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403 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aden/o
gland
carcin/o
cancer
cardi/o
heart
chem/o
chemical
cis/o
to cut
dermat/o
skin
enter/o
small intestines
gastr/o
stomach
gynec/o
female
hemat/o
blood
hydr/o
water
immun/o
immune
laryng/o
voice box
morph/o
shape
nephr/o
kidney
neur/o
nerve
opthalm/o
eye
ot/o
ear
path/o
disease
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
ur/o
urine,urinary tract
a-
without, away from
an-
without
ante-
before, in front of
anti-
against
auto-
self
brady-
slow
dys-
painful, difficult
endo-
within, inner
epi-
upon, over
eu-
normal, good
hetero-
different
homo-
same
hydro-
water
hyper-
over, above
hypo-
under, below
infra-
under, beneath
inter-
among, between
intra-
within, inside
macro-
large
micro-
small
neo-
new
pan-
all
para-
beside, beyond, near
per-
through
peri-
around
post-
after
pre-
before, in front of
pseudo-
false
retro-
backward, behind
sub-
below, under
super-
above, excess
supra-
above
tachy-
rapid, fast
trans-
through, across
ultra-
beyond, excess
bi-
two
di-
two
hemi-
half
mono-
one
multi-
many
nulli-
none
poly-
many
quad-
four
semi-
partial, half
tri-
three
uni-
one
-algia
pain
-cele
hernia, protrusion
-cise
cut
-dynia
pain
-ectasis
dilatation
-ectopia
displacement
-gen
that which produces
-genesis
produces, generates
-genic
producing
-ia
state, condition
-iasis
abnormal condition
-ism
state of
-itis
inflammation
-logist
one who studies
-logy
study of
-lysis
destruction
-malacia
abnormal softening
-megaly
enlargement, large
-oma
tumor, mass
-osis
abnormal condition
-pathy
disease
-plasia
development, growth
-plasm
formation, development
-ptosis
drooping
-rrhage
excessive
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-rrhexis
rupture
-sclerosis
hardening
-stenosis
narrowing
-therapy
treatment
-trophy
nourishment, development
-uria
condition of the urine
-centesis
puncture to withdraw fluid
-ectomy
surgical removal
-ostomy
surgically create an opening
-otomy
cutting into
-pexy
surgical fixation
Surgical Suffix

-plasty
surgical repair
Surgical Suffix

-rrhaphy
suture
-gram
record or picture
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-meter
instrument for measuring
-metry
process of measuring
-scope
instrument for viewing
-scopy
process of visually examining
-a

Singular: vertebra
vertebrae
-ax

Singular: thorax
thoraces
-ex or -ix

Singular: appendix
appendices
-ma

Singular: sarcoma
sarcomata
-nx

Singular: phalanx
phalanges
-is

Singular: metastasis
metastases
-on

Singular: ganglion
ganglia
-us

Singular: nucleus
nuclei
-um

Singular: ovum
ova
-y

Singular: biopsy
biopsies
Written or dictated by the admitting physician; details the patient's history, results of the physician's examination, initial diagnoses, and physician's plan of treatment.
History and Physical
A complete list of the care, medications, tests, and treatments the physican orders for the patient.
Physician's Orders
Record of the patient's care throughout the day; includes vital signs, treatment specifics, patient's response to treatment, and patient's condition.
Nurses's Notes
The physician's daily record of the patient's condition, results of the physician's examinations, summary of the test results, update assessment and diagnoses, and further plans for the patient's care.
Physician's Progress Notes
The report given by a specialist whom the physician has asked to evaluate the patient.
Consultation Reports
Reports from various treatments and therapies the patient has received, such as rehabilitation, social services, or respiratory therapy.
Ancillary Reports
Results of all diagnostic tests performed on the patient, principally from the lab and medical imaging (for example, X-rays and ultrasound)
Diagnostic Reports
A document voluntarily signed by the patient or a responsible party that clearly describes the purpose, methods, procedures, benefits, and risks of a diagnostic or treatment procedure.
Informed Consent
Report from the surgeon detailling an operation; includes a pre- and postoperative diagnosis, specific details of the surgical procedure itself, and how the patient tolerated the procedure.
Operative Report
Relates the details regarding the drugs given to a patient, the patient's response to anesthesia, and vital signs during surgery.
Anesthesiologist's Report
The report given by a pathologist who studies tissue removed from the patient (for example, bone marrow, blood, or tissue biopsy).
Pathologist's Report
A comprehensive outline of the patient's entire hospital stay; includes condition at time of admission, admitting diagnosis, test results, treatments and patient's response, final diagnosis, and follow up plans
Discharge Summary
These hospitals typically provide services to diagnose (laboratory, diagnostic imaging) and treat (surgery, medications, therapy) diseases for a short period of time. In addition, they usually provide emergency and obstetrical care.
Acute Care or General Hospitals
These hospitals provide care for very specific types of diseases. A good example is a psychiatric hospital.
Specialty Care Hospitals
These facilities provide long term care for patients who need extra time to recover from an illness or injury before they return home, or for persons who can no longer care for themselves.
Nursing Homes or Long-Term Care Facilities
These facilities provide services that do not require overnight hospitalization. The services range from simple surgeries to diagnostic testing or therapy.
Ambulatory Care, Surgical Centers, or Outpatient Clinics
Individual or groups of physicians providing diagnostic and treatment services in a private office setting
Physicians' Offices
A group of primary care physicians, specialists, and other health care professionals who provide a wide range of services in a prepaid system.
Health Maintenance Organization
Agencies that provide nursing, therapy, personal care, or housekeeping services in the patient's own home.
Home Health Care
Theses facilities provide intensive physical and occupational therapy. They include impatient and outpatient treatment.
Rehabilitation Centers
An organized group of health care workers who provide supportive treatment to dying patients and their families.
Hospices
abdomin/o
abdomen
adip/o
fat
anter/o
front
caud/o
tail
cephal/o
head
chondr/o
cartilage
crani/o
skull
cyt/o
cell
dist/o
away from
dors/o
back of body
epitheli/o
epithelium
hist/o
tissue
infer/o
below
later/o
side
medi/o
middle
muscul/o
muscle
neur/o
nerve
organ/o
organ
oste/o
bone
pelv/o
pelvis
poster/o
back
proxim/o
near to
somat/o
body
spin/o
spine
super/o
above
system/o
system
thorac/o
chest
ventr/o
belly
viscer/o
internal organ
epi-
above
inter-
between
intra-
within
peri-
around or about
post-
behind or after
retro-
behind or backward
sub-
under or below
supra-
above
trans-
through or across
The study of cells and their functions
cytology
Basic unit of all living things; fundamental unit of life.
Cell
A whole, living individual. The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and systems working together to sustain life.
organism
Groups of different types of tissue comming together to perform special functions. For example, the heart contains muscular fibers, nerve tissue, and blood vessels.
organs
Composed of several organs working in a compatible manner to perform a complex function or functions.
systems
Formed when cells of the same type are grouped to perform one activity.
tissues
Study of tissue
Histology
A type of connective tissue. Also called fat. It stores energy and provides protective padding for underlying structures.
Adipose Tissue
A type of connective tissue and an organ of the musculoskeletal system. They provide support for the body and serve as sites of muscle attachments.
Bone
One of the largest organs in the body and coordinates most body activities. It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion.
Brain
The involuntary muscle found in the heart.
Cardiac Muscle
The supporting and protecting tissue in body structures. Examples are fat or adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone.
Connective Tissue
Strong, flexible connective tissue found in several locations in the body, such as covering the ends of bones in a synovial joint, nasal septum, external ear, eustachian tube, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and the intervertebral discs.
Cartilage
Tissue found throughout the body as the skin, the outer covering of organs, and the inner lining for tubular or hollow structures.
Epithelial Tissue
These membranes line body passages that open directly to the exterior of the body, such as the mouth and reproductive tract, and secrete a thick substance, or mucus.
Mucous Membrane
Tissue that is able to contract and shorten its length, thereby producing movement. May be under voluntary control (attached to the bones) or involuntary control (heart and digestive organs).
Muscle Tissue
Structures in the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and other organs.
Nerves
Conducts electrical impulses to and from the brain and the rest of the body.
Nervous Tissue
The name for an individual nerve cell. They group together to form nerves and other nervous tissue.
Neuron
A voluntary muscle that is attached to bones by a tendon.
Skeletal Muscle
The major organ of the integumentary system. It forms a barrier between the external and internal environments.
Skin
An involuntary muscle found in internal organs such as the digestive organs or blood vessels.
Smooth Muscle
System that transports blood to all areas of the body. Organs include the heart and blood vessels.
Cardiovascular System
System that digests food and absorbs nutrients. Organs include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and anus.
Digestive System
The body system that consists of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. Include the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, testes, ovaries, thymus gland, and thyroid gland.
Endocrine System
System responsible for producing eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby. Organs include ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands.
Female Reproductive System
The system that consists of plasma and blood cells- erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; responsible for transporting oxygen, protecting against pathogens, and controlling bleeding.
Hematic System
The skin and its appendages including sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails. Sense organs that allow us to respond to changes in temperature, pain, touch, and pressure are located in the skin. It is the largest organ in the body.
Integumentary System
System that helps the body fight infection. Organs include the spleen, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes.
Lymphatic System
System responsible for producing sperm for reproduction; organs include testes, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, and penis.
Male Reproductive System
System that provides support for the body and produces movement. Organs include muscles, tendons, bones, joints, and cartilage.
Musculoskeletal System
System that coordinates all the conscious and subconscious activities of the body. Organs include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nervous System
System that brings oxygen into the lungs and expels carbon dioxide. Organs include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.
Respiratory System
Perceive environmental conditions. The eyes, ears, nose, and tongue contain these organs.
Special Sense Organs
System that filters wastes from the blood and excretes the waste products in the form of urine. Organs include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Urinary System
This vertical plane runs lengthwise from front to back and divides the body or any of its parts into left and right portions. The portions do not have to be equal.
Sagittal Plane or Median Plane
This plane divides the body into front and back portions. In other words, this is a vertical lengthwise plane running from side to side.
Frontal Plane or Coronal Plane
This is a crosswise plane that runs parallel to the ground. This imaginary cut would divide the body or its parts into upper and lower portions.
Transverse Plane or Horizontal Plane
More toward the head, or above another structure.
Superior or Cephalic
More toward the feet or tail, or below another structure.
Inferior or Caudal
More toward the front or belly side of the body.
Anterior or Ventral
More toward the back or spinal cord side of the body.
Posterior or Dorsal
Refers to the middle or near the middle of the body or the structure.
Medial
Refers to the side.
Lateral
Tip or summit of an organ.
Apex
Bottom or lower part of an organ.
Base
Located nearer to the point of attachment to the body.
Proximal
Located farther away from the point of attachment to the body.
Distal
More toward the surface of the body.
Superficial
Further away from the surface of the body.
Deep
The body lying horizontally and facing upward.
Supine
The body lying horizontally and facing downward.
Prone
The superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity.
Abdominal Cavity
A ventral cavity consisting of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. It contians digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs.
Abdominopelvic Cavity
A dorsal body cavity. It is within the skull and contains the brain.
Cranial Cavity
The major muscle of inspiration. It separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity.
Diaphragm
The central region of the chest cavity. It contains the organs between the lungs, including the heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea.
Mediastinum
The outer pleural layer around the lungs. It lines the inside of the chest cavity.
Parietal Layer
The outer layer of the serous membrane sac lining the abdominopelvic cavity.
Parietal Peritoneum
The outer layer of the serous membrane sac lining the thoracic cavity.
Parietal Pleura
The inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity.
Pelvic Cavity
Cavity formed by the serous membrane sac surrounding the heart.
Pericardial Cavity
Membranous sac that lines the abdominal cavity and encases the abdominopelvic organs.
Peritoneum
A protective double layer of serous membrane around the lungs. The parietal membrane is the outer layer and the visceral layer is the inner membrane. It secretes a thin, watery fluid to reduce friction associated with lung movement.
Pleura
Cavity formed by the serous membrane sac surrounding the lungs.
Pleural Cavity
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.
Retroperitoneal
These membranes are found lining body cavities and secrete a thin, watery fluid that acts as a lubricant as organs rub against one another.
Serous Membrane
A dorsal body cavity within the spinal column that contains the spinal cord.
Spinal Cavity
A ventral body cavity in the chest area that contains the lungs and heart.
Thoracic Cavity
The name for the interanl organs of the body, such as the lungs, stomach, and liver.
Viscera
The inner pleural layer. It adheres to the surface of the lung.
Visceral Layer
The inner layer of the serous membrane sac encasing the abdominopelvic viscera.
Visceral Peritoneum
The inner layer of the serous membrane sac encasing the thoracic viscera.
Visceral Pleura
The 2 dorsal cavities.
Cranial Cavity and the Spinal Cavity
The 2 main ventral cavities.
Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic Cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity can be broken down into two more groups (the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity).
Right lateral region of upper row beneath the lower ribs.
Right hypochondriac
Middle area of upper row above the stomach.
Epigastric
Left lateral region of the upper row beneath the lower ribs.
Left hypochondriac
Right lateral region of the middle row at the waist.
Right lumbar
Central area over the navel.
Umbilical
Left lateral region of the middle row at the waist.
Left lumbar
Right lateral region of the lower row at the groin.
Right iliac
Middle region of the lower row beneath the navel.
Hypogastric
Left lateral region of the lower row at the groin.
Left iliac
Clinical Divisions of the Abdomen

Contains majority of liver, gallbladder, small portion of pancreas, right kidney, small intestines, and colon.
Right upper quadrant
Contains small intestines and colon, right ovary and fallopian tube, appendix, and right ureter.
Right lower quadrant
Contains small portion of liver, spleen, stomach, majority of pancreas, left kidney, small intestines, and colon.
Left upper quadrant
Contains small intestines and colon, left ovary and fallopian tube, and left ureter.
Left lower quadrant
cervic/o
neck
Abbreviations

AP
anteroposterior
CV
Cardiovascular
GI
Gastrointestinal
GU
Genitourinary
lat
Lateral
LLQ
Left lower quadrant
LUQ
Left upper quadrant
MS
Musculoskeletal
PA
Posteroanterior
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
RUQ
Right upper quadrant
UGI
Upper Gastrointestinal
Organs of the Integumentary System
Skin - dermis, epidermis, and subcutaneous layer.

Accessory organs - hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
adip/o
fat
albin/o
white
bi/o
life
cry/o
cold
cutane/o
skin
cyan/o
blue
derm/o
skin
dermat/o
skin
diaphor/o
profuse sweating
hidr/o
sweat
ichthy/o
scaly, dry
kerat/o
hard, horny
leuk/o
white
lip/o
fat
melan/o
black
myc/o
fungus
necr/o
death
onych/o
nail
pachy/o
thick
pil/o
hair
py/o
pus
rhytid/o
wrinkle
scler/o
hard
seb/o
oil
trich/o
hair
ungu/o
nail
xanth/o
yellow
xer/o
dry
-derma
skin
-opsy
view of
-plakia
a plate
-tome
instrument used to cut
Hair
A structure in the integumentary system
Another term for skin
Integument
Skin and its appendages including sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails. Sense organs that allow us to respond to changes in temperature, pain, touch, and pressure are located in the skin.
Integumentary System
Nails
A structure in the integumentary system
Disease bearing organisms
pathogens
Also called oil glands. They produce a substance called sebum that lubricates the skin.
Sebaceous glands
Thick, oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands that lubricates the skin to prevent drying out.
Sebum
Nerve fibers that are located directly under the surface of the skin. These receptors detect temperature, pain, touch, and pressure.
Sensory Receptors
Glands that produce sweat, which assists the body in maintaining its internal temperature by creating a cooling effect when it evaporates.
Sweat glands
A membrane that contains only a single layer of connective tissue. It does not have an epithelial layer.
Connective Tissue Membrane
Another term for the skin.
Cutaneous Membrane
Membranes that contain two layers of tissue: a superficial layer or epithelial tissue and an underlying connective tissue layer.
Epithelial Membrane
Sticky fluid secreted by mucous membrane lining of the respiratory tract. Assissts in cleansing air by trapping dust and bacteria.
Mucus
The membrane that lines a synovial joint. It secretes a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid.
Synovial Membrane
The deepest layer of the epidermis. This living layer constantly multiplies and divides to supply cells to replace the cells that are sloughed off the skin surface.
Basal Layer
An insoluble fibrous protein present in connective tissue that forms a flexible mat to protect the skin and other parts of the body.
Collagen Fibers
The living layer of skin located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue. Also referred to as the dermis, it contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerve fibers, and muscle fibers.
Corium
The living layer of skin located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue. It is also referred to as the corium or the true skin.
Dermis
The superficial layer of skin. Composed of squamous epithelium cells.
Epidermis
A hard protein substance produced by the body. It is found in hair and nails, and filling the inside of epidermal cells.
Keratin
Medical term for cells that contain fat molecules
lipocytes
The black color pigment in the skin. It helps prevent the sun's ultraviolet rays from entering the body.
Melanin
Special cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. They contain the black pigment melanin.
Melanocytes
Describes the layers of flat or scale-like cells found in the epidermis.
Stratified Squamous Epithelial
This is the deepest layer of the skin where fat is formed. This layer of fatty tissue protects the deeper tissues of the body and acts as an insulation for heat and cold.
Subcutaneous Layer
Cavities in the dermis that contain the hair root.
Hair follicle
Deeper cells that divide to grow a hair longer.
Hair root
Older keratinized cells that form most of the length of the hair.
Hair shaft
The thin skin-like layer overlapping the base of a nail.
Cuticle
Slightly bluish color of the skin due to a deficiency of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Cyanosis
The exposed edge of a nail that is trimmed when nails become too long.
Free Edge
The lighter colored, half-moon region at the base of a nail.
Lunula
Connects nail body to connective tissue underneath.
Nailbed
Flat plate of keratin that forms most of the nails.
Nail body
Base of a nail
Nail root
Type of sweat gland that opens into hair follicles located in the pubic, anal, and mammary areas. These glands secrete a substance that can produce an oder when it comes into contact with bacteria on the skin causing what is referred to as body odor.
Apocrine Gland
Another term for sweating
Perspiration
Duct leading from a sweat gland to the surface of the skin; carries sweat
Sweat duct
The surface opening of a sweat duct.
Sweat pore
A scraping away of the skin surface by friction.
Abrasion
A collection of pus in the skin.
Abscess
A genetic condition in which the person is unable to make melanin. Characterized by white hair and skin.
Albino
Absence or loss of hair, especially on the head. Commonly called baldness.
Alopecia
A scar
Cicatrix
Collection of hardened sebum in hair follicle. Also called a blackhead
Comedo
Injury caused by a blow to the body; causes swelling, pain, and bruising. The skin is not broken.
Contusion
Fluid filled sac under the skin.
Cyst
Open sore caused by pressure over bony prominences cutting off blood flow to the overlying skin. Also called bedsores or pressure sores.
Decubitus Ulcer
Loss of normal skin color or pigment.
Depigmentation
Physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and conditions of the integumentary system
dermatologist
Study of diseases and conditions of the integumentary system.
Dermatology
Profuse sweating
diaphoresis
Skin discoloration caused by blood collecting under the skin following blunt trauma to the skin. A bruise.
Ecchymosis
Redness or flushing of the skin
Erythema
Crack like lesion or groove on the skin.
fissure
Freezing or the effect of freezing on a part of the body.
frostbite
Benign tumor of dilated blood vessels
hemangioma
Excessive hair growth over the body.
Hirsutism
Redness of the skin due to increased blood flow
Hyperemia
Abnormal amount of pigmentation in the skin
Hyperpigmentation
Formation of a raised and thickened hypertrophic scar after an injury or surgery
Keloid
Skin condition with an overgrowth and thickening of the epidermis
keratosis
Flat, discolored area that is flush with the skin surface. An example is a freckle or birthmark.
Macule
Pattern of baldness most commonly seen in men.
Male Pattern Baldness
Pigmented congenital skin blemish, birthmark, or mole. Usually benign.
nevus
Firm, solid mass of cells in the skin.
Nodule
Small, solid, circular raised spot on the surface of the skin. Less than 1cm in diameter.
Papule
Infestation with lice.
pediculosis
Pinpoint purple or red spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin.
petechiae
Condition in which the skin reacts abnormally when exposed to light, such as UV rays.
photosensitivity
Small tumor with a pedicle or stem attachment. They are commonly found in mucous membranes such as the nasal cavity.
Polyp
Severe itching.
pruritus
Hemorrhages into the skin due to fragile blood vessels
purpura
Containing or producing pus
purulent
Raised spot on the skin contain pus.
Pustule
Contagious skin disease caused by an egg laying mite that burrows through the skin and causes redness and intense itching.
Scabies
Containing or producing pus
Suppurative
Open sore or lesion in skin or mucous membrane
Ulcer
Also called hives. A skin eruption of pale reddish wheals with severe itching.
urticaria
Commonly called warts; a benign growth caused by a virus. Has a rough surface that is removed by chemicals and/or laser therapy.
Verruca
A blister; small, fluid-filled raised spot on the skin.
Vesicles
Disappearance of pigment from the skin in patches, causing a milk-white appearance. Also called leukoderma.
Vitiligo
Small, round, raised area on the skin that may be accompanied by itching.
Wheal
Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles that results in papules and pustules.
Acne
Form of acne seen in adults, especially on the nose and cheeks.
Acne Rosacea
Common form of acne seen in teenagers. Characterized by comedo, papules, and pustules.
Acne Vulgaris