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450 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atri/o
atrium
angi/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
brady-
slow
cardi/o
heart
coron/o
crown, heart
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
-megaly
enlargement
-sclerosis
hardening
tachy-
fast
ven/o
vein
ventricul/o
ventricle
BP
blood pressure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
EKG/ECG
elektrocardiogram
MI
myocardial infarction
aorta
largest artery in the body, orginating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen
atrium
the heart consists of two upper chambers, the left and right atrium, and two lower chambers, the left and right ventricle
diastole
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (the lower number in the bp reading)
systole
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (the upper number in the bp reading)
ventricle
the heart consists of two lower chambers, the left and right ventricle, and two upper chambers, the left and right atrium
angina
angina pectoris, chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle
hypertension
blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90)
infarction
myocardial infarction, death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called heart attack)
ischemia
deficiency of blood (flow)
cholesterol tests
the lipid panel/profile which checks triglyceride and cholesterol levels which may include HDL, LDL, and VLDL
electrocardiogram
record of the electrical activity of the heart
echocardiogram
record of the heart (structure and motion) using sound, used to detect valcular disease and evaluate the heart during stress testing
enzyme test
a test for cardiac enzymes (an enzyme is a protein that catalyzes (accelerates) a chemical reaction)
Holter monitor test
Holter monitoring (also called continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring) is a continuous monitoring of heart rate and rhythm during your usual daily activities, usually for a 24-hour period
stress test
a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill, or by using drugs to simulate the stress of the physical exercise. EKG's, echocardiography and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising.
abdomin/o
abdomen
appendic/o
appendix
an/o
anus
bucc/o
cheek
dent/i
tooth
enter/o
small intestine
-emesis
vomiting
epi-
above
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
lapar/o
abdominal wall
lingu/o
tongue
or/o
mouth
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
to swallow
proct/o
rectum
-scope
instrument for visual examination
-scopy
process of visual examination
stomat/o
mouth
GI
gastrointestinal
N&V
nausea and vomiting
NG
nasogastric
mouth
opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication and mixing with saliva
pharynx
throat, performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
esophagus
10 inch (25 cm) tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
small intestine
20 foot (6m) canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
large intestine
canal that is approximately 5 feet (1.5m) long and extends from the ileum to the anus
appendix
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum
elimination
the removal of a substance from the body by any route, including the kidneys, liver, lungs, sweat glands and bowels
ingestion
taking a substance in through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking
mastication
chewing
peristalsis
involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
constipation
a condition of the digestive system where a person experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest
diarrhea
a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements
dental caries
an infectious disease which damages the structures of teeth
emesis
vomiting, throwing up
halitosis
breath odor, foul breath
hemorrhoid
varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
hernia
protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall
ulcer
eroded sore on the skin or muceous membrane, gastric/peptic ulcer is an ulcer in the stomach
abdominal ultrasound
an imaging procedure used to examine the internal organs of the abdomen including the liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys
gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach
guauic testing
fecal occult blood test, a test to detect occult blood in feces, used to screen for colon cancer or polyps, occult blood refers to blood that is present but can only be viewed microscopically
H. Pylori test
a blood test to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria, this bacteria can be found in the lining of the stomach and can cause peptic ulcers. Tests for H. pylori can also be performed on biopsy specimens and by breath test
O&P
ova and parasites, stool ova and parasites exam is an analysis of stool to check for the presence of a parasite or worm-like infection of the intestine. Ova refers to the egg stage of a parasite's life cycle.
stool cultures
a fecal culture is a laboratory test to isolate and identify organisms in the feces that may cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease
lower gastrointestinal exam
barium enema, series of x-ray images taken of the large intestine after a barium enema has been administered
upper gastrointestinal exam
series of x-ray images taken of the stomach and duodenum after barium has been swallowed
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal
dips/o
thirst
endocrin/o
endocrine
ex-
out, outward, outside
exo-
out, outward, outside
glyc/o
sugar
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
tox/o
poison
toxic/o
poison
-uria
urination
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
DM
diabetes mellitus
FBS
fasting blood sugar
GDM
gestational diabetes mellitus
IDDM
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
NIDDM
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
adrenal cortex
outer portion of the adrenal glands (paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney)
adrenal medulla
inner portion of the adrenal glands (paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney)
pancreas
produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
parathyroid glands
four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid, they secrete parathormone which helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood
pituitary gland
approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain, it is divided in two lobes
anterior lobe
one lobe of the pituitary gland, produces and secretes growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and gonadotropic hormone
posterior lobe
one lobe of the pituitary gland, stores and releases antifiuretic hormone and oxytocin
thyroid gland
largest endocrine gland, it is located in the neck below the larynx and compromises bilateral lobes connected by an isthmus. This gland secretes triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
diabetes insipidus
result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include polydipsia and polyuria and sodium being excreted from the body.
diabetes mellitus
chromic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Caused by underactivity of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which results in insufficient production of insulin. When uncontrolled this disease can result in ketosis, acidosis and finally coma.
ketoacidosis
acidosis: condition brough about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism, ketosis: abnormal concentration of ketone bodies (normal product of metabolism), both conditions are seen frequently in uncontrolled diabetes
glucose tolerance test
the administration of glucose to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood
fasting blood sugar
a blood test to determine the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for 8 to 10 hours, elevation indicates diabetes mellitus
glucose meter testing
a little drop of blood is put on a test strip in the meter, this test will give you your blood sugar level at any one time
urine dipstick test
a chemically treated stick is dipped into urine to check for the sugar level
thyroidectomy
excision of the thyroid gland
acous/o
hearing
audi/o
sound
aur/o
ear
bi-
two
corne/o
cornea
-ician
specialist
irid/o
iris
ocul/o
eye
ophtalm/o
eye
-opia
vision
ot/o
ear
phac/o(r)
phak/o
lens of eye
scler/o
sclera
EENT
eyes, ears, nose, throat
ENT
ears, nose, throat
PERL
pupil equal and reactive to light
TM
tympanic membrane
cerumen
earwax
cornea
transparant anterior part of the sclera, which is in front of the aqeous humor and lies over the iris
lens
lies directly behind the pupil, its function is to focus and bend light
sclera
outer protective layer of the eye; the portion seen on the anterior portion of the eyeball is referred to as the white of the eye
auricle/pinna
external structure located on both sides of the head, the auricle directs sound waves into the external auditory meatus
external auditory canal
short tube that ends at the TM, inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that sexrete cerumen
astigmatism
defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye
ophthalmoscopy
visual examination of the eye
cataract
clouding of the lens of the eye
hyperopia
farsightedness
myopia
nearsightedness
purulence
condition of containing or forming pus
stye/sty/hordeolum
infection of an oil gland of the eyelid
audiometry
measurement of hearing
optometry
measurement of vision (acuity and the prescribing of corrective lenses)
otoscopy
visual examination of the ear
Snellen test
this test uses a chart with different sizes of letters or forms to evaluate your visual acuity
visual acuity test
this test evaluates the sharpness of your vision
iridectomy
excision (of part) of the iris
LASIK
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia
phacoemulsification
method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
sclerotomy
incision into the sclera
aden/o
gland
bi/o
life
cutane/o
skin
cyt/o
cell
-cyte
cell
derm/o
skin
dermat/o
skin
epi-
above, over
hidr/o
sweat
hist/o
tissue
-ia
condition, state of
intra-
within
-malacia
softening
melan/o
black
myc/o
fungus
onych/o
nail
-opsy
to view
per-
through
-plasia
development
-plasty
surgical reconstruction
sub-
under, beneath
-tome
instrument used to cut
Bx
biopsy
decub.
decubitus (ulcer)
FS
frozen section
ID
intradermal
I&D
incision and drainage
SC
subcutaneous
1st degree burn
superficial damage, redness, swelling - eg sunburn
2nd degree burn
deeper damage to both the epidermis and the upper potion of the dermis and can be caused by brief contact with heat like touching the heated element in the oven or spilling boiling water on your skin
3rd degree burn
go deep into the tissues and can involve the entire dermis and go even deeper into the subcutaneous tissue. This type of burn is usually caused by longer exposure to the damaging element and higher temperatures. Third-degree burns cause necrosis of the tissues, appear much darker in color and usually require debridement and skin grafting from a donor site to replace the protective layer that has been destroyed.
Epithelial tissue
the major covering of the external surface of the body; forms membranes that line body cavities and organs and is the major tissue in glands
Epidermis
outer layer of the skin
Dermis
inner layer of the skin, also called true skin
Acne
inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Actinic keratosis
a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight, it may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis, it seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue, common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure
Decubitus ulcer
pressure ulcer, bed sore, eroded sore on the skin or mucous membrane, often occurs in bedridden patients
Edema
puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid
Erythema
redness
Gangrene
death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion
Petechia
pinpoint skin hemorrhages
Pruritus
severe itching
Squamous cell carcinoma
a malignant growth that develops from scalelike epithelial tissue, on the skin it appears as a firm, red, painless bump, the most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight
Biopsy
view of life, the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under the microscope
Debridement
removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound
a-
no, not
-algia
pain
an-
no, not
-cyte
cell
dia-
through, complete
dys-
bad
-ectomy
removal, excision
erythr/o
red
-gen
producing
-genic
producing
-genous
producing
-gram
record
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
hist/o
tissue
hyper-
excessive, above
hypo-
deficient, below
iatr/o
physician, medicine
in-
not
-ist
specialist
-itis
inflammation
leuk/o
white
-logist
one who studies
-logy
study of
neo-
new
-oid
resembling
-ole
small, little
-oma
tumor
-osis
abnormal condition
-pathy
disease
post-
after
-scope
instrument used for visual examination
-scopy
visual examination
-tomy
process of cutting
-ac, -al, -ary, -ar, -eal, -ic, -ior, -ose, -ous, -tic, -ine
pertaining to
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
anti-
against
cirrh/o
yellow, orange
chrom/o
color
cyan/o
blue
di-
two
endo-
inside, within
ecto-
outside
erytht/o
red
exo
out, outward, outside
jaund/o
yellow
leuk/o
white
macro-
large
melan/o
black
mono-
one
multi-
many
quadri-
four
semi-
half
tri-
three
uni-
one
xanth/o
yellow
LLQ
left lower quadrant
RLQ
right lower quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
RUQ
right upper quadrant
adduction
movement of drawing toward the middle
abduction
movement of drawing away from the middle
flexion
movement in which a limb is bent
extension
movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position
rotation
turning around its own axis
pronation
movement that turns the palm down
supination
movement that turns the palm up
arthr/o
joint
-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o
head
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull
femor/o
femur
inter-
between
lei/o
smooth
ligament/o
ligament
mandibul/o
mandible
maxill/o
maxilla
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
pelv/o
pelvis
-porosis
lessening in density
rhabd/o
striated
spondy/o
vertebra
supra-
above
ten/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
vertebr/o
vertebra
C1, C2, C3, etc
cervical vertebrae 1, 2, 3, etc
T1, T2, T3, etc
thoracic vertebrae 1, 2, 3, etc
L1, L2, L3, etc
lumbar vertebrae 1, 2, 3, etc
LLE
left lower extremity
RLE
right lower extremity
LUE
left upper extremity
RUE
right upper extremity
clavicle
collarbone
cranium
skull
femur
upper leg bone
fibula
lower leg bone
humerus
upper arm bone
ligament
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
mandible
lower jawbone
maxilla
upper jawbone
skeletal muscles
striated muscles, attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and by working in pairs. Aka voluntary muscles.
smooth muscles
unstriated muscles, located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. Aka involuntary muscles, because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily.
cardiac muscle
myocardium, forms most of the wall of the heart, its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
pelvic bone
hip bone, made up of three bones fused together, ischium, ilium and pubis
phalanges
finger and toe bones
radius
lower arm bone
scapula
shoulder blade
sternum
breastbone
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tibia
lower leg bone
ulna
lower arm bone
vertebra
bones through which the spinal cord runs
arthritis
imflammation of a joint
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body
osteoarthritis
inflammation of the bone and joint
bunion
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe, it is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes
gout
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals to be deposited in the joint, especially that of the great toe
fracture
broken bone
dislocation
a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint
greenstick fracture
an incomplete fracture in which the bone bends
transverse fracture
a fracture that goes across the bone's axis
oblique fracture
a fracture which goes at an angle to the axis
spiral fracture
a fracture which runs around the axis of the bone
comminuted fracture
a fracture of many relatively small fragments
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid
arthroscopy
visual examination of a joint
bone densitometry
method of determining the density of bone by radiograpihc techniques used to diagnose osteoporosis
erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR
a non-specific measure of inflammation that is commonly used as a medical screening test
arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid.
arthrogram
X-ray image of a joint (using contrast medium)
arthroscopy
visual examination inside a joint
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint
-algesia
sensitivity to pain
-algia
pain
cerebr/o
brain
encephal/o
brain
hemi-
half
-kinesia
movement
meningi/o
meninges
myel/o
spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/o
nerve
-phasia
speech
pre-
before
-therapy
treatment
ventricul/o
ventricle
CNS
central nervous system
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
EEG
electroencephalogram
LP
lumbar puncture
PNS
peripheral nervous system
meninger
three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord
nerves
cord-like structures that carry impulses from one part of the body to another, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
spinal cord
passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain
coma
state of profound unconsciousness
concussion
jarring or shaking that results in an injury, brain concussisons are caused by slight or severe head imjury; symptoms include vertigo and loss of consciousness
cerebrovascular accident, CVA
aka stroke, interruption of blood supply to the brain caused by a cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, or cerebral hemorrhage. The pt may experience mild to severe paralysis.
epilepsy
disorder in which the main symptom is recurring seizures
syncope
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
migraine
vascular pulsating and recurring headaches appear to be linked to increased stress levels and correlate with the menstrual cycle in females
electroencephalogram
record of the electrical impulses of the brain
lumbar puncture
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertrabrae, it is performed for many reasons, including the removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes
myelogram
x-ray image of the spinal cord (after an injection of dye into the spinal fluid that surrounds the spinal cord, nerve roots and surrounding meninger can be seen)
colp/o
vagina
cyst/o
urinary bladder
gynec/o
woman
hyster/o
uterus
mamm/o
breast
mast/o
breast
men/o
menses, menstruation
metr/o
uterus
oophor/o
ovary
ovari/o
ovary
peri-
around
-rrhagia
bursting forth of blood
trans-
across
uter/o
uterus
vagin/o
vagina
D&C
dilation and curettage
GU
genitourinary
GYN
gynecology
peritoneum
serous sac lining of the abdomen and pelvic cavities
amenorrhea
absence of menstrual discharge (menostasis)
dysmenorrhea
painful menstrual discharge
metrorrhagia
rapid flow of blood from the uterus
menorrhagia
rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation
endometriosis
abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue grows in various areas in the pelvic cavity including ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowels and uterus
pelvic inflammatory disease, PID
inflammation of the female pelvic organs
cystocele
protrusion of the bladder against the anterior wall of the vagina
bronch/o
bronchus
-centesis
surgical puncture to withdraw fluid
endo-
within
laryng/o
voice box
ox/o
oxygen
pneum/o
lung
pneumon/o
lung
pulmon/o
lung
nas/o
nose
-spasm
involuntary contraction
-stomy
new opening
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
trachea
CXR
chest x-ray
LLL
left lower lobe
LUL
left upper lobe
O2
oxygen
PA
posteroanterior
PFT
pulmonary function test
RLL
right lower lobe
RML
right middle lobe
RUL
right upper lobe
SOB
shortness of breath
TB
tuberculosis
URI
upper respiratory infection
asthma
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing and SOB
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, group of disorders that are almost always a result of smoking that obstructs bronchial flow. One or more of the following in varying degrees are present in COPD: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchospams and bronchiolitis.
-cele
hernia
cyst/o
bladder
cyt/o
cell
hydr/o
water
-iasis
abnormal condition
nephr/o
kidney
-pexy
surgical fixation
poly-
many
ren/o
kidney
scrot/o
scrotum
-trophy
development
ur/o
urine
ureter/o
urether
urethr/o
urethra
vas/o
vessel
ven/o
vein
BPH
bening prostatic hypertrophy
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
KUB
kidney, ureter, bladder
UTI
urinary tract infection
varicocele
enlarged veins of the spermatic cord