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67 Cards in this Set

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anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simplex substances and release energy.
cell membrane
Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. (There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contatin only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.)
cytoplasm
All the material that is outside the nucleus and contained within the cell membrane.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
Chemical found within each chromosome that directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum
Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.
genes
Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype
Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell, arranged in numerical order.
metabolism
The total of the chemical processes in a cell.
mitochondria
Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
nucleus
Control center of the cell.
adipose tissue
Collection of fat cells.
cartilage
Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at the joints.
epithelial cell
Skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs.
histologist
Specialist in the study of tissues.
larynx
Voice box
pharynx
Throat
pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
thyroid gland
Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
trachea
Windpipe
ureter
One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.
urethra
Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
uterus
The womb.
viscera
Internal organs.
abdominal cavity
Space below the chest containint organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder and intestines.
cranial cavity
Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
diaphragm
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
dorsal
Pertaining to the back. (posterior)
mediastinum
Centrally located space between the lungs.
pelvic cavity
Space below the abdomen containing protions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder and reproductive organs.
peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pleura
A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity
Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung.
spinal cavity
Space withing the spinal column and containing the spinal cord.
thoracic cavity
Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus and other organs.
ventral
Pertaining to the front. (anterior)
hypochondriac
Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.
epigatric
Upper middle region above the stomach.
lumbar
Middle right and left regions near the waist.
umbilical
Central region near the navel.
inguinal
Lower right and left regions near the groin. (also iliac regions)
hypogastric
Lower middle region below the umbilical region.
RUQ
Right upper quadrant
LUQ
Left upper quadrant
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
LLQ
Left lower quadrant
cervical
Neck region (C1-C7)
thoracic
Chest region (T1-T12)
lumbar
Loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
sacral
Region of the sacrum (S1-S5)
coccygeal
Region of the coccyx (tailbone)
anterior
Front side of the body. (ventral)
deep
Away from the surface.
distal
Far from the point of attachment to the trunk of far from the beginning of a structure.
frontal plane
Vertical plan dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions. (coronal)
inferior
Below another structure. (caudal)
lateral
Pertaining to the side.
medial
Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
posterior
Back side of the body. (dorsal)
prone
Lying on the belly (face down, palm down).
proximal
Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.
sagittal plane
Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. (lateral)
superficial
On the surface.
superior
Above another structure. (cephalic)
supine
Lying on the back (face up, palm up).
transverse
Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions. (cross-sectional or axial)