classified as CNS depressants and are prescribed for anxiety.
Lithium
A special category of drug. It is used successfully to calm patients who suffer from bipolar disorder (depression alternating with manic excitement).
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)
A procedure occasionally used for cases of prolonged major depression. This is a controversial treatment in which an electrode is placed on one or both sides of the patient's head and a current is turned on briefly causing a convulsive seizure. A low level of voltage is used in modern ECT, and the patient is adminstered a muscle relaxant and anthesia. Advocates of this treatment state that it is a more effective way to treat severe depression than using drugs. It is not effective with disorders other than depression, such as schizophrenia and alcoholism.
AD
Alzheimer's disease
ADD
attention deficit disorder
ADHD
attention-deficit/hyperacivity disorder
BPD
bipolar disorder
CA
chronological age
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
ECT
electroconvulsive therapy
MA
mental age
MAO
monoamine oxidase
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
OCD
obessive-compulsive disorder
SAD
seasonal afffective disorder
fluor/o
fluorescence, luminous
radi/o
X-ray
roentgen/o
X-ray
son/o
sound
tom/o
to cut
-gram
record
-graphy
recording
-lucent
to shine through
-opaque
nontransparent
anteroposterior view (AP view)
Positioning the patient so that the X-rays pass through the body from the anterior side to the posterior side.
barium
Soft metallic element from the earth used as a radiopaque X-ray dye.
cyclotron
Equipment consisting of a particle accelerator in which the particles are rotated between magnets.
electron
Minute particle with a negative electrical charge that is emitted from radioactive substances. These are called rays.
film
Thin sheet of cellulose material coated with a light-sensitive substance that is used in taking photographs. There is a special photographic film that is sensitive to X-rays.
film badge
Badge containing film that is sensitive to X-rays. This is worn by all personnel in radiology to measure the amount of X-rays to which they are exposed.
Geiger counter
Instrument used for detecting radiation
lateral view
Positioning the patient so that the side of the body faces the X-ray machine.
oblique view
positioning the patient so the the X-rays pass through the body on an angle
posteroanterior view (PA view)
positioning the patient so the the X-rays pass through the bdoy from the posterior side to the anterior side.
radioactive
substance capable of emitting or sending out radiant energy.
radiography
making of x-ray pictures
radioisotope
radioactive form of an element
radiologist
physician who practices diagnosis and treatment by using radiant energy. He or she is responsible for interpreting X-ray films.
radiolucent
Structures that allow X-rays to pass through; exposes the photographic plate and appears as a black area on the X-ray.
radiopaque
Structures that are impenetrable to X-rays, appearing as a light area on the radiograph (X-ray)
roentgen
unit for describing an exposure dose of radiation
scan
Recording on a photographic plate the emission of radioactive waves after a substance has been injected into the body
shield
protective device used to protect against radiation
tagging
attaching a radioactive material to a chemica, and tracing it as it moves through the body
uptake
absorption of radioactive material and medicines into an organ and tissue
X-ray
High-energy wave that can pentrate most solid matter and present the image on photographic film.
computed tomography scan
An imaging technique that is able to produce a cross-sectional view of the body. X-ray pictures are taken at multiple angles through the body. A computer then uses all these images to construct a composite cross-secton.
Contrast studies
A radiopaque substance is injected or swallowed. X-rays are then taken that will outline the body structure containing the radiopaque substance. For example, angiograms and myelograms.
Doppler ultrasound
Use of ultrasound to record the velocity of blood flowing through blood vessels. Used to detect blood clots and blood vessel obstructions.
fluoroscopy
X-rays strike a fluorescing screen rather than a photographic plate, causing it to glow. The glowing screen changes from minute to minute, therefore movement, such as the heart beating or the digestive tract moving, can be seen
magnetic resonance
Use of electromagnetic energy to produce an image of soft tissues in any plane of the body. Atoms behave differently when placed in a strong magnetic field. When the body is exposed to this magnetic field the nuclei of the body's atoms emit radio-frequency signals that can be used to create an image.
Nuclear medicine
Use of radioactive substances to diagnose diseases. A radioactive substance known to accumulate in certain body tissues is injected or inhaled. After waiting for the substance to travel to the body area of interest, the radioactivity level is recorded. Commonly referred to as a scan.
Positron emission tomography
Image is produced following the injection of radioactive glucose. The glucose will accumulate in areas of high metabolic activity. Therefore this process will highlight areas that are consuming a large quantity of glucose. This may show an active area of the brain or a tumor.
radiology
The use of high-energy radiation, X-rays, to expose a photographic plate. The image is a black-and-white picture with radiopaque structures such as bone appearing white and radiolucent tissue such as muscles appearing dark.
Ultrasound
The use of high-frequency sound waves to produce an image. Sound waves directed into the body from a transducer will bounce off internal structures and echo back to the transducer. The speed of the echo is dependent on the density of the tissue. A computer is able to correlate speed of echo with density and produce an image. Used to visualize internal organs, heart valves, and fetuses.
67 Ga
radioactive gallium
99m Tc
radioactive technetium
131 I
radioactive iodine
201 TI
radioactive thallium
133 Xe
radioactive xenon
ACAT
automated compoterized axial tomography
Angio
angiography
AP
anteroposterior
Ba
barium
BaE
barium enema
CAT
computerized axial tomography
Ci
curie
CT
computerized tomography
CXR
chest X-ray
decub
lying down
DI
diagnostic imaging
DSA
digital subtraction angiography
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Fx
fracture
GB
gallbladder X-ray
IVA
intravenous cholangiogram
IVP
intravenouse pyelogram
KUB
kidneys, ureters, bladder
LAT
lateral
LGI
lower gastrointestinal series
LL
left lateral
mA
milliampere
mCi
millicurie
MRA
magnetic resonance angiography
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
NMR
nuclear magnetic resonance
PA
posteroanterior
PET
positive emission tomography
PTC
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
R
roentgen
Ra
radium
rad
radiation absorbed dose
RL
right lateral
RRT
registered radiologic technologist
UGI
upper gastrointestinal series
US
ultrasound
cry/o
cold
electr/o
electric current
erg/o
work
hydr/o
water
my/o
muscle
orth/o
straight, correct
phon/o
sound
prosth/o
addition
therm/o
heat
-phoresis
carrying
-therapy
treatment
activites of daily living (ADL)
the activities usually performed in the course of a normal day, such as eating, dressing, and washing
adaptive equipment
modification of equipment or devices to improve the function and independence of a person with a disability
body mechanics
use of good posture and position while performing activities of daily living to prevent injury and stress on body parts
ergonomics
the study of human work including how the requirements for performing work and the work environment affect the musculoskeletal and nervous system
fine motor skills
the use of precise and coordinated movements in such activities such as writing, buttoning, and cutting
gait
manner of walking
gross motor skills
the use of large muscle groups that coordinate body movements such as walking, running, and balance
lower extremity
the leg
mobility
state of having normal movement of all body parts
orthotics
the use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a paralyzed muscle, promote a specific motion, or correct musculoskeletal deformities
physiatrist
physican who specializes in physical medicine
physical medicine
use of natural methods, including physical therapy, to cure disease and disorders
prosthetics
artifical devices, such as limbs and joints, that replace a missing body part.
range of motion
the range of movement of a joint, from maximum flexion through maximum extension. It is measured as degrees of a circle.
rehabillitation
process of treatment and exercise that can help a person with a disability attain maximum function and well-being
upper extremity
the arm
active exercises
exercises that a patient performs without assistant
active range of motion
range of motion for joints that a patient is able to perform without assistance from someone else
active-resistive exercises
exercises in which the patient works against an artificial resistance applied to a muscle, such as a weight. Used to increase strength.
cryotherapy
using cold for therapeutic purposes
debridement
removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound. Commonly performed for burn therapy
electromyogram
graphic recording of the contraction of muscle. the result of applying an electrical stimulation to the muscle.
hydrotherapy
application of warm water as a therapeutic treatment. Can be done in baths, swimming pools, and whirlpools.
ice packs
using ice in a bag or container to treat localized conditions
massage
kneading or applying pressure by hands to a part of theh patient's body to promote muscle relaxation and reduce tension.
moist hot packs
applying moist warmth to a body part to produce the slight dilation of blood vessels in the skin. Causes muscle relaxation in the deeper regions of the body and increases circulation, which aids healing
nerve conduction velocity
a test to determine if nerves have been damaged by recording the rate at which an electrical impulse travels along a nerve. If the nerve is damaged, the velocity will be decreased.
pain control
managing pain through a variety of means, including medications, biofeedback, and mechanical devices.
passive range of motion
therapist putting a patient's joints through a full range of motion without assistance from the patient
percussion
use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly and sharply. Aids in determining the size, position, and consistency fo the underlying body part.
phonophoresis
the use of ultrasound waves to introduce medication across the skin and into the subcutaneouse tissues.
postural drainage with clapping
draining secretions from the bronchi or a lung cavity by having the patient lie so that gravity allows the drainage to occur. Clapping is using the hand in a cupped position to perform percussion on the chest. Assists in loosening secretions and mucus.
therapeutic exercise
exercise planned and carried out to achieve a specific physical benefit, such as improved range of motion, muscle strength, or cardiovascular function.
thermotherapy
applying heat to the body for therapeutic purposes
traction
process of pulling or drawing, usually with a mechanical device. Used in treating orthopedic (bone and joint) problems and injuries
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
the application of an electrical current to a peripheral nerve to relieve pain
ultrasound
the use of high-frequency sound waves to create heat in soft tissues under the skin. It is particularly useful for treating injuries to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle spasms.
whirlpool
bath in which there are continuous jets of hot water reaching the body surfaces.
ADL
activities of daily living
AROM
active range of motion
EMG
electomyogram
e-stim
electrical stimulation
LE
lower extremity
OT
occupational therapy
PROM
passive range of motion
PT
physical therapy
ROM
range of motion
TENS
transcutaneouse electrical stimulation
UE
upper extremity
US
ultrasound
cis/o
to cut
cry/o
cold
electr/o
electricity
esthesi/o
sensation, feeling
sect/o
cut
-ectomy
excision
-otomy
incision
-plasty
surgical repair
-scopic
to view inside
general anesthesia
produces a loss of consciousness including an absence of pain sensation. It is administered to a patient by either an intravenous or inhalation method. The patient's vital signs (VS) (heart rate, pulse, and blood pressure) are carefully monitored when using a general anesthetic
regional anesthesia
is also referred to as a nerve block. This anesthetic interrupts a patient's pain sensation in a particular region of the body. the anesthetic is injected near the nerve that will be blocked from sensation. The patient usually remains conscious.
local anesthesia
produces a loss of sensation in one localized part of the body. the patient remains conscious. the anesthetic is administered either topically or via a subcutaneous route.
topical anesthesia
uses an anesthetic liquid or gel placed directly into a specific area. The patient remains conscious. this type of anesthetic is used on the skin, the cornea, and the mucous membranes in dental work.