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332 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the 3 membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
brainstem
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; the pons & medullla are part of the brain stem
cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
cerebellum
part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the 1st part to receive the nervous impulse
dura mater
thick outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain & spinal cord
hypothalamus
portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata
part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat & the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
meninges
3 protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
motor nerves
carry msgs away from the brain & spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerves
myelin sheath
fatty tissue that surrounds, protects, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell (white in color)
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy
brain disease and dementia occuring with AIDS
brain tumors
abnormal growths of brain tissue and meninges
cerebral contusion
temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing w/in 24 hrs
cerebral contusion
bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurological deficits persist longer than 24 hrs.
coma
loss of consciousness
cerbrovascular accident (CVA)
disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke (Pg 358)
TIA
transient ischemic attacks
absence seizure
minor (petit mal) form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of contact w/ the environment
aneurysm
weakening of a blood vessel; can lead to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)
embolus
a mass (clot) of material travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
gait
manner of walking
ictal event
pertaining to sudden, acute onset, as the convulsions of an epilepic seizure
occlusion
blockage
palliative
relieving symptoms but not curing
TIA, transient ischemic attack
mini-stroke
tonic-clonic seizure
major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
cerebrospinal fluid analysis
samples of CSF are examined
cerebral angiography
X-ray images of the blood vessel system in the brain after injection of contrast material
computed tomography (CT) of the brain
X-rays compose a computerized cross-sectional image of the brain and spinal cord
myelography
X-ray images of the SPINAL CORD after injection of contrast medium into the sub arachnoid space
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain
magnetic & radio waves create an image of the brain in all three planes
electroencephalography (EEG)
recording of the electrical activity of the brain
lumbar (spinal) puncture (LP)
lumbar tap
spinal tap
CSF is w/drawn from b/n 2 lumbar vertebrae
AD
Alzheimer disease
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
CNS
central nervous system
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT
computed tomography
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
EEG
electroencephalogram
LP
lumbar puncture
MG
myasthenia gravis
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MS
multiple sclerosis
sinus rhythm
normal heart rhythm
sphygmomanometer
device that measures blood pressure
aorta
largest artery in the body
arteriole
small artery
artery
largest type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body
atrium (atria; plu)
one of two upper chambers of the heart
coronary arteries
the blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
deoxygenated blood
blood that is oxygen poor
diastole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
endocardium
inner lining of the heart
mitral valve
valve b/n the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart
murmur
abnormal heart sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
myocardium
muscle layer of the heart
pacemaker
specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat; also called the sinoatrial node
pulmonary artery
artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve
positioned b/n the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse
beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plu; septa)
partition; in the cardiovascular system b/n the right and left sides of the heart
sinoatrial node (SA node)
pacemaker of the heart
systemic circulation
flow of blood from body cells to the heart and back out from the heart to the cells
systole
contraction phase of the heartbeat
tricuspid valve
located b/n the right atrium and the right ventricle, it has 3 leaflets, or cusps
valve
structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
vein
thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs to the heart. veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
vena cava (plu; venae cavae)
larges vein in the body; superior and inferior venae cavae bring blood in the the right atrium of the heart
ventricle
one of the two lower chambers of the heart
venule
small vein
angi/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
arter/o, arteri/o
artery
ather/o
yellowish plaque, fatty substance
atri/o
atrium, upper heart chamber
brachi/o
arm
cardi/o
heart
cholesterol/o
cholesterol
coron/o
heart
cyan/o
blue
myx/o
mucus
ox/o
oxygen
pericardi/o
pericardium
phelb/o
vein
sphygm/o
pulse
steth/o
chest
thromb/o
clot
vavul/o, valv/o
valve
vas/o
vessel
vascul/o
vessel
ven/o, ven/i
vein
ventricul/o
ventricle, lower heart chamber
arrhythmias
abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)i.e. heart block (atrioventricular block), flutter, fibrillation
heart block (atrioventricular block)
failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
flutter
rapid but regular contractions of atria or ventricles
fibrillation
rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions of the heart
cardio version
electric shock stops the heart and reverses its abnormal rhythm
cardiac arrest
is the sudden and often unexpected stoppage of heart movement
palpitations
uncomfortable sensations in the chest associated w/ different types of arrhythmias
congenital heart disease
abnormalities in the heart @ birth i.e. coarctation of the aorta (CoA), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot
coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
a small duct (ductus arteriosus) b/n the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open (patent)
septal defects (extracorpoeal circulation)
small holes in the septa b/n the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defect)
heart-lung machine
machine connected to the patient's circulatory system, relieves the heart and lungs of pumping and oxygenation funcs. during heart surgery
minimally invasive heart surgery
through 3 or 4 small "puncture" holes in the chest special instruments are used to repair the defect (septal defects)
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects 1- pulmonary artery stenosis 2-ventricular septal defect 3-shift of the aorta to the right 4-hypertrophy of the right ventricle
"blue baby"
infant w/ tetralogy or Fallot at birth b/c of extreme degree of cyanosis
congestive heart failure (CHF)
the heart is unable to pump its required amt of blood (more blood enters the heart from the veins than leaves through the arteries)
coronary artery disease (CAD)
disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
atherosclerosis
the deposition of fatty cmpds on the inner lining of the coronary arteries
thrombotic occlusion
blocking of the coronary artery by a clot
ischemia
decreased blood flow
necrosis
death
acute coronary syndromes (ACS)
consequences after plaque rupture in coronary arteries like unstable angina and myocardial infarction
unstable angina
chest pain at rest or chest pain of increasing frequency
myocardial infarction
heart attack
nitroglycerin
given for acute attacks of angina; sublingually
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
replacement of clogged vessels
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
catherization w/ balloons and stents opens clogged coronary arteries
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria (bacterial endocarditis)
hypertensive heart disease
high blood pressure affecting the heart
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
floppy valve syndrome
barlow syndrome
click murmur syndrome
improper closure of the mitral valve
murmur
an extra heart sound, heard b/n normal beats
pericarditis
inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart
rheumatic heart disease
heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
aneurysm
local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall
hypertension (HTN, HBP)
high blood pressure
peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
blockage of blood vessels outside the heart
Raynaud disease
short episodes of pallor and cyanosis in the fingers and toes
varicose veins
abnormally swollen & twisted veins, usu. occurring in the legs
acute coronary syndromes
the consquences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries: unstable angina and myocardial infarction
angina (pectoris)
chest pain resulting from a temporary difference b/n the supply and the demand of oxygen to the heart muscle
auscultation
listening with a stethoscope
emboli (sing; embolus)
collections of material (clots or other substances) that travel to and suddenly block a blood vessel
infarction
area of dead tissue
nitroglicerin
a nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion
closure of a blood vessel
palpitations
uncomfortable sesations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias
patent
open
vegetations
clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on the endocardium in conditions such as bacterial endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease
angiography
X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
digitial subtraction angiography (DSA)
video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
Doppler ultrasound
sound waves measure movement of blood flow
echocardiography (ECHO)
High frequency sound waves an echoes produce images of the heart
cardic MRI
images of cardiac tissure are produced w/ magnetic waves
cardiac caterization
a thin flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
recording of electricity flowing through the heart
Holter monitoring
an ECG device is worn during a 24-hr period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
stress test
excercise tolerance test (ETT)determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)
cardioversion (defibrillation)
very brief discharges of electricity, applied across the chest to stop arrhythmias
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages (minimally invasive procedure instead of traditional sternotomy)
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the diseased inner layers of an artery
extracorporeal circulation
a heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is being repaired
heart transplantation
a donor heart is transferred to a recipient
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place; includes percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
thrombolytic therapy
drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients w/ coronary thrombosis
ACS
acute coronary syndromes
AF
atrial fibrillation
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
AS
aortic stenosis
ASD
atrial septal defect
AV, A-V
atrioventricular
BBB
bundle branch block
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CCU
coronary care unit
Cath
catherization
CHF
congestive heart failure
CoA
coarctation of the aorta
DSA
digital subtraction angiography
DVT
deep venous thrombosis
ECC
extracorporeal circulation
ECG, EKG
electrocardiogram
ECHO
echocardiography
ETT
excercise tolerance test
HTN, HBP
high blood pressure
LV
left ventricle
LVH
left ventricular hypertrophy
MI
myocardial infarction
MR
mitral regurgitation
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
NSR
normal sinus rhythm
PCI
percutaneous coronary interventions
PDA
patent ductus arteriosus
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; balloon angioplasty
PVC
premature ventricular contraction
SA, S-A
sinoatrial
SOB
shortness of breath
UA
unstable angina
VSD
ventricular septal defects
VT
ventricular tachycardia
Blood groups
Types A, B, AB, O
coagulation
blood clotting
antibody
protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens; antibody specific to antigen & inactivates it
antigen
a substance (usu. foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
erthrocyte
red blood cell, about 5 million per micorliter/ cubic millimeter of blood
hemolysis
destruction or breakdown of blood (rbc)
heparin
anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
immune reaction
response of the immune system to foreign invasion
leukocyte
white blood cell
plasma
liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma from w/drawn blood my centrifuge. cells are retransfused into the donor. fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace w/drawn plasma
platelet
smallest blood cell (thrombocyte); clumps at sites of injury to prevent bleeding and facilitate clotting
serum
plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. clear yellowish fluid that serparates from blood when its allowed to clot. formed from plasm, doesn't contain protein-coagulation factors
thrombocyte
platelet
bas/o
base
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
cyt/o
cell
eosin/o
red, dawn, rosy
erythr/o
red
granul/o
granules
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
hemoglobin/o
hemoglobin
is/o
same, equal
kary/o
nucleus
leuk/o
white
mon/o
one, single
morph/o
shape, form
myel/o
bone marrow
neutr/o
neutral (neither base or acid)
nucle/o
nucleus
phag/o
eat, swallow
poikil/o
varied, irregular
sider/o
iron
spher/o
globe, round
thromb/o
clot
-apheresis
removal, carry away
-blast
immature, embryonic
-cytosis
abnormal condtion of cells (increase in cells)
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-globulin
protein
-lytic
pertaining to destruction
-oid
derived from
-osis
abnormal condition
-penia
deficiency
-phage
eat, swallow
-philia
attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
stop, control
anemia
deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin most common is iron-deficiency anemia
aplastic anemia
failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of development, formation) of bone marrow cells
hemolytic anemia
reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction
pernicious anemia
lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
sickle cell anemia
a hereditary condition characterized by abnormal SHAPE of erythrocytes and by hemolysis
thalassemia
an INHERITED defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of MEDITERRANEAN BACKGROUND.
polycythemia vera
general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of one of the protein substances (factor8 or 9)necessary for blood clotting
purpura
multiple pinpt. hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
leukemia
an increase in cancerous white blood cells
remission
disappearance of signs of disease
relapse
occurs when leukemia cells reappear in the blood and bone marrow
monomucleosis
an infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes; usu transmitted by direct oral contact
multiple myeloma
malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
palliative
relieving, not curing
coagulation time
time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
complete blood count (CBC)
determination of the # of red & white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell indices- MCH, MCV, MCHC
blood transfusion
whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient
bone marrow biopsy
microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed w/ a needle
hematopoietic stem cell transplant
peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered into a recipient's vein
ABO
three main blood types
ALL
acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
CBC
complete blood count
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia
diff.
differential count (white blood cells)
Hct
hematocrit
H, Hg, HGB
hemoglobin
lymphs
lymphocytes
PT
prothrombin
RBC
red blood cell (red blood cell count)
WBC
white blood cell ( white blood cell count)
lymphatic system funcs
1-drainage system, 2-absorb lipids and transport to blood stream, 3-defend body against foreign organisms
acquired immunity
formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
adenoids
masses of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx
antibody
protein produced by lymphocytes that destroys antigens
axillary node
one of 20-30 lymph nodes in the armpit (underarm)
immune response
the body's capacity to resist all types of organisms and toxins that can damage tissue and organs; immunity
immunotherapy
use of immunologic knowledge and techniques to treat disease i.e. vaccines, dendritic cells, monoclonal antibodies, and donor lymphocyte infusions
inguinal node
one of several lymph nodes in the groin region (area where the legs join the trunk of the body)
lymph
thin, watery fluid found w/in lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body
lymph capillaries
tiniest lymphatic vessels
lymphoid organs
lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland
lymph node
stationary lymph tissue along lymph vessels
lymph vessel
carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymph vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest
mediastinal node
one of many lymph nodes in the area b/n the lungs in the thoracic (chest) cavity
natural immunity
a person's own genetic ability to fight disease
tonsils
masses of lymph tissue in the back of the oropharynx
toxin
poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants
vaccination
introduction of altered antigens (viruses or bacteria) to produce an immune response and protection against disease
vaccine
weakened or killed microorganisms administered to induce immunity to infection or disease
immun/o
protection
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph node (gland)
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
tox/o
poison
ana-
again, anew
inter-
between
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
syndrome associated w/ suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms,a nd neurological problems; caused by HIV
Kaposi sarcoma
malignancies associated with AIDS (a cancer arising from the lining cells of capillaries, which produce bluish-red skin nodules)
allergy
abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
lymphoma
malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue
Hodgkin disease
malignant tummor of lymph tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes
multiple myeloma
malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
allergen
substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity in the body a type of antigen
anaphylaxis
exaggerated or unusual hypersensivity to foreign protein or other substance
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS
Kaposi sarcoma
malignant (cancerous) condition associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as bluish-red skin nodules
opportunistic infections
infectious diseases associated w/ AIDS they occur b/c AIDS lowers the body's resistance & allows infection by bacteria & parasites that normally are easily contained
ELISA test
test to detect anti-HIV antibodies (test for AIDS)
CT scan
computerized x-ray imaging in the transverse plane
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
CMV
cytomegalovirus (cause opportunistic AIDS-related infection)
HD
Hodgkin disease
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus (causes AIDS)
HSV
herpes simplex virus
KS
Kaposi sarcoma