Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/435

Click to flip

435 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
arteriole
small artery
catheter
tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex
outer region; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex)
hilum
depression or pit in that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney
1 or 2 bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus
opening or canal
medulla
inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney (medullary means pertaining to the medulla)
micturition
urination; the act of voiding
renal artery
carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney
renal vein
carries blood away from the kidney
trigone
triangular area in the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits
ureter
tube leading from each kidney to the bladder
urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine
urination
process of expelling urine; also called micturition
voiding
emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition
cali/o, calic/o
calyx (calix)
cyst/o
urinary bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus (collection of capillaries)
meat/o
meatus
nephr/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ren/o
kidney
trigon/o
trigone (region of the bladder)
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
vesic/o
urinary bladder
albumin/o
albumin (a protein in the blood)
azot/o
nitrogen
bacteri/o
bacteria
dips/o
thirst
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
lith/o
stone
noct/i
night
olig/o
scanty
-poietin
substance that forms
py/o
pus
-tripsy
to crush
ur/o
urine (urea)
urin/o
urine
-uria
urination, urine condition
urinary incontinence
loss of control of the passage of the urine from the bladder
urinary retention
symptom results w/ the blockage to the outflow of urine from the bladder
glomerulonephritis
inflammation fo the kidney glomerulus
nephrolithiasis
kidney stones (renal calculi)
nephrotic syndrome
a group of symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine (also called nephrosis)
polycystic kidneys
multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) w/in & upon the kidney hereditary cond. usu. remains asymptomatic (w/out symptoms)
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla
renal cell carcinoma
(hypernephroma)
cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
renal failure
failure of the kidney to excrete wastes & maintain its filtration function
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
renal hypertension
high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Wilms tumor
malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in childhood
bladder cancer
malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
diabetes insipidus
inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
diabetes mellitus
inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin
CT scan
X-ray image w/ detailed cross-sectional views of organs and tissues
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
X-ray image of the kidneys & ureters after injection of contrast into a vein
(also called excretory urogram)
kidneys, ureters, & bladder (KUB)
X-ray examination (w/out contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, & bladder
renal angiography
X-ray examination (w/ contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
X-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder after injecting contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
X-ray record (w/ contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra while the patient is expelling urine
ultrasonography
process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body
cystoscopy
direct visual examination of urinary bladder w/ an endoscope (cystoscope)
dialysis
process of seperating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
hemodialysis (HD)
uses an artificial kidney machine
peritoneal dialysis (PD)
uses a peritioneal catheter, fluid is intoduced into the peritoneal cavity
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine
renal angioplasty
dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries
stents
metal meshed tube used to keep the vessel open
renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue w/ microscopic examination by a pathologist
renal transplantation
surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient
urinary catherization
passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
ARF
acute renal failure
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
Cath
catheter, catherization
CRF
chronic renal failure; progressive loss of kidney function
cysto
cystoscopic examination
ESRD
end-stage renal disease; see CKD
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
HD
hemodialysis
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
KUB
kidney, ureter, and bladder
PD
peritoneal dialysis
UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection
VCUG
voiding cystourethrogram
episiotomy
to avoid perineal tear, it is deliberately cut on a slant b/4 delivery
utero-ovarian ligament
holds the ovary in place
graafian follicles
contains an ovum
corpus luteum
empty graafian follicle that secretes estrogen & progesterone after releast of the egg cell (yellow body)
lactation
the production of milk
amniotic fluid
fluid in the amniotic cavity
afterbirth
expelled placenta
amnion
innermost membrane around the developing embryo
areola
dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple
Bartholin glands
small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice
cervix
lower, neck-like portion of the uterus
clitoris
organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the urinary meatus
coitus
sexual intercourse; copulation
cul-de-sac
region w/in the pelvis, midway b/n the rectum and the uterus
embryo
stage in prenatal development from implantation of the fertilized ovum until the 2nd month of pregnancy
endometrium
inner mucous membrane lining the uterus
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; responsible for promoting female secondary sex characteristics
fallopian tube
one of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus
fertilization
union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops
fetus
embryo from the eighth week after fertilization until birth
fimbriae (plural)
finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
gamete
male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum
genitalia
reproductive organs; also called genitals
gestation
period from fertilization of the ovum to birth; pregnancy
gonad
organ in the male (testis) and female (ovary) that produces gametes
gynecology
study of the female reproductive organs including the breasts
mammary papilla
nipple of the breast. A papilla is any small nipple-shaped projection
menarche
beginning of the first menstrual period during puberty
menopause
gradual ending of menstruation
menstruation
monthly shedding of the uterine lining
menses
the normal flow of blood & tissue that occurs during menstruation
myometrium
muscle layer lining the uterus
neonatology
branch of medicine that concentrates on the care of the newborn (neonate)
obstetrics
branch of medicine concerned w/ pregnancy & childbirth
orifice
an opening
ovary
one of a pair of female organs (gonads)on each side of the pelvis; almond shaped, size of lg walnuts,& produce egg cells (ova) and hormones
ovulation
release of the ovum from the ovary
ovum (plural: ova)
egg cell; female gamete
parturition
act of giving birth
perineum
in females, the area b/n the anus and the vagina
placenta
vascular organ that develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall, its a cmcn b/n maternal & fetal bloodstreams
pregnancy
growth & developmental process in a woman from fertilization through embryonic & fetal periods to birth; gestation
progesterone
hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
puberty
period of life when the ability to reproduce begins; secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced
uterine serosa
outermost layer surrounding the uterus
uterus
female organ where embryo develops and from which menstruation occurs
fundus
upper portion of uterus
corpus
middle portion of the uterus
cervix
lower neck portion of the uterus
vagina
tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body
vulva
external genitalia of the female; includes the labia, hymen, and clitoris
amni/o
amnion
cervic/o
cervix, neck
chori/o, chorion/o
chorion
colp/o
vagina
culd/o
cul-de-sac
episi/o
vulva
galact/o
milk
gynec/o
woman, female
gynecomastia
enlargement of one or both breasts in a male; often occurs w/ relation to drugs
hyster/o
uterus,womb
lact/o
milk
mamm/o
breast
mast/o
breast
men/o
menses, menstruation
metr/o, metri/o
uterus
my/o
muscle
myom/o
muscle tumor
nat/i
birth
obstetr/o
midwife
o/o, ov/o, ovul/o
egg
oophor/o, ovari/o
ovary
perine/o
perineum
phor/o
to bear
salping/o
fallopian tubes
uter/o
uterus
vagin/o
vagina
vulv/o
vulva
-arche
beginning
-cyesis
pregnancy
-gravida
pregnancy
-parous
to bear, bring forth
-rrhea
discharge
-salpinx
uterine tube
-tocia
labor, birth
-version
act of turning
dys-
painful
endo-
within
in-
in
intra-
within
multi-
many
nulli-
no, not, none
pre-
before
primi-
first
retro-
backward
carcinoma of the cervix
malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer)
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma)
endometriosis
endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma)
endometriosis
endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine
fibroids
benign tumors in the uterus
ovarian carcinoma
malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma0
ovarian cystss
collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflammation in the pelvic region; salpingitis
carcinoma of the breast
malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts)
lumpectomy
small primary tumors of the breast, the lump and immediately surrounding tissue is removed
modified radical mastectomy
which is removal of the whole breast, lymph nodes, and adjacent chest wall muscle
fibrocystic disease
small sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast
abruptio placentae
premature separation of the implanted placenta
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location
placenta previa
placentla implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall
preeclampsia
abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by the triad of high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema
Apgar score
system of scoring an infant's physical condition 1 & 5 minutes after birth
Apgar score
scores are given for heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, & response time
rated 0,1, or 2 max total 10
down syndrome
chromosomal abnormality (trisomy-21)results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face w/ a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility b/n the mother and fetus
hyaline membrane disease or
respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn
hydrocephalus
accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
Pap smear (test)
microscopic examination of stained cells from the vagina and cervix
speculum
instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls
pregnancy test
blood or urine test to detect the presence of HCG
hysterosalpingography
X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
mammography
x-ray imaging of the breast
pelvic ultrasonography
record of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region
aspiration
w/drawl of fluid from a cavity or sac
cauterization
process of burning a part of the body
colposcopy
visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
conization
removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
cyrosurgery or cryocauterization
use of cold temps to destroy tissue
culdocentesis
needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac
dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
widening of the cervix and scraping the endometrium of the uterus
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdominal cavity
tubal ligation
blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occuring
abortion
spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetusc can exist on its own
amniocentesis
surgical puncture of the amniotic sac to w/draw amniotic fluid for analysis
cesarean section
surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus
fetal monitoring
use of ultrasonography to record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions during labor
AB
abortion
BSE
breast self-examination
C-section
cesarean section
CIS
carcinoma in situ
CS
cesarean section
Cx
cervix
D&C
dilation (dilatation) and cutterage
DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding
FHR
fetal heart rate
G
gravida (pregnant)
GYN
gynecology
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn
menstrual cycle
last 28 days
menstrual period
days 1-5 menstruation
post menstrual period
days 6-12
ovulatory period
days 13-14 on about day 14 ovulation occurs
pre-menstrual period
days 15-28
IUD
intrauterine device; contraceptive
LMP
last menstrual period
OB
obstetrics
Para; P
woman's reproductive history
Path
pathology
PID
pelvic inflammatory disease
PMS
premenstrual syndrome
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome
TAH-BSO
total abdominal hysterectomyw with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
bulbourethral gland
one of a pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra
Cowper gland
bulbourethral gland
ejaculation
ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra
ejaculatory duct
tube through which semen enters the urethra
epididymis (plural: epididymides)
one of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes lying on top of each testis; it carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens
erectile dysfunction
inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence
fraternal twins
two infants born of the same pregnancy from two seperate ova fertilized by two different sperm
glans penis
sensitive tip of the penis
identical twins
two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos.
perineum
area b/n the anus and scrotum in the male
perpuce (foreskin)
skin covering the tip of the penis
prostate gland
gland in men at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes a fluid into the urethra during ejaculation
scrotum
external sac that contains the testes in men
semen
spermatozoa and fluid (prostatic and other glandular secretions)
seminal vesicle
either of paired sac-like male glands that secrete a fluid into the vas deferens
seminiferous tubules
narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes
spermatozoon (plural: spermatozoa)
sperm cell
sterilization
any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction; for example, vasectomy and tubal ligation
testis (plural: testes)
male gonad that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone; testicle
testosterone
hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics
vas deferens or ductus deferens
narrow tube (one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra
andr/o
male
balan/o
glans penis
cry/o
cold
crypt/o
hidden
epididym/o
epididymis
gon/o
seed
hydr/o
water, fluid
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o
testis, testicle
prostat/o
prostate gland
semin/i
semen, seed
sperm/o, spermat/o
spermatozoa, semen
terat/o
monster
varic/o
varicose veins
vas/o
vessel, duct
zo/o
animal life
-genesis
formation
-one
hormone
-pexy
fixation, put in place
-stomy
new opening
carcinoma of the testes
malignant tumor of the testicles
cryptorchism, cryptorchidism
undescended testicles
hydrocele
sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
testicular torsion
twisting of the spermatic cord
varicocele
enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle
carcinoma of the prostate
malignant tumor of the prostate gland (DRE) (PSA)
prostate-specific antigen test (PSA)
measures levels of prostate-specific antigen in the blood
prostatic hyperplasia
benign growth of cells w/in the prostate gland; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
hypertrophy (TURP)
hypospadias; hypospadia
congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
phimosis
narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis; phim/o means to muzzle
communicable diseases
STD; VD; STI
transmitted by sexual or genital contact
chlamydial infection
BACTERIA (chlamydia trachomatis) invade the urethra and reproductive tract of men and the vagina and cervix of women
gonorrhea
inflammation of the genital tract mucous membranes, caused by infection w/ gonococci (berry-shaped BACTERIA)
herpes genitalis
infection of the skin and mucosa of the genitals, caused by the herpes simplex VIRUS (HSV)
syphilis
chronic STI caused by a spirochete (spiral-shaped BACTERIUM) chancre
semen analysis
ejaculated fluid is examined microscopically
castration
surgical excision of testicles or ovaries
circumcision
surgical procedure to remove the prepuce of the penis
digital rectal examination (DRE)
finger palpation through the rectum to examine the prostate gland
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
excision of parts of the prostate gland using a resectoscope through the urethra
vasectomy
bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia or benign prostatic hypertrophy
DRE
digital rectal examination
GU
genitourinary
HSV
herpes simplex virus
PID
pelvic inflammatory disease
PSA
prostate-specific antigen
VD
veneral disease
STD
sexually transmitted disease
STI
sexually transmitted infection
TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate
conjunctiva
delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
cornea
fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball
iris
colored portion of the eye
pupil
dark opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass
sclera
tough, white outer coat of the eyeball
aque/o
water
blephar/o, palpebr/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva
cor/o, pupill/o
pupil
corne/o, kerat/o
cornea
cycl/o
ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacry/o, lacrim/o
tears, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o
iris
ocul/o, ophthalm/o
eye
opt/o, optic/o
eye, vision
papill/o
optic disc; nipple-like
phac/o, phak/o
lens of the eye
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera
uve/o
uvea; vascular layer of the eye
vitre/o
glassy
ambly/o
dull, dim
dipl/o
double
glauc/o
gray
mi/o
smaller, less
mydr/o
widen, enlarge
nyct/o
night
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
scot/o
darkness
xer/o
dry
-opia, -opsia
vision
-tropia
to turn
astigmatism
defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
hyperopia (hypermetropia)
farsightedness
myopia
nearsightedness
presbyopia
impairment of vision as a result of old age
cataract
clouding of the lens,causing decreased vision
chalazion
small hard cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland (meibomian gland) along the margin of the eyelid
dibetic retinopathy
retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blood vessels form in the retina)
glaucoma
increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina an optic nerve
hordeolum (stye)
localized, purulent, inflammatory, staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
retinal detachment
two layers of the retina separate from each other
strabismus
abnormal deviation of the eye
esotropia- one eye turns inward; cross-eyed
exotropia- one eye turns outward; wall eyed
hypertropia- upward deviation of one eye
strabismus in children
lead to diplopia and possibly amblyopia (partial loss of vision or lazy eye)
opthalmoscopy
visual examination of the interior of the eye
visual acuity test
clarity of vision is assessed
patient read chart @ 20ft distance (20/20)
visual field test
measures the area w/in which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead w/out moving the head
enucleation
removal of the entire eyeball
keratoplasty or corneal transplant
sugical repair of the cornea
laser photocoagulation
intense precisely focused light beam (argon laser) creates an inflammatory rxt that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels
LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis)
use of an eximer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism) shaping the cornea
vitrectomy
removal of the vitreous humor
IOL
intraocular lens
IOP
intraocular pressure
OD
right eye; doctor of optometry
OS
left eye
OU
both eyes
VA
visual acuity
VF
visual field
auditory canal or external auditory meatus
channel that leads form the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus
auditory canal
auditory tube
channel b/n the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube
auricle
flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear or pinna
cerumen
waxy substance secreted by the external ear; ear wax
cochlea
snail-shaped spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
eustachian tube
auditory tube
incus
second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
labyrinth
maze-like series of canals of the inner ear; this includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
malleus
first ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
ossicle
small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
oval window
membrane b/n the middle and inner ears
pinna
auricle; flap of the ear
semicircular canals
pasages in the inner ear associated w/ maintaining equilibrium
stapes
third ossicle of the middle ear; stirrup
tympanic membrane
membrane b/n the outer and middle ear; eardrum
vestibule
central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the semicircular canals and the cochlea; the vestibule contains 2 structures, the saccule and utricle, that help to maintain equilibrium
acous/o, audit/o
hearing
audi/o
hearing, the sense of hearing
aur/o, auricul/o, ot/o
ear
cochle/o
cochlea
mastoid/o
mastoid process
myring/o, tympan/o
eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o
ossicle
salping/o
eustachian tube, auditory tube
staped/o
stapes (3rd bone of the middle ear)
vestibul/o
vestibule
-acusis, -cusis
hearing
-otia
ear condition
myringotomy
incision of the eardrum
otopyorrhea
flow of pus from the ear
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) in the brain
cholesteatoma
collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac w/in the middle ear
deafness
loss of ability to hear
Meniere disease
disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear marked by elevated endolymph pressure w/in the cochlea (cochlear hydrops) & semicircular canals (vestibular hydrops)
otis media
inflammation of the middle ear
otosclerosis
hardening of the bony tissue of the labyrinth of the ear
tinnitus
sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears
vertigo
sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects
ear thermometry
measurement of the temp. of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum
otoscopy
visual examination of the ear w/ an otoscope
AD, AU
right ear
AS
left ear
EENT
eyes, ears, nose, and throat
ENT
ears, nose, and throat
SOM
serous otitis media
otomycosis
disease of the ear produced by growth of fungi in the external auditory meatus
presbycusis
type of nerve deafness that occurs w/ aging
macrotia
abnormally large ears; congenital anomaly
microtia
abnormally small ears; congenital anomaly