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661 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adenoids
collections of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx (also called pharyngeal tonsils)
alveolus
air sac in the lung
plural-alveoli
apex of the lung
uppermost portion of the lung
apical
apical means pertaining to the apex
base of the lung
lower portion of the lung
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchus
branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the air spaces of the lung; bronchial tube
cilia
thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract; they clear bacteria & foreign subs. from the lung; smoking cigarettes impairs the func. of cilia
diaphragm
muscle separating the chest & abdomen; it's the most impt. muscle for breathing
epiglottis
lid-like pc. of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx & trachea during swallowing
expiration
breathing out (exhalation)
hilum
midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, & nerves enter and exit the lungs
hilar
pertaining to the hilum
inspiration
breathing in (inhalation)
larynx
voice box
lobe
division of a lung
mediastinum
region b/n the lungs in the chest cavity; it contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes
palatine tonsil
one of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx
paranasal sinus
one of the air cavities in the bones near the nose
parietal pleura
the outer fold of pleura lying closest to the ribs & wall of the thoraic cavity
pharynx
throat; composed of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
pleura
double-folded membrane surrounding ea. lung
pleural cavity
space b/n the folds of the pleura
trachea
windpipe
visceral pleura
the inner fold of pleura lying closest to the lung tissue
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus; air sac
bronch/o, bronchi/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o
carbon dioxide
coni/o
dust
cyan/o
blue
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx, voice box
lob/o
lobe of the lung
mediastin/o
mediastinum
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight, upright
ox/o
oxygen
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx, throat
phon/o
voice
phren/o
diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o, pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
sinus/o
sinus, cavity
spir/o
breathing
tel/o
complete
thorac/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
-ema
condition
-osmia
smell
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-sphyxia
pulse
-thorax
pleural cavity, chest
auscultation
listening to sounds w/n the body
percussion
tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure
rales (crackles)
abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspiration when there is fluid, blood, or pus in the aveoli
sputum
material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat
stridor
strained, high-pitched, noisy sound made on inspiration; assoc. w/ obstruction of the larynx or trachea
wheezes
continuous high-pitched whistling sounds heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration & expiration
croup
acute viral infection in infants & children; char. by obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor
diphtheria
acute infection of the throat & upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium
epistaxis
nose bleed
pertussis (whooping cough)
bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, & trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis, a highly contagious bacterium
paroxysmal
sudden
asthma
chronic inflammatory disorder char. by airway obstruction caused by edema, bronchoconstriction, & increased mucus production
bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung
purulent
pus-containing
palliative
noncurative
bronchogenic carcinoma
(lung cancer)
cancerous tumors arising from a bronchus
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time
cystic fibrosis
inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that don't drain normally
atelectasis
incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung or portion of a lung; caused by tumor or other obstruction of the bronchus, or poor respiratory effort
emphysema
hyperinflation of air sacs w/ destruction of alveolar walls
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, w/ chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
pneumonia
acute inflammation & infection of alveoli, which fill w/ pus or products of the inflammatory rct.
pulmonary abscess
a lg. collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
pulmonary edema
swelling & fluid in the air sacs & bronchioles
pulmonary embolism (PE)
clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
pulmonary fibrosis
formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
tuberculosis (TB)
infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs are usually involved, but any organ in the body may be affected
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)
pleurisy (pleuritis)
inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax
collection of air in the pleural space
exudate
fluid, cells, or other substances (pus) that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or small breaks in cell membranes
hydrothorax
collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease
paroxysmal
pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o- sudden
pulmonary infarction
an area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the lung
pulmonary angiography
x-ray images taken after injecting radiopaque contrast into the pulmonary artery or right side of the heart
bronchoscopy
fiber-optic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens
endotracheal intubation
placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, & trachea to establish an airway
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the voice box
lung biopsy
removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
mediastinoscopy
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
thoracentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
thoracotomy
major surgical incision of the chest
thorascopy
visual examination of the chest via small incisions & use of an endoscope
tracheostomy
creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tube thoracostomy
chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion
ARDS
adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome
(group of sym, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, cyanosis-resulting in acute respiratory failure)
Bronch
bronchoscopy
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (airway obstruction associated w/ emphysema & chronic bronchitis0
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CXR
chest x-ray
DOE
dyspnea on exertion
DPT
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (injection in an infant to provide immunity to these diseases)
ICU
intensive care unit
LLL
left lower lobe (of lung)
LUL
left upper lobe (of lung)
A&P
auscultation & percussion
PE
pulmonary embolism
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome
RLL
right lower lobe (of lung)
RSV
respiratory syncytial virus; in tissue culture forms syncytia or giant cells (cytoplasm flows together); it's a common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, & the common cold
RUL
right upper lobe (of lung)
SOB
shortness of breath
TB
tuberculosis
URI
upper respiratory infection
respiration
mechanical process of breathing
external respiration
the exchange of air b/n the lungs and external environment
internal respiration
involves an exchange of gases at the cells w/n all organs of the body
erythrocytes
in the blood carry oxygen to all parts of the body & carbon dioxide to the lungs for exhalation
Upper Resp. Disorders
croup
diphtheria
epistaxis
pertussis
Bronchial Tube Disorders
asthma
bronchiectasis
bronchogenic carcinoma
chronic bronchitis
cystic fibrosis
Lung Disorders
atelectasis,emphysema, pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary fibrosis, tuberculosis (TB)
Pleural Disorders
pleural effusion
pleurisy (pleuritis)
pneumothorax
nosocomial
hospital acquired
bones
provide the framework for our bodies
joints
the places at which bones come together
orthopedists
physician that treats bones and bone and joint diseases
rheumatologists
physicians who primarily treat joint diseases
osteopathic physicians (DO)
practice osteopathy, which is a seperate school of medicine using diagnostic & therapeutic measures based on belief that the body is capable of healing itself when bones are in proper position & adequate nutrition is provided
chiropractors
neither physicians nor osteopaths; they manipulate the spinal column, believing that disease is caused by pressure on nerves
bone processes
enlarged areas that extend out from bones to serve as attachments for muscles
bone head
rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck; usu. covered by articular cartilage
trochanter
lg. process on the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle
tubercle
rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles
tuberosity
small rounded elevation on a bone; attachment site for bone and muscle
condyle
rounded knuckle-like process at the joint; usu. covered by articular cartilage
Bone Depressions
fossa
fissure
foramen
sinus
frontal bone
forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
parietal bone
two of these bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
temporal bone
two of these bones form the lower sides and base of the cranium; ea. bone encloses an ear & contains a fossa for joining w/ the mandible (lower jaw bone)
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
the area of connection b/n the temporal & mandibular bones
occipital bone
forms the back and base of the skull & joins the parietal & temporal bones, forming a suture
sphenoid bone
bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes & forms part of the base of the skull
ethmoid bone
thin delicate bone that is composed primarily of spongy, cancellous bone (supports nasal cavity & forms part of the orbits of the eye)
Facial Bones
nasal bones
lacrimal bones
maxillary bones
mandibular bone
zygomatic bones
vomer
nasal bones
2 slender nasal bones support the bridge of the nose; they join w/ the frontal bone superiorly & form part of the nasal septum
lacrimal bones
2 paired bones are located at the corner of ea. eye
maxillary bones
2 lg. bones compose the massive upper jawbones
mandibular bone
the lower jawbone
zygomatic bones
2 bones, 1 on ea. side of the face, form the high portion of the cheek
vomer
thin, single, flat bone forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
Cranial bones
frontal bones, parietal bone, temporal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
vertebral, spinal column
composed of 26 bone segments, called vertebrae, arranged in 5 divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone
intervertebral disks (discs)
bones (vertebrae) separated by pads of cartilage
temporal bone
two of these bones form the lower sides and base of the cranium; ea. bone encloses an ear & contains a fossa for joining w/ the mandible (lower jaw bone)
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
the area of connection b/n the temporal & mandibular bones
occipital bone
forms the back and base of the skull & joins the parietal & temporal bones, forming a suture
sphenoid bone
bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes & forms part of the base of the skull
ethmoid bone
thin delicate bone that is composed primarily of spongy, cancellous bone (supports nasal cavity & forms part of the orbits of the eye)
Facial Bones
nasal bones
lacrimal bones
maxillary bones
mandibular bone
zygomatic bones
vomer
nasal bones
2 slender nasal bones support the bridge of the nose; they join w/ the frontal bone superiorly & form part of the nasal septum
lacrimal bones
2 paired bones are located at the corner of ea. eye
maxillary bones
2 lg. bones compose the massive upper jawbones
mandibular bone
the lower jawbone
zygomatic bones
2 bones, 1 on ea. side of the face, form the high portion of the cheek
vomer
thin, single, flat bone forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
Cranial bones
frontal bones, parietal bone, temporal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
vertebral, spinal column
composed of 26 bone segments, called vertebrae, arranged in 5 divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone
intervertebral disks (discs)
bones (vertebrae) separated by pads of cartilage
cervical vertebrae
the first 7 bones of the vertebral column
thoraic vertebrae
the second set of 12 vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
the third set of 5 vertebrae
sacrum
slightly curved, triangularly shaped bone
coccyx
tailbone
Bones of the Thorax
clavicle
scapula
sternum
ribs
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder bladee
sternum
breastbone
ribs
there are 12 pairs of ribs
true ribs
ribs 1-7
false ribs
ribs 8-10
floating ribs
ribs 11 & 12
Bones of the Arm & Hand
humerus
ulna
radius
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna
medial lower arm bone
olecranon (elbow bone)
the bony pt. of the elbow when the elbow is bent
radius
lateral lower arm bone
carpals
wrist bones
metacarpals
5 radiating bones in the fingers; these are the bones of the palm of hand
phalanges
finger bones singular- phalanx
ea. finger (except thumb has 3 phalanges: a proximal, middle, & distal phalanx; the thumb: a proximal & distal)
Bones of the Pelvis
pelvic girdle
pelvic girdle
pelvis
The adult pelvis is composed of 3 pairs of fused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis
ilium- the uppermost & largest portion
ischium- posterior part of pelvis
pubis- anterior part & 2 pubic bones join by way of a cartilaginous disk
Bone of the Leg & Foot
femur
patella
tibia
fibula
tarsals
metatarsals
phalanges of the toes
femur
thigh bone
acetabulum
rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis, which joins the femur, forming the hip joint
patella
kneecap
tibia
largest of 2 bones of the lower leg
fibula
smaller of 2 lower leg bones
acromion
outward extension of the shoulder bone forming the pt. of the shoulder; it overlies the shoulder joint & articulates w/ the clavicle
cranial bones
skull bones
diaphysis
shaft, or midportion, of a long bone
disk (disc)
flat, round, plate-like structure
epiphysis
ea. end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
facial bones
bones of the face
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
foramen
opening or passage in bones where blood vessels, nerves, or both enter and leave
fossa
shallow cavity in a bone
foramen magnum
opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
malleolus
round process on both sides of the ankle joint (lateral malleolus-fibula, medial malleolus-tibia)
manubrium
upper portion of the sternum; articulates w/ the medial aspect of the clavicle
olecranon
lg process on the proximal end of the ulna; the pt. of the flexed elbow
sinus
hollow cavity w/n a bone
xiphoid process
lower, narrow portion of the sternum
calc/o, calci/o
calcium
kyph/o
humpback (posterior curvature in the thoraic region)
lamin/o
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o
curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
lumb/o
loins, lower back
myel/o
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
scoli/o
crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
spondyl/o
vertebrae (used to make words about the conditions of the structure)
vertebr/o
vertebrae (used to describe the structure)
-blast
embryonic or immature cell
-clast
to break
-listhesis
slipping
kyphosis
hump on the back
lordosis
the normal anterior curvature of the spinal column in the lumbar region (sway back)
scoliosis
the spinal column is bent abnormally to the side
-malacia
softening
-physis
to grow
-porosis
pore, passage
-tome
instrument to cut
acetabul/o
acetabulum (hip socket)
calcane/o
calcaneus (heel bone)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
clavicul/o
clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o
ribs
crani/o
cranium (skull bones)
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o
fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o
ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)
isch/o
ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone0
malleol/o
malleolus (process on ea. side of the ankle)
mandibul/o
mandible (lower jaw bone)
maxill/o
maxilla (upper jaw bone)
metacarp/o
metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o
metatarsals (foot bones)
olecran/o
olecranon (elbow)
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
pelv/i
pelvis (hipbone)
perone/o
fibula
phalang/o
phalanges (finger/toe bones)
pub/o
pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
radi/o
radius (lower arm bone- thumb side)
scapul/o
scapula (shoulder bone)
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
tars/o
tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
tibi/o
tibia (shin bone)
uln/o
ulna (lower arm bone-little finger side)
Ewing sarcoma
malignant bone tumor
exostosis
bony growth arising from the surface of bne
fracture
traumatic breaking of a bone
closed fracture
a bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin
open fracture
a bone broken and a fragment of bone protrudes through a open wound in the skin
pathological fracture
is caused by disease of the bone such as tumor or infection making it weak
crepitus
the crackling sound produced when ends of bones rub ea. other or rub against roughened cartilage
Colles fracture
occurs near the wrist joint at the lower end of the radius
comminuted fracture
bone is splintered or crushed
compression fracture
bone is compressed; often occurs in vertebrae
greenstick fracture
bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface & only bends on the other
impacted fracture
fracture in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other
reduction
treatment of fractures
closed reduction
manipulative reduction w/out a surgical incision
open reduction
an incision is made into the fracture site
osteogenic sarcoma
malignant tumor arising from bone (osteosarcoma)
osteomalacia
softening of bone, w/ inadequate amts. of mineral (calcium) in the bone
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
osteoporosis
decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone
talipes
congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus); club foot
joint (articulation)
a coming together of two or more bones
articulation
joint
bursa
sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
plural-bursae
ligament
connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
synovial fluid
viscous (sticky) fluid w/n the synovial cavity; similar to the viscosity to egg white
synovial joint
a freely movable joint
tendon
connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
ankyl/o
stiff
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
bursa
chondr/o
cartilage
ligament/o
ligament
rheumat/o
watery flow
synov/o
synovial membrane
ten/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
-desis
to bind, tie together
-stenosis
narrowing
chondromalacia
softening of the cartilage
rheumatologist
specialist in the study of the various forms of arthritis which are marked by collection of fluid in joint spaces
arthrodesis
bones are fused by the joint space by surgery
arthritis
inflammation of joints
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic progressive arthritis w/ stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
gouty arthritis
inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body
osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative joint disease
progressive, degenerative joint disease char. by loss of articular cartilage & hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces
rheumatiod arthritis (RA)
chronic disease in which joints b/m inflamed & painful; it's believed to be caused by an immune (autoimmune) rct against joint tissues, particularly against the synovial membrane
bunion
abnormal swelling of the medial aspect of the joint b/n the big toe & the first metatarsal bone
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes b/n the ligament & the bones & tendons of the wrist (the carpal tunnel)
dislocation
displacement of a bone from its joint
ganglion
a fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist
herniation of an intervertebral disk, slipped disk
abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disk into the neural canal or spinal nerves
lyme disease, lyme arthritis
a recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, and neurologic and cardiac symptoms
sprain
trauma to a joint w/ pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments; may also involve damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons, & nerves
strain
less serious injury involving the overstretching of muscle
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs
striated muscles
voluntary, skeletal muscles
smooth muscles
involuntary, visceral muscles
cardiac muscle
striated in appearance but is smooth like muscle in it action
flexion
decreasing the angle b/n 2 bones; bending a limb
extension
increasing the angle b/n 2 bones; straightening out a limb
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
rotation
circular movement around an axis; internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline
dorisflexion
decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward)- opposite of stepping on the gas pedal
plantar flexion
the motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal
supination
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm forward, or up
pronation
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm backward, or down
skeletal muscle
muscle connected to bones; striated
smooth muscle
muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or visceral muscle
fasci/o
fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fibr/o
fibrous connective tissue
leiomy/o
smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
-asthenia
lack of strength
-trophy
development, nourishment
fibromyalgia
chronic pain and stiffness in muscles, joints, and fibrous tissue, especially of the back, shoulders, neck, hips, and knees; fatigue is a common complaint
atrophy
decrease in size of an organ or tissue
hypertrophy
increase in size of an organ or tissue
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
dorsi-
back
poly-
many, much
muscular dystrophy
a group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness & degeneration of muscle fibers w/out involvement of the nervous system
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint space
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint
arthoscopy
visual examination of the inside of a joint w/ an endoscope
bone scan
uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone
electromyography (EMG)
process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation
C1-C7
cervical vertebrae
Ca
calcium
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
DTR
deep tendon reflexes
EMG
electromyography
IM
intramuscular
L1-L5
lumbar vertebrae
Ortho.
orthopedics, orthopaedics
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
ROM
range of motion
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
T1-T12
thoraic vertebrae
TMJ
temporomandibular joint
GJD
degenerative joint disease
OA
osteoarthritis
endocrine glands
secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
exocrine glands
secrete their substances into ducts & out of the body
thyroid
increases metabolism in body cells & lowers blood calcium
parathyroid
increases blood calcium
adrenal cortex
increases blood sugar; increases reabsorption of sodium; maintains secondary sex char.;
adrenal medulla
sympathomimetic
prancreas
Islet cells
decrease/increase blood sugar
pituitary anterior lobe
increases bone & tissue growth; stimulates prod. of thyroxine & growth of the thyroid gland; stim. secretion of horm. from the adrenal cortex, esp. cortisol; oogenesis & spermatogenesis; promotes ovulation & spermatogenesis; promotes growth of breast tissue & milk secretion
pituitary posterior lobe
stimulates reabsorption of H2O by kidney tubules; stimulates contraction of uterus during labor & birth
ovaries
developes & maintains 2ndary sex char. in the female; prepares & maintains the uterus in pregnancy
testes
promotes growth and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics in the male
pineal
increases maturity of the glands
thymus
immune response of newborns
adrenal cortex
outer section of each adrenal gland
adrenal medulla
inner section of each adrenal gland
ovaries
two endocrine glands in a female's lower abdomen; resp. for egg production & estrogen & progesterone secretion
pancreas
endocrine gland behind the stomach; islet cells secrete hormones from the pancreas
parathyroid glands
4 sm. endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
endocrine gland at the base of the brain; composed of an anterior and posterior lobe
adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of pituitary gland
testes
2 endocrine glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production & testosterone
thyroid gland
endocrine gland in the neck
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
gonad/o
sex glands (ovaries and testes)
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
andr/o
male
calc/o
calcium
cortic/o
cortex, outer region
crin/o
secrete
dips/o
thirst
estr/o
female
gluc/o
sugar
glyc/o
sugar
home/o
sameness
hormon/o
hormone
insulin/o
insulin
kal/i
potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o
milk
myx/o
mucus
natr/o
sodium (an electrolyte)
phys/o
growing
somat/o
body
ster/o
solid structure
toc/o
childbirth
toxic/o
poison
ur/o
urine
-agon
assemble, gather, together
-in, -ine
a substance
-tropin
stimulating the function of ( to turn or act upon)
-uria
urine condition
eu-
good, normal
oxy-
rapid, sharp, acid
pan-
all
tetra-
four
tri-
three
goiter
enlargment of the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism, Graves disease
overactivy of the thyroid gland
exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeballs
hypothyroidism
underactivity of the thyroid gland
myxedema
hypothyroidism in adulthood
Cretinism
hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood
thyroid carcinoma
cancer of the thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism
excessive production of parathormone
hypoparathyroidism
deficient production of parathyroid hormone
adrenal virilism
excessive output of adrenal androgens
hirsutism
excessive hair on the face and body
Cushing syndrome
a group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex
Addison disease
hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
pheochromocytoma
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla (tumor cells stain a dark or dusky color)
hyperinsulinism
excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
diabetes mellitus
lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
type 1 diabetes
insulin dependent mellitus; juvenile onset
type 2 diabetes
non-insulin dependent
acromegaly
enlargement of the extremities caused by hyper secretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty
gigantism
hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of the body
dwarfism
congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
panhypopituitarism
all pituitary hormones are deficient
syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
diabetes insipidus
insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
DI
diabetes insipidus
DM
diabetes mellitus
FBG
fasting blood glucose
FBS
fasting blood sugar
IDDM
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes
K
potassium
Na
sodium
NIDDUM
non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; type 2 diabetes
SIADH
syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Modern surgery
combined of artistic and scientific endeavor
Pre-operative evaluation
history
physical examination
laboratory tests
70% useful information comes from _____
history
20% useful information comes from _____
physical examination
10% useful information comes from _____
special laboratory tests (any diagnositic test)
General Cond. that affect course of surgery (negatively)
extremes of age; hypovolemia; debilitation and malnutrition; dehydration; diminished cardiac reserve; diminished pulmonary reserve; renal insufficiency; hepatic insufficiency; endocrine dysfunction; infection; coagulation defects
immediate pre-operative management
after evaluation and optimal physical cond. has been confirmed; what happens before actual surgery
immediate per-operative management
preparation of the incision site; pre-operative nutrition; preparation of the bowel; nasogastric & nasoenteric intubation (not routine); cross-matching of blood; urinary drainage; pre-operative meds; pre-operative check list
atropine
pre-operative med; used to reduce bronchial secretions
sedation
pre-operative; used in very anxious patients
pre-operative check list
used in many hosp.; done b/4 surgery; dictation by Dr. transcribed by transcriptionist, sometimes using VRT
VRT
Voice Recognition Technology
Surgery
takes place after the immediate pre-operative management
surgery
positioning the patient; anesthesia; prepping & drapping; incisions; instruments; suture materials; postoperative state
anesthesia
the partial or complete loss of sensation w/ or w/out loss of consciousness as a result of injury, or administration of an agent
anesthesiologist
a physician specializing in anesthesiology
anesthetist
a nurse w/ additional education in anesthesia
2 types of anesthetics
general (affects entire body, loss of consciousness) & regional
prepping and drapping
essential procedure for the clean operative field and prevention of cross-infection; usu done w/ a combination of phisohex & Betadine
hemostats
(instrument) a forcep for checking hemorrhage
forceps
an instrument w/ 2 blades and handles for pulling, grasping, or compressing
retractors
instruments for drawing back the edge of a wound
scissors
(instrument)cutting
suture materials
absorbable or non-absorbable, diff. gauges & colors except red
absorbable sutures
sutures that are absorbed/digested by the body cells & fluids during & after the healing process; don't have to be removed
non-absorbable sutures
must be removed after the wound heals when used on the skin
gauge of suture
thickness
Factors that influence the choice of suture material
biologic char. of the material in tissue; healing char. of tissue; location & length of incision; presence/absence of infection, contamination, and/or drainage; patient problems ie obesity, debility, age, disease, etc. (influence rate of healing & tme desired for wound support)
Postoperative state
(poss. complications of surgery) P.O. wound dehiscence; P.O. evisceration/eventration; P.O. hemorrhage; P.O. fistula; P.O. hematoma; P.O. wound infections
incision
cutting into; opening
-otomy
cutting, incision into
-ostomy
creation of an artificial opening; "a mouth"
-centesis
puncture
excision
cutting out
-ectomy
to cut out or excise
2 types partial/subtotal; complete/total
-exeresis
to strip out
amputation
cutting off
disarticulation
amputation of a leg at a joint
dismemberment
amputation of leg through a bone
introduction
injections, transfusions, implantations, and insertions
endoscopy
to look w/n
-scopy
view
-plasty
surgical repair or plastic surgery
-desis
a binding
-pexy
fixing or suspension
destruction
breaking down
-clasis, -tripsy, -lysis
breaking down; destruction
suturing
sewing or suturing
-(r)rhaphy
a seam
manipulation
handling
-tasis
to stretch
-ectasia
to dilate
analgesia
loss of normal sense of pain
anesthesia
inability to feel
general anesthesia
unconciousness accompanied by varying degrees of muscular relaxation & freedom from physical pain
local anesthesia
abscence of sensation & consequently of pain in a part of the body; consciousness retained
anesthesiology
science & study of anesthesia
anesthetic
agent producing insensibility to pain
Terms related to Methods of General Anesthesia
endotracheal anesthesia; inhalation anesthesia; intravenous anesthesia; rectal anesthesia
Terms related to Methods of Local/ Regional Anesthesia
block anesthesia; caudal/sacral anesthesia; epidural block; infiltration anesthesia; intravenous regional anesthesia; nerve & field block; spinal anesthesia; surface/topical anesthesia
block anesthesia
seeks to interrupt conduction in the autonomic & somatic nervous systems by using local anesthetics
caudal/sacral anesthesia
method of epidural anesthesia in which the anesthetic solution is injected into the sacral canal
epidural block
spinal nerves blocked as they pass through the epidural space
infiltration anesthesia
injection of a dilute anesthetic agent under the skin to anesthetize the nerve endings and nerve fibers
intravenous regional anesthesia
method of producing analgesia in the extremities using lidocaine (or other drug) as regional anesthetic to act at the main nerve trunks
nerve & field block
insensibility of a local are acheived by direct nerve block or field block
direct nerve block
injection of anesthetic solution into accessible nerves, as those of the extremities
field block
anesthetic solution deposited around the nerve at the pt. of its terminal branches
spinal anesthesia
anesthesia produced by the injection of a local anesthetic solution into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to block the roots of the spinal nerves
surface/topical anesthesia
direct application of drug to a mucous membrane to produce insensibility to the nerve endings
drainage
the systematic w/drawl of fluid & discharges from a wound, sore, or cavity
ligation
the application of a ligature
ligature
any substance, such as catgut, cotton, silk, or wire, used to tie a vessel or strangulate a part
suture
material used in closing a surgical/accidental wound w/ stitches; the act or process of uniting a wound by stitches
shunts
to turn to one side; to divert; to bypass; a passage or anastomosis b/n 2 natural channels, esp. b/n blood vessels
anastomosis
a cmcn b/n 2 vessels by collateral channels; an opening created by surgical, traumatic, or pathological means b/n 2 normally distinct spaces or organs
grafts
any tissue or organ for implantation or transplantation
debridement
the removal of foreign material & devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed
dilation
cond. as of an orifice or tubular structure, of being dilated or stretched beyond the normal dimensions
resection
excisions of a portion of an organ or other structure
recession
the act of drawing away of back
implantation
the insertion of an organ or tissue, such as skin, nerve, or tendon, in a new site in the body
transplantation
the grafting of tissues taken from the same body or from another
insertion
the act of implanting, or the condition of being implanted
dissection
the act of cutting apart or separating; applied esp. to the exposure of structures of a cadaver, for anatomical study
fusion
the operative formation of an ankylosis or arthrodesis
avulsion
the tearing away of a part or structure
installation
administration of a liquid drop by drop
evacuation
an emptying, as of the bowels
desiccation
the act of drying up
irrigation
washing by a stream of water or other fluid
lysis
destruction, as of cells by a specific lysin
reduction
the correction of a fracture, luxation, or hernia
drill
a rotating cutting instrument for making holes in hard substances, ie bones & teeth
burr
a form of drill used for creating openings in bone or similar hard substances
repair
the physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissues by the growth of healthy new cells or by surgical apposition
manipulation
skillful or dextrous treatment by the hand
endoscopy
visual inspection of any cavity of the body by means of an endoscope
decompression
the removal of pressure
enucleation
the removal of an organ, or a tumor, or of another body in such a way that it comes out clean and whole
evisceration
extrusion of the viscera, or internal organs; disembowelment
electrocoagulation
coagulation to tissue usu. accomplished by means of a biterminal high frequency electric current
intubation
the insertion of a tube, esp. the introduction of a tube into the larynx through the glottis
approximation
to bring together, or into apposition
wound dehiscence
separation of the layers of a surgical wound; it may be partial and superficial only, or complete w/ total disruption
catheter
a tubular, flexible, surgical instrument for w/drawing fluids from (or introducing fluids into) a cavity of the body, esp. one for introduction into the bladder through the urethra for the w/drawl of urine
snare
a wire loop or noose for removing polyps and tumors by encircling them at the base and closing the loop
hemostat
small surgical clamp for constricting a blood vessel
prostheses
artificial substitute for a missing body part, such as an arm of leg, eye or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both
Anes
anesthesiology
CO2
carbon dioxide
N2O
nitrous oxide
NT
nasotracheal
O2
oxygen
OT
orotracheal
Bx
biopsy
CR
cardiorespiratory
CRNA
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
EXP LAP
exploratory laparotomy
I&D
incision and drainage
IM
intramuscular
I&O
intake and output
IV
intravenous
LLL
left lower lobe
LLQ
left lower quadrant
LUL
left lower lobe
LUQ
left upper quadrant
NG
nasogastric
OR
operating room
PACU
Post Anesthesia Care Unit (newer name for Recovery Room)
path
pathology
postop
postoperative
RLE
right lower extremity
RLL
right lower lobe
RLQ
right lower quadrant
RML
right middle lobe
RR
recovery room
RUL
right upper lobe
RUQ
right upper quadrant
STSG
split thickness skin graft
surg
surgery
pathology
specialized branch of medicine that is concerned w/ deviations from normal in anatomy or physiology
clinical pathology
the study of body secretions & fragments ie blood, urine, feces, and sputum
anatomical pathology
surgical pathology and autopsies (study of tissues)
frozen section
sm section of tissue is placed on an instrument which quick-freezes the tissue & permits easy sectioning for analysis
macroscopically (gross)
description by the naked eye
microscopically
microscope used for detailed analysis
achromia
absence of normal color; specifically, a cond. of the red cells of the blood in which the centers of the cells are paler than normal
anaplasia
reversion of cells to a more primitive form
anoxic
char. by abscence or lack of oxygen
autolysis
the spontaneous disintegration of tissues or of cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes, such as occurs after death & in some pathological cond.
calcification
inclusion of calcium in a tissue or substance, thereby causing it to harden
carneous
fleshy or meatlike
cicatrix
new tissue that is formed as a wound heals; a scar
contiguous
in contact or nearly so
denude
to remove a natural surface
desiccated
thoroughly dried out
encapsulate
surround w/ a capsule
fovea
a gen. term for a small pit in the surface of a structure of an organ
fusiform
spindle shaped
grumous
clotted or lumpy
infiltrate
to invade an area
keratinized
b/m hard or horny
lacuna
sm. pit or hollow cavity
myxoid
resembling mucus
necropsy
examination of a body after death; autopsy
peau d' orange
skin that is thickened and dimpled like an orange skin
phagocyte
any cell that ingests mircrooraganisms or other cells and foreign particles
piriform
pear-shaped
sanguinieous
containing blood
septicemia
presence of bacterial poisons in the blood
serosanguineous
pertaining to or containing both serum & blood
serrated
having sawtoothlike borders
stellate
shaped like a star or rosette
stippling
speckled condition
tenacious
clinging or adhering to
translucent
permitting the passage of light
variegated
marked by patches of differing color
exfoliation
scaling off of dead tissue
autopsy/necropsy
the examination of the body after death
scaphoid
boat-shaped
striations
series of steaks
exudes
passes off slowly through the tissues
metamorphosis
change in form or structure; a degenerative change
canaliculi
small channels or canals
decompensation
failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation