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468 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
agglutin/o
clumping
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
erythr/o
red
fibrin/o
fibers, fibrous
granul/o
granules
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
leuk/o
white
morph/o
shape
myel/o
bone marrow
phag/o
eat, swallow
sanguin/o
blood
thromb/o
clot
-apheresis
removal, carry away
-cyte
cell
-cytosis
more than the normal number of cells
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-penia
abnormal decrease, too few
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
standing still
Cells that contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing pigment that binds oxygen in order to transport it to the cells of the body.
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBC)
The solid, cellular portion of blood. It consists of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Formed Elements
The process of forming blood.
Hematopoiesis
A group of several different types of cells that provide protection against the invasion of bacteria and other foreign material. They are able to leave the bloodstream and search out the foreign invaders (bacteria, virus, and toxins), where they perform phagocytosis.
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells (WBC)
The liquid portion of blood containing 90% water. There remaining 10% consists of plasma proteins (serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin), inorganic substances (calcium, potassium, and sodium), organic components (glucose, amino acids, cholesterol), and waste products (urea, uric acid, ammonia, and creatinine).
Plasma
Cells responsible for the coagulation of blood. These are also called thrombocytes and contain no hemoglobin.
Platelets
A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream. It is abnormal this to be in the urine.
Albumin
An organic substance found in plasma. It is used by cells to build proteins.
Amino Acids
An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones, muscles, and nerves.
Calcium
A waste product of muscle metabolism.
Creatinine
Lipid molecules transported throughout the body dissolved in the blood.
Fats
Blood protein that is essential for clotting to take place.
Fibrinogen
Protein component of blood containing antibodies that help to resist infection.
Gamma Globulin
One type of protein found dissolved in the plasma.
Globulins
The form of sugar used by the cells of the body to make energy. It is transported to the cells in the blood.
Glucose
Proteins that are found in plasma. Includes serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin.
Plasma Proteins
An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones and muscles.
Potassium
Clear sticky fluid that remains after the blood has clotted.
Serum
An inorganic substance found in plasma.
Sodium
A waste product of protein metabolism. It diffuses through the tissues in lymph and is returned to the circulatory system for transport to the kidneys.
Urea
Waste product produced from destruction of worn-out red blood cells; disposed of by the liver.
Bilirubin
The loss of a cell's nucleus.
Enucleated
Iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissue.
Hemoglobin (Hg)
Nongranular leukocyte. This is one of the two types of leukocytes found in plasma that are classified as either monocytes or lymphocytes.
Agranulocyte
A granulocyte white blood cell that releases histamine and heparin in damaged tissues.
Basophils
A granulocyte white blood cell that destroy parasites and increases during allergic reactions.
Eosinophils
Granular polymorphonuclear leukocyte. There are three types: neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil.
Granulocytes
An agranulocyte white blood cell that provides protection through the immune response.
Lymphocytes
An agranulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis.
Monocytes
A granulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis. It is also the most numerous of the leukocytes.
Neutrophils
Disease-bearing organisms.
Pathogens
Neutrophil component of the blood; has the ability to ingest and destory bacteria.
Phagocyte
The process of engulfing or ingesting material. Several types of white blood cells function by engulfing bacteria.
Phagocytosis
Clumping together to form small clusters. Platelets do this to start the clotting process.
Agglutinate
Whitish protein formed by the action of thrombin and fibrinogen, which is the basis for the clotting of blood.
Fibrin
To stop bleeding or the stagnation of the circulating blood.
Hemostasis
Protein element within the blood that interacts with calcium salts to form thrombin.
Prothrombin
A clotting enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
Thrombin
Also called platelets. Platelets play a critical part in the blood-clotting process by agglutinating into small clusters and releasing thrombokinase.
Thrombocytes
Substance released by platelets; reacts with prothrombin to form thrombin.
Thromboplastin
The major system of blood typing.
ABO System
The blood of one person is different from another's due to the presence of antigens on the surface of the erythrocytes. The major method of this is the ABO system and includes types A, B, O, and AB. The other major type is the Rh factor, consisting of the two types, Rh+ and Rh-.
Blood Typing
An antigen marker found on erythrocytes of persons with Rh+ blood.
Rh factor
One of the ABO blood types. A person with this type blood makes anti-B antibodies.
Type A
One of the ABO blood types. This blood type does not make antibodies against either A nor B blood.
Type AB
One of the ABO blood types. A person with this blood type will make anti-A antibodies.
Type B
One of the ABO blood types. A person with no markers on his or her RBCs. This blood type will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Therefore, it is considered the universal donor.
Type O
Type O blood is this. It has no markers on the RBC surface, it will not trigger a reaction with anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
Universal Donor
A person with type AB blood has no antibodies against the other blood types and therefore, in an emergency, can receive any type of blood.
Universal Recipient
This person's RBCs do not have the Rh marker and will make antibodies against Rh+ blood.
Rh-Negative
This person's RBCs have the Rh marker.
Rh-Positive
Lab test performed before a person receives a blood transfusion; double checks the blood type of both the donor's and recipient's blood.
Type and Crossmatch
-algia
pain
-cele
hernia, protrusion
-cise
cut
-dynia
pain
-ectasis
dilatation
-ectopia
displacement
-gen
that which produces
-genesis
produces, generates
-genic
producing
-ia
state, condition
-iasis
abnormal condition
-ism
state of
-itis
inflammation
-logist
one who studies
-logy
study of
-lysis
destruction
-malacia
abnormal softening
-megaly
enlargement, large
-oma
tumor, mass
-osis
abnormal condition
-pathy
disease
-plasia
development, growth
-plasm
formation, development
-ptosis
drooping
-rrhage
excessive, abnormal flow
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-rrhexis
rupture
-sclerosis
hardening
-stenosis
narrowing
-therapy
treatment
-trophy
nourishment, development
-uria
condition of the urine
Pertaining to
-ac
-al
-an
-ar
-ary
-eal
-iac
-ic
-ical
-ile
-ior
-ory
-ose
-ous
-tic
The hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris that is the end result of hemostasis or the blood-clotting process.
Blood Clot
When a liquid is converted to a gel or a solid, as in blood coagulation.
Coagulate
A general term indicating the presence of a disease affecting blood.
Dyscrasia
The process of forming erythrocytes in the red bone marrow.
Erythropoiesis
A physisican who specializes in treating diseases and conditions of the blood.
Hematologist
The collection of blood under the skin as a result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. Commonly referred to as a bruise.
Hematoma
To stop bleeding or the stagnation of blood flow through the tissues.
Hemostasis
A transfusion of only the formed elements and without plasma.
Packed Cells
Refers to the mixture of both plasma and formed elements.
Whole Blood
A large group of conditions characterized by a reduction in the number of RBCs or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; results in less oxygen reaching the tissues.
Anemia
Severe form of anemia that develops as a consequence of loss of functioning red bone marrow. Results in a decrease in the number of all the formed elements. Treatment may eventually require a bone marrow transplant.
Aplastic Anemia
Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus' blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. ALSO CALLED HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
An anemia that develops as the result of the excessive loss of erythrocytes.
Hemolytic Anemia
-centesis
puncture to withdraw fluid
-ectomy
surgical removal
-ostomy
surgically create an opening
-otomy
cutting into
-pexy
surgical fixation
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture
-gram
record or picture
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-meter
intrument for measuring
-metry
process of measuring
-scope
instrument for viewing
-scopy
process of visually examining
a-
without, away from
an-
without
ante-
before, in front of
anti-
against
auto-
self
brady-
slow
dys-
painful, difficult
endo-
within, inner
epi-
upon, over
eu-
normal, good
hetero-
different
homo-
same
hydro-
water
hyper-
over, above
hypo-
under, below
infra-
under, beneath, below
inter-
among, between
intra-
within, inside
macro-
large
micro-
small
neo-
new
pan-
all
para-
beside, beyond, near
per-
through
peri-
around
post-
after
pre-
before, in front of
pseudo-
false
retro-
backward, behind
sub-
below, under
super-
above, excess
supra-
above
tachy-
rapid, fast
trans-
through, across
ultra-
beyond, excess
bi-
two
di-
two
hemi-
half
mono-
one
multi-
many
nulli-
none
poly-
many
quad-
four
semi-
partial, half
tri-
three
uni-
one
Condition that may develop during pregnancy if the mother is Rh-negative, in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus' bloodstream, damaging fetal blood cells. Results in anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis.
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Hereditary blood disease in which blood-clotting time is prolonged. It is transmitted by a sex-linked trait from females to males. It appears almost exclusively in males.
Hemophilia
Condition of having too high a level of lipids such as cholesterol in the bloodstream. A risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.
Hyperlipidemia
Anemia resulting from having insufficient hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Named because the hemoglobin molecule is responsible for the dark red color of the erythrocytes.
Hypochromic Anemia
Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin.
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Cancer of the WBC-forming red bone marrow; results in a large number of abnormal and immature WBCs circulating in the blood.
Leukemia
Anemia associated with insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 by the digestive system. Vitamin B12 is necessary for erythrocyte production.
Pernicious Anemia
Production of too many RBCs by the bone marrow. Blood becomes too thick to easily flow through the blood vessels.
Polycythemia Vera
Having bacteria in the bloodstream. Commonly referred to as blood poisoning.
Septicemia
A genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape. These cells are fragile and are easily damaged, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Sickle Cell Anemia
A genetic disorder in which the person is unable to make functioning hemoglobin, resulting in anemia.
Thalassemia
AHF
antihemophilic factor
ALL
acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
basos
basophils
BMT
bone marrow transplant
CBC
complete blood count
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia
diff
differential
eosins, eos
eosinophils
ESR, SR, sed rate
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
HCT, Hct, crit
hematocrit
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hgb, Hb, HGB
hemoglobin
lymphs
lymphocytes
MCV
mean corpuscular volume
monos
monocytes
PA
pernicious anemia
PCV
packed cell volume
PMN, polys
polymorphonuclear neutrophil
PT, pro-time
prothrombin time
RBC
red blood cell
Rh+
Rh-positive
Rh-
Rh-negative
SMAC
sequential multiple analyzer computer
WBC
white blood cell
Test to measure the amount of time it takes for blood to coagulate.
Bleeding Time
Sample of blood is incubated in the laboratory to check for bacterial growth. If bacteria are present, they are identified and tested to determine which antibiotics they are sensitive to.
Blood Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)
Sample of bone marrow is removed by aspiration with a needle and examined for diseases such as leukemia or aplastic anemia.
Bone Marrow Aspiration
Blood test that consists of five tests: red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), and white blood cell differential.
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Blood test to determine the rate at which mature blood cells settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. This is an indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells within the total volume of blood.
Hematocrit (HCT,Hct,crit)
Incision into a vein in order to remove blood for a diagnostic test. Also called venipuncture.
Phlebotomy
Blood test to determine the number of platelets in a given volume of blood.
Platelet Count
A measure of the blood's coagulation abilities by measuring how long it takes for a clot to form after prothrombin has been activated.
Prothrombin Time (Pro time, PT)
Blood test to determine the number of erythrocytes in a volume of blood.
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Examination of a specimen of blood for abnormalities in the shape (morphology) of the erythrocytes. Used to determine diseases like sickle cell anemia.
Red Blood Cell Morphology
Machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically.
Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer (SMAC)
Blood test to measure the number of leukocytes in a volume of blood.
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
Blood test to determine the number of each variety of leukocytes.
White Blood Cell Differential (diff)
Procedure for collecting and storing a patient's own blood several weeks prior to the actual need. It can be used to replace blood lost during a surgical procedure.
Autologous Transfusion
Artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream.
Blood Transfusion
Patient receives red bone marrow from a donor after the patient's own bone marrow has been destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy.
Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
Replacement of blood by transfusion of blood received from another person.
Homologous Transfusion
Method of removing plasma from the body without depleting the formed elements. Whole blood is removed and the cells and plasma are separated. The cells are returned to the patient along with a donor plasma transfusion.
Plasmapheresis
Prevents blood clot formation.
Anticoagulant
Substance that prevents or stops hemorrhaging; a hemostatic agent.
Antihemorrhagic
Interferes with the action of platelets. Prolongs bleeding time. Commonly referred to as blood thinners.
Antiplatelet
Substance that increases the number of erythrocytes or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.
Hematinic
Stops the flow of blood; an antihemorrhagic.
Hemostatic
Able to dissolve existing blood clots.
Thrombolytic
aden/o
gland
adenoid/o
adenoids
immun/o
protection
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus
tonsill/o
tonsils
tox/o
poison
-globulin
protein
-phage
eat, swallow
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus
tonsill/o
tonsils
tox/o
poison
-globulin
protein
-phage
eat, swallow
Clear, transparent, colorless fluid found in the lymphatic vessels and teh cisterna chyli.
Lymph
Small organs in the lymphatic system that filter bacteria and other foreign organisms from the body fluids.
Lymph Nodes
Extensive network of vessels throughout the entire body; conduct lymph from the tissue toward the thoracic cavity.
Lymphatic Vessels
Organ in the lymphatic system that filters microorganisms and old red blood cells from the blood.
Spleen
An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
Thymus Gland
The collections of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose or mouth.
Tonsils
The smallest lymph vessels; they collect excessive tissue fluid.
Lymph Capillaries
The two largest vessels in the lymphatic system, the lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.
Lymph Ducts
One of the two lymphatic ducts. It drains right arm and the right side of the neck and chest; empties lymph into the right subclavian vein.
Right Lymphatic Duct
The largest lymph vessel. It drains the entire body except for the right arm, chest wall, and both lungs. It empties lymph into the left subclavian vein.
Thoracic Duct
A flap-like structure found within the tubular organs such as lymph vessels, veins, and the heart. They function to prevent the backflow of fluid.
Valves
Commonly referred to as the armpit. There is a collection of lymph nodes in this area that drains each arm.
Axillary
Pertaining to the neck.
Cervical
Commonly referred to as the groin. There is a collection of lymph nodes in this region that drain each leg.
Inguinal
Another name for lymph nodes; small organs composed of lymphatic tissue located along the route of the lymphatic vessels; remove impurities from the lymph and manufacture lymphocytes and antibodies.
Lymph Glands
There is a collection of lymph nodes located in the central chest area that drain the chest.
Mediastinal
When cancerous cells migrate away from a tumor site.
Metastasized
Another term for pharyngeal tonsils. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
Adenoids
Tonsils located on the very posterior section of the tongue as it joins with the pharynx.
Lingual Tonsils
Tonsils located in the lateral wall of the pharynx close to the mouth.
Palatine Tonsils
Another term for adenoids. These are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
Pharyngeal Tonsils
Medical term for throat. The passageway that conducts air from the nasal cavity to the trachea, and also carries food and drink from the mouth to the esophagus. It is divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Pharynx
Spread-out blood vessels within the spleen that result in slow-moving blood flow.
Blood Sinuses
Phagocytic cells that are found in large quantities in the lymph nodes. They engulf foreign particles.
Macrophage
A lymphocyte active in cellular immunity.
T Cells
A type of lymphocyte involved with producing cells that physically attack and destroy pathogens.
T Lymphocytes
Hormone secreted by thymus gland. It causes lymphocytes to change into T-Lymphocytes.
Thymosin
The protective response of the body to a specific pathogen.
Acquired Immunity
Immunity developing after direct exposure to a pathogen.
Active Acquired Immunity
Primitive, single-celled microorganisms that are present everywhere. Some are capable of causing disease in humans.
Bacteria
Malignant growths in the body.
Cancerous Tumor
Some of these organisms are capable of causing disease in humans, such as yeast infections or histoplasmosis.
Fungi
Ability of lymphocytes to respond to specific antigens.
Immune Response
The body's ability to defend itself against pathogens.
Immunity
Providing protection against communicable diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against that disease. Also called vaccinations.
Immunizations
Immunity that is not specific to a disease and does not require prior exposure to the pathogen. Also called innate immunity.
Natural Immunity
Immunity that results when a person receives protective substances produced by another human or animal. This may take the form of maternal antibodies crossing the placenta to a baby or an antitoxin injection.
Passive Acquired Immunity
Single-celled organisms that can infect the body.
Protozoans
Substances poisonous to the body. Many are filtered out of the blood by the kidney.
Toxins
Providing protection against communicable diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against that disease. Also called immunization.
Vaccination
A group of infectious particles that can cause disease.
Viruses
Protein material produced in the body as a response to the invasion of a foreign substance.
Antibody
The production of antibodies by B cells in response to an antigen.
Antibody-Mediated Immunity or Humoral Immunity
Combination of the antigen with its specific antibody to increase susceptibility to phagocytosis and immunity.
Antigen-Antibody Reaction
Substance that is capable of inducing the formation of an antibody.
Antigen
Common name for B Lymphocytes, responds to foreign antigens by producing protective antibodies.
B Cells
The humoral immunity cells, which respond to foreign antigens by producing protective antibodies.
B Lymphocytes
Immunity that results from the activation of sensitized T lymphocytes. The immune response causes antigens to be destroyed by the direct action of cells. Also called cellular immunity.
Cell-Mediated Immunity
This process results in the production of T cells and natural killer, NK, cells that directly attach to foreign cells. This immune response fights invasion by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and cancer. Also called cell-mediated immunity.
Cellular Immunity
Pertaining to poisoning cells.
Cytotoxic
T cells that can kill by entrapping foreign cells, tumor cells, and bacteria. Also called T8 cells.
Natural Killer (NK) Cells
Occurs when a person, either a patient or health care worker, acquires a pathogen from another patient or health care worker.
Cross-Infection
An infection acquired as a result of hospital exposure.
Nosocomial Infection
Federal agency that issued mandatory guidelines to ensure that all employees at risk of exposure to body fluids are provided with personal protective equipment.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
An infection that occurs when a person becomes infected again with the same pathogen that originally brought him or her to the hospital.
Reinfection
Infection that occurs when a person becomes infected in a different part of the body by a pathogen from another part of his or her own body, such as intestinal bacteria spreading to the urethra.
Self-innoculation
An antigen that causes an allergic reaction.
Allergen
A physician who specializes in testing for and treating allergies.
Allergist
Hypersensitivity to a common substance in the environment or to a medication.
Allergy
Severe, potentially life-threatening, allergic reaction to an antigen.
Anaphylaxis
Abnormal
Atypical
A disease that results from the body's immune system attacking its own cells as if they were pathogens.
Autoimmune Disease
Virus that is believed to be the cause of infectious mononucleosis.
Epstein-Barr Virus
Appearance of wheals as part of an allergic reaction.
Hives
Virus that causes AIDS; also known as a retrovirus.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Having an immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens.
Immunocompromised
Antibodies secreted by the B cells. They assist in protecting the body and its surfaces from the invasion of bacteria.
Immunoglobulins
A physician who specializes in treating infectious disease and other disorders of the immune system.
Immunologist
The tissues responses to injury from pathogens or physical agents. Characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to touch.
Inflammation
Edema appearing in the extremities due to an obstruction of the lymph flow through the lymphatic vessels.
Lymphedema
Infectious diseases that are associated with patients who have compromised immune systems and therefore a lowered resistance to infections and parasits. May be the results of HIV infection.
Opportunisitic Infections
Virus, such as HIV, in which the virus copies itself using the host's DNA.
Retrovirus
The severe itching associated with hives, usually associated with food allergy, stress, or drug reactions.
Urticaria
Disease that involves a defect in the cell-mediated immunity system. A syndrome of opportunistic infections that occur in the final stages of infection with the HIV. This virus attacks the T4 lymphocytes and destroys them, which reduces the person's ability to fight infection.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Early stage of AIDS. There is a positive test for the virus but only mild symptoms of weight loss, fatigue, skin rash, and anorexia.
AIDS-related complex (ARC)
Life-threatening condition resulting from a severe allergic reaction.
Anaphylactic
Inflammation, obstruction, and destruction of the lymph vessels that result in enlarged tissues due to edema.
Elephantiasis
Serious complication of bone marrow transplant(graft). Immune cells from the donor bone marrow attack the recipient's (host's) tissues.
graft vs. host disease (GVHD)
Cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes.
Hodgkin's disease (also called Hodgkin's lymphoma)
Form of skin cancer frequently seen in patients with AIDS. It consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs.
Kaposi's sarcoma
Inflammation of the lymph nodes. Referred to as swollen glands.
Lymphadenitis
Cancerous tumor of the lymphatic tissue.
Malignant Lymphoma
Acute infectious disease with a large number of atypical lymphocytes. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Abnormal liver function may occur.
Mononucleosis
Cancer of the lymphatic tissues other than Hodgkin's lymphoma.
non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)
Infection of the tissues between the tonsils and the pharynx. Also called a quinsy sore throat.
Peritonsillar abscess
Pneumonia common in AIDS patients that is caused by infection with an opportunistic parasite.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Disease of unknown cause that forms fibrous lesions.
Sarcoidosis
Disease seen in children born with a nonfunctioning immune system.
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SCIDS)
A blood test for an antibody to the AIDS virus.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
X-ray taken of the lymph vessels after the injection of dye into the foot. The lymph flow through the chest is traced.
Lymphangiography
Test for infectious mononucleosis.
Monospot
Form of allergy testing in which the body is exposed to an allergen through a light scratch in the skin.
Scratch Test
Test used as a backup to the ELISA blood test to detect the presence of the antibody to HIV in the blood.
Western blot
Giving a patient an injection of immunoglobulins or antibodies in order to treat a disease.
Immunotherapy
Excision of a lymph node.
Lymphadenectomy
Blocks the effects of histamine that has been released by the body during an allergic reaction.
Antihistamine
Reduces the body's inflammatory reaction.
Anti-inflammatory
Weakens a viral infection in the body.
Antiviral
A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties.
Corticosteroids
Blocks certain actions of the immune sytem. Required to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ.
Immunosuppressants
Produces contraction of the smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries.
Vasoconstrictors
AIDS
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
ARC
AIDS-related complex
CD4
type of T cell affected by HIV infection
EBV
Epstein-Barr Virus
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
GVHD
graft vs. host disease
HD
Hodgkin's disease
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Ig
immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM)
KS
Kaposi's sarcoma
lymphs
lymphocyte
mono
mononucleosis
NHL
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
NK
Natural Killer cells
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
SCIDS
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus; air sac
anthrac/o
coal
atel/o
incomplete
bronch/o
bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole
coni/o
dust
diaphragmat/o
diaphragm
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx
lob/o
lobe
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight, upright
ox/o
oxygen
pharyng/o
pharynx
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o
lung, air
pneumon/o
lung, air
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
sinus/o
sinus, cavity
spir/o
breathing
steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
thorac/o
chest
-capnia
carbon dioxide
-ectasis
dilated, expansion
-osmia
smell
-phonia
voice
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-thorax
chest
Flow of air into the lungs.
Inhalation or inspiration
Flow of air out of the lungs.
Exhalation or expiration
Very small hairs that line the opening of the nose as well as most of the airways.
Cilia
Lack of carbon dioxide
Acapnia
Excision of adenoids
Adenoidectomy
Another term for pharyngeal tonsils. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in teh nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
Adenoids
Acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, and hypoxemia.
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
They tiny air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. Gas exchange takes place here.
Alveoli
Loss of the sense of smell.
Anosmia
Lack of oxygen.
Anoxia
A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of coal dust in the lung. Also called black lung or miner's lung.
Anthracosis
Destroys or prohibits the growth of microorganisms.
Antibiotic
Acts to control allergic symptoms by counteracting histamine.
Antihistamine
Controls or relieves coughing.
Antitussive
Directional term meaning tip or summit.
Apex
No voice.
Aphonia
The condition of not breathing.
Apnea
Lab test that measures the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in the blood, and the pH.
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from collection of asbestos fibers in the lungs; may lead to the development of lung cancer.
Asbestosis
Lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness and death if not corrected soon.
Asphyxia
Disease caused by various conditions, such as allergens, and resulting in constriction of the bronchial airways and labored respirations.
Asthma
Condition in which lung tissue collapses, which prevents the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Atelectasis
Another name for the eustachian tube connecting the middle ear and pharynx.
Auditory Tube
Listening to the sounds within the body by using a stethoscope.
Auscultation
Directional term meaning bottom or lower part.
Base
Slow breathing
Bradypnea
An organ of the respiratory system that carries air into each lung.
Bronchial tubes
Results from a dilation of a bronchus or the bronchi that can be the result of infection. A major symptom is a large amount of purulent (pus-filled) sputum.
Bronchiectasis
The narrowest air tubes in the lungs.
Bronchioles
An acute or chronic inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that often occurs after other childhood infections such as measles.
Bronchitis
Dilates or opens the bronchi to improve breathing.
Bronchodilator
Malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi. Usually associated with smoking.
Bronchogenic Carcinoma
An x-ray record of the lungs and bronchial tubes.
Bronchogram
Process of taking an x-ray of the lung after a radiopaque substance has been placed into the trachea or bronchial tree.
Bronchography
Surgical repair of a bronchial defect.
Bronchoplasty
An instrument to view inside the bronchus.
Bronchoscope
Using the bronchoscope to visualize the bronchi.
Bronchoscopy
An involuntary muscle spasm in the bronchi.
Bronchospasm
The distal end of the trachea splits into a left and right main bronchi as it enters each lung.
Bronchus
A waste product of cellular energy production. It is removed from the cells by the blood and eliminated from the body by the lungs.
Carbon dioxide
Taking a radiographic picture of the lungs and heart from the back and sides.
Chest X-Ray
Abnormal breathing pattern in which there are long periods (10 to 60 seconds) of apnea followed by deeper, more rapid breathing.
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
The amount of air that enters the lungs in a single inhalation or leaves the lungs in a single exhalation of quiet breathing.
Tidal Volume (TV)
The air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal respiration. Also called complemental air.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal quiet respiration. Also called supplemental air.
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
The air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation.
Residual Volume (RV)
The volume of air inhaled after a normal exhale.
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
The air that remains in the lungs after a normal exhalation.
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation.
Vital Capacity (VC)
The volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inhalation.
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Placing a tube through the mouth, through the glottis, and into the trachea to create a patent airway.
Endotracheal Intubation
Nosebleed
Epistaxis
Coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum.
Hemoptysis
To breathe both fast(tachypnea) and deep(hyperpnea).
Hyperventilation
To breathe slow(bradypnea) and shallow(hypopnea).
Hypoventilation
A physician who specializes in treating diseases and conditions of internal organs.
Internist
Two-pronged plastic device for delivering oxygen into the nose; one prong is inserted into each nares.
Nasal Canula