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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
accomodation
act or state of adjustment/adaptation

ie. change in shape of ocular lens for various focal distances
adenopathy
swelling or enlargement of lymph node(s)
adnexa
parts accessory to an organ or structure

ie. fallopian tube
alimentary
pertaining to nutrition or food
alopecia
complete or partial loss/absence of hair
anasarca
infiltration of edema fluid into the subcutaneous tissue
anhidrosis
inability to tolerate heat, absence of sweat glands
anuria
lack of urine formation
apraxia
disorder of vouluntary movement consistent with impairment in the performance of skilled or purposeful movement, not withstanding the presentation of comprehension, muscular power, sensibility, and coordination
apnea
lack of spontaneous breathing
ataxia
loss of complex coordinative learned motor control, causes spasticity, incoordination, and inefficient voluntary movement
arthralgia
pain in a joint, usually not inflammatory in nature
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
atrophic
wasting of tissue organs caused by death/reabsorption of cells, diminished proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, hormonal changes, lessened function
avulsion
a separation or tearing away from
azotemia
uremia
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
bradycardia
slow heart beat
-60 BPM
bruit
harsh/musical intermittent ausculatory sound
cachexia
wasting away or weight loss due to a chronic condition or emotional distress
cardiomegally
enlarged heart
cerumen
soft/brown/yellow/waxy secretion of cereminous glands of external auditory meatus
chalazion
chronic inflammatory disease of meiboman gland in the eye
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gall bladder
cicatrix
scar
claudication
limping, usually due to claudicating (cramps in lower limb due to oxygen loss)
coitus
sexual union
coma
a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused resulting from trauma, disease, or toxic substance
concussion
a violent shaking or jarring

soft tissue damage due to violent shaking or blow
contusion
mechanical injury causing hemorrhage below unbroken skin
convergence
tending of two or more structures towards a common area
coprolalia
involuntary utterance of obscene words
coryza
acute rhinitis
crepitis
noisy discharge of gas from the intestine
cyanosis
bluish/purplish coloring of skin, nail beds, lips, or mucous membrane due to deoxygenation of the blood (5 g/100 mL)
debridement
removal of foreign materials, necrotic matter, or devitalized tissue from a wound or burn
defervescene
falling of elevated temperature, abatement of fever
deglutition
swallowing
dehiscence
a bursting open, splitting, or gaping along natural or sutured lines
dehydration
depravation of water
desquamation
shedding of cuticle in scales or outer layer of any surface
diaphoresis
perspiration
diplopia
single object percieved as two
dysarthria
speech problems due to paralysis, incoordination, or plasticity of muscles
dysarthrosis
malformation of a joint
dyslexia
impaired reading ability with a competence level below that expected on the basis of a person’s level of intelligence and in the presence of normal vision, letter recognition, and normal recognition of the meant of pictures and objects
dysmenorrheal
difficult and painful menstruation
dyspareunia
pain during sexual intercourse
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
dysphasia
aphasia (loss of ability to speak, write, or comprehend written/spoken word)
dysphonia
any disorder of phonation affecting the voice quality or ability to produce voice
dyspnea
shortness of breath, subjective difficulty/distress in breathing usually associated with disease of heart or lungs, occurs due to physical exertion or high altitude
dystonia
abnormal tonicity in skeletal muscle
dysuria
difficulty/pain in urination
eccymosis
purplish patch caused by extravasation of blood into the skin (on a larger area than petechiae)
echolalia
involuntary repition of words
ectopic
out of place of an organ or pregnancy
ectropion
rolling outward of the margin of a part
effusion
escape of fluid from the blood vessels or lymphatics into tissue or cavity
encephalitis
inflammation of brain parenchyma
enuresis
urinary incontinence, particularly nocturnal
episiotomy
surgical insicion of vulva to prevent laceration during time of delivery or to facilitate surgery
epitaxis
profuse bleeding from hte nose
erytemia
redness of skin due to capillary dilation
erythropoiesis
formation of RBCs
erythrocyte
mature RBC
evisceration
removal of contents of the eyeball leaving the sclera and sometimes the cornea
exanthema
skin eruption due to acute viral or coccal dissease (scarlet fever or measles)
exfoliation
shedding of superficial tissue cells
exophthalmos
protrustion of one or both eyeballs, can be congenital, familial, or due to pathology
exsanguinations
removal of blood
farsightedness
hyperopia (light rays focus behind retina)
flatulence
excessive amount of gas in stomach/intestines
fecalith
coprolith (hard mass of insipissated feces)
fetor
offensive odor
fourchette
tense band of muscous membrane connection formed at the dorsal ends of labio minora (often damaged in childbirth)
fremitus
vibration imparted to the hand resting on chest or other body part
glactorrhea
flow of milk from breasts other than lactation
gallop
triple candence to the heart sounds due to an abnormal third or fourth heard wound being heard in addition to the first of second sound, can be indicitave of serious disease
gynecomastia
excessive development of male mammary glands due to ductal proliferation with periductal edema, second to increased estrogen levels
hematemesis
vomitting blood
hematochezia
bloody stool, in contradistinction to melena/tarry stool
hematoma
localized mass of extravagated blood that is relatively or completely confined within an oran or tissue, space, or potential space; usually clotted and may menifest various degrees of organization and decolorization
hematuria
any condition in which urine contains RBCs or blood
hemianopia
loss of vision in half of one or both eyes
hemiparesis
weakness on one side of the body
hemophilia
inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage
hemosiderosis
accumulation of hemosiderin in tissue

hemosirderin: yellow-brown protein produced by phagocytic digestion of hematin
hirsutism
excessive body and facial terminal hair in a male pattern especially in women; may be present in normal adults due to ethnic characteristics or may develop due to increased androgens
hydramnios
excessive amniotic fluid
+2000 mL
hydrocele
collection of serous fluid in a sacculated cavity (ie tunia vaginalis testis)
hydrocephalus
excessive accumulation of CSF resulting in dilation of cerebral ventricles and increased intracranial pressure leading to enlarged cranium or brain atrophy
hypoxia
decrease below normal levels of oxygen in inspired gas, arterial blood, or tissue just short of anoxia
hyperemia
increased amount of blood in an organ
hyperopia
only convergent rays can be brought to focus on retina
hypersthenia
excessive tension or strength
iatrogenic
response to medical or surgical treatment usually unfavorable
icterus/ic
jaundice
ichthyosis
congenital disorders of keratinization characterized by no inflammatory dryness and scaling of skin, often associated with defects/abnormalities of lipid absorption distinguishable by epidermal cell kinetics
idiopathic
disease of unknown origin
incontinence
inability to prevent the discharge of urine or feces
induration
process of becoming extremely firm or hard, or having such physical features
introtroitus
entrance to a canal or hollow organ
jaundice
yellowish staining of integument, sclera, and deepr tissues and of excretion with bile pigments which are increased in plasma
keloid
nodular, firm, often linear mass of hyperplastic scar tissue consiting of irregularly distributed bands of collagen, occurs in dermis after injury or surgery
keratosis
any lesion of epidermis marked by presence of circumscribed overgrowth of the horny layer
kyphosis
interior concaved area of spine (thoracic and sacral)
lanugo
fine, soft, lightly pigmented fetal hair with minute shafts and large papillae, appears towards end of first trimester
leukocytosis
increase in total amount of leukocytes in blood, distinguished from a relative increase
leukopenia
insufficient leukocyte count
-4000/5000 mm cubed
leukoplakia
white patch of oral mucous membrane that cannot be wiped off or diagnosed clinically, smooth, irregular in size and shape, hard, sometimes fissured, can be associated with smoking
lethargy
state of deep/prolonged unconsciousness resembling profound slumber from which one may be aroused but immediately relapses
lichenification
leathery induration and thickening of hte skin with hyperkeratosis, caused by scratching or chronic contact dermatitis
lordosis
convex curvature of spinal cord (cervical and lumbar)
lymphadenopathy
any disease affecting lymph nodes
lymphoma
neoplasm of lymphoid tissue, synonymous with malignant lymphoma
macule
small sport, different in color from the surrounding tissue
melena
massage of tarry stool due to presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
menarche
establishment of menstrual function
menorrhagia
hypermenorrhea
menometrorrhagia
irregular or excessive bleeding during mensturation and inbetween periods
menopause
cessation of menses
miosis
contraction of the pupil
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
mydriasis
dilation of pupil
myoclonus
one or more series of shock like contractions from a group of muscles of variable regularity, symmetry, and synchrony
myopia
optic condition in which parallel light rays are brought by the ocular medial to focus in front of the retina
narcolepsy
sleep disorder causing recurring episodes of sleep during the day and often disrupted nocturnal sleep commonly accompanied by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnologic hallucinations
nephrolithiasis
presence of renal calculi (stone)
neuroma
general term for any neoplasm of nerve cells
neutropenia
decreased neutrophil count
neutrophilia
excess neutrophil count
nocturia
excessive urination at night
nulliparous
never having borne children
nystagmus
rhythmic oscillation of eyeballs, pendulum or jerky
odynophagia
pain on swallowing
oliguria
scanty urine production
oligomenorrhea
scanty menstruation
opthalmoplegia
paralysis of 1+ occular muscles
orchidectomy
removal of one or more testes
orthopnea
discomfort in breathing brought on by lying flat
orthostatic
relating to an erect posture
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone marrow and adjacent bone
osteoporosis
reduction in quantity of bone or atrophy of skeletal tissue, occurs in postmenopausal women and elderly men
otalgia
earache
otitis
inflammation of the ear
papule
small circumscribed solid elevation on the skin
parasthesia
abnormal sensation
parity
condition having given birth to infant or infants, alive or dead; multiple birth considered a single parous event
peritonitis
inflammation of peritoneum
petechiae
minute hemorrhagic spot
polydipsia
excessive thirst that is relatively prolonged
polyuria
excessive excretion of urine
prodrome
early or premonitory symptom of disease
prognosis
forecast of probable course/outcome of disease
pseudocyeisis
false pregnancy
ptosis
sinking down/prolapsed of organ
pyrexia
fever
quadriparesis
tetraparesis (weakness in all 4 limbs)
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
radiculopathy
disorder of spinal nerve roots
rales
extraneous sound heard on auscultation of breath sounds, used to denote rhoncus/crepitation
rhinitis
inflammation of nasal mucous membranes
rhinoplasty
repair or defect of nose with tissue taken from elsewhere
rhinorrhea
discharge from nasal mucous membrane
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of vetebral column
sequela/e
condition following as a consequence of disease
somnolence
inclination to sleep
stereognosis
appreciation in the form of an object by touch
stomatitis
inflammation of mucous membrane of the mouth, characterized by small ulcers covered by grayish exudate and red halo
stupor
state of impaired consciousness in which a person shows a marked diminution in reactivity to environmental stimuli
syncope
loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished cerebral flow
tachycardia
rapid heartbeat
+100 BPM
tachypnea
rapid breathing
talengiectasis
lesion formed by dilated capillary or temrinal artery (usually on skin)
tenesmus
painful spasm of anal sphincter with an urgent desire to evacuate bowel or bladder, infoluntary straining and passage of little fecal matter or urine
thrill
vibration accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur that can be palpated
thrombocytosis
increase in platelet count
thrombophlebitis
venous inflammation with thrombus formation
thromboangitis
inflammation of entire wall and connective tissue srrounding medium sized arteries and veins, most commonly in legs of middle aged and young men
thromboemolism
embolism from a thrombus
trophi
salivary calculus or tartar
troticollis
contraction of muscles of the neck supplied by the spinal accessory nerve, head drawn to one side and usually rotated
uremia
excess urea or other nitrogenous waste
urethritis
inflammation of urethra
uticaria
eruption of itching wheals, usually of systemic organ
uveitis
inflammation of uveal tracts
vertigo
sensation of spinning or whirling motion
vitiligo
appearance on otherwise normal skin of no pigmented white patches of varied sizes
wheal
circumscribed, evanescent papule or irregular plaque of edema of the skin, spearing as an utricarial lesion, slightly reddened, often changing in size and shape and extending into adjacent areas
xerophthalmia
excessive dryness of conjunctiva and cornea which lose their luster and become keratinized
xerostomia
dryness of the mouth, having varied etiology, resulting from diminished or arrested salivary secretion