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116 Cards in this Set

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Define medical terminology.
A special vocabulary used by healthcare professionals for effective and accurate communication.

Based on Greek and Latin.

Uniform throughout the world.
(this makes med. term. unique)
What is the 'root' of a word?
Fundamental unit of each medical word. It establishes the basic meaning of the word and is the part to which modifying prefixes and suffixes are added.
What is the 'suffix' of a word?
Short word part or series of parts added at the end of a root to modify its meaning.
What is the 'prefix' of a word?
Short word part added before a root to modify its meaning.
Not all roots are ?.
Not all roots are complete roots.
The Greek word for "heart".
The Greek word kardia meaning heart gives us the root 'cardi'.
The Latin word for lung.
The Latin word pulmo meaning lung gives us the root 'pulm'.
Greek word for kidney.
Greek 'nephr' pertains to kidney.
Latin word for kidney.
Latin 'ren' pertains to kidney.
What are essential for administrative purposes?
Accurate medical records are essential for administrative purposes.
The same root may have different meanings in what? Give an example.
The same root may have different meanings in different fields.

The same root 'myel' means 'marrow' and may apply to bone marrow or the spinal cord.
Compound words contain more than one what?
Compound words contains more than one root.
When a suffix beginning with a consonant is added to a root what is done to it to aid in pronunciation?
A vowel (usually an 'o') is inserted b/w the root and the suffix to aid in pronunciation. This is called a combining form. A combining vowel is not usually used if the ending begins with a vowel.
What happens when you add a suffix to a word ending in 'x' that has a 'y' or consonant before the 'x'? Give an example.
If there is a consonant or a y before the x ('nx', 'yx', etc.) the 'x' is changed to a 'g'.

ex. Pharynx--> Pharyngeal
What happens when you add a suffix to a word ending in 'x' that has a vowel before the 'x'? Give an example.
If a vowel comes before the 'x' such as 'ix' you change the 'x'to a 'c'.

ex) thorax--> thoracotomy
What happens when you add a suffix beginning with rh to a root? Give an example.
The 'r' is doubled.

ex) hem/o (blood) + rhage (bursting forth) = hemorrhage
Phonetically a vowel gets a short pronunciation is it has no what?
If it has no pronunciation mark.
Phonetically a vowel gets a long pronunciation when?
It it has a short line over the vowel.
What is an acronym? Give an example.
An abbreviation formed from the first letter of each word of a phrase.

Ex. ASAP
A suffix is a word ending that modifies a root. What may it indicate?
It may indicate that the word is a noun or an adjective, and often determines how the definition of that word will begin.

ex. myel/o = bone marrow; -oid = myeloid = like or pertaining to bone marrow

ex. the ending -oma produces myeloma which is a tumor in the bone marrow.

ex. -genous = myelogenous = originating in bone marrow
List some suffixes that mean "a condition of".
1. -ia

2. -ism

3. -sis

4. -y

5. -osis

6. -iasis
What is dementia?
A loss of intellectual function.
What is egotism?
Exaggerated self-importance.
What is thrombosis?
Having a blood clot (thrombus) in a vessel.
What is atony?
Lack of muscle tone.
What do the suffixes '-osis' and 'iasis' denote?
The denote an abnormal condition.

ex. stenosis is a narrowing of a canal

ex. diuresis (increased urination)
What are adjective suffixes?
denote "pertaining to" or "like"
List 10 adjective suffixes.
1. -ac

2. -al

3. -ar

4. -ary

5. -form

6. -ic

7. -ical

8. -ile

9. -oid

10. -ory

11. -ous
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ac?
Cardiac - pertaining to the heart.
Give an example using the adjective suffix -al?
Vocal - pertaining to the voice
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ar?
nuclear - pertaining to a nucleus
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ary?
Salivary = pertaining to the saliva.
Give an example using the adjective suffix -form?
Epileptiform = resemling epilepsy
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ic?
Neurotic = pertaining to neurosis (a mental disorder)
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ical?
Anatomical = pertaining to the anatomy
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ile?
Virile = pertaining to male, masculine
Give an example using the adjective suffix -oid?
Lymphoid = pertaining to the lymphatic system
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ory?
Respiratory = pertaining to respiration
Give an example using the adjective suffix -ous?
Venous = pertaining to a vein
What is the plural form for a word ending in 'a'? Give an example.
'ae'

ex. Vertabrae
What is used to pluralize a word ending in -on?
'a'

ex. phenomenon = phenomena
What is used to pluralize a word ending in -is?
'es'

ex. prognosis = prognoses
What is used to pluralize a word ending in -nx?
'nges'

ex. phalanx = phalanges
What term refers to the neck?
Cervical vertebrae
What term refers to the upper back?
Thoracic vertebrae
What terms refer to the lower back?
Lumbar vertebrae
What term refers to the pelvis?
Sacrum
What term means 'tip'?
Coccyx
What is a lumen?
The central opening of an organ or vessel.
The plural of lumen is what?
Lumine
List the bones of the hand?
1. Distal phalanx (tip)

2. Middle phalanx

3. Proximal phalanx

(phalanges)
What is diplopia?
The condition of having double vision.
Term for 'first'?
Prim/i
Term for 'one'?
Mon/o (monoclonal-describing a colony (clone) derived from one cell)

Uni (unify, make into one)
Term for 1/2?
Hemi (one side)
What does semi mean?
1/2, partial
What does bi mean?
two, twice
What does di mean?
two, twice
What dose dipl/o mean?
double
What does tri mean?
3
What does quadr/i mean?
4
What does tetra mean?
4
What does multi mean?
many
What does poly mean?
many, much
What does cyan/o mean?
Prefix for blue. ex. cyanosis (blueish)
What does erythr/o mean?
Prefix for red. ex. erythema = redness of skin
What does leuk/o mean?
Prefix for white/colorless - wbc
What does melan/o mean?
Prefix for black, dark. ex. melanin - the dark pigment that colors hair and skin.
What does xanth/o mean?
Prefix for yellow. ex. Xanthoma - yellow growth (oma) on the skin.
List 6 negative prefixes?
1. a, an

2. anti

3. contra-

4. un

5. non

6. dis
What does 'a' or 'an' mean?
Negative prefix. Mean 'not' or 'without'.
What does 'anti' mean?
Neg prefix meanining 'against'.
What does 'contra' mean?
Neg prefix meaning 'opposite'
What does 'un' mean?
Negative prefix meaning 'not'.
What does 'non' mean?
Neg prefix meaning 'not'.
What does 'dis' mean?
Neg prefix meaning 'absence', 'removal', or 'separation'.
List 5 prefixes for direction.
1. ab

2. ad

3. dia

4. per

5. trans
What does 'ab' mean?
Away from. Abduct. To move away from the midline.
What does 'ad' mean?
Toward, near. Adduct. To move toward the midline.
What does 'dia' mean?
Through. Diarrhea. Frequent discharge of fluid fecal matter.
What does 'per' mean?
Through. Percutaneous. Through the skin.
What does 'trans' mean?
Through. Transfusion. Intro of blood or blood components into the bloodstream.
What does abduction mean?
Lift arms up.
What does adduction mean?
Put arms down.
List 5 prefixes for degree.
1. Hyper

2. Hypo

3. Olig/o

4. Pan

5. Super
What does 'hyper' mean?
Over, excess. Hypertension (high bp)
What does 'hypo' mean?
Under, below. Hypoglycemia (low bs)
What does 'olig/o' mean?
Few. Oligospermia (abnormal low number of sperm cells in semen)
What does 'pan' mean?
All. Pandemic (disease affecting entire pop.)
What does 'super' mean?
Above, excess.
What does 'equi' mean?
Same. (equilibrium)
What does 'eu' mean?
True, good, easy, normal. (euthanasia - easy or painless death)
What does 'hetero' mean?
Other, different, unequal. (heterogenous - composed of different materials)
What does 'homo' mean?
Same, unchanging.
What does 'iso' mean?
Equal, same. (isocellular - composed of similar cells)
What does 'macro' mean?
Large, abnormally large. (macroscopic - large enough to be seen without microscope)
What does 'mega' mean?
Or megalo. Large, abnormally large. (megacolon - enlargement of the colon)
What does 'micro' mean?
Small. (microcyte - very small cell)
What does 'neo' mean?
New. (neonate - a newborn infant)
What does 'normo' mean?
Normal. (normovolemia - normal blood volume)
What does 'ortho' mean?
Straight, correct, upright. (orthodontics - branch of dentistry concerned with correction and straightening of the teeth)
What does 'poikilo' mean?
Varied, irregular. (piokilothermic - having variable body temp)
What does 'pseudo' mean?
False. (pseudoplegia - false paralysis)
What does 're' mean?
Again, Back. (reflux - backward flow)
What does 'ante' mean?
Before. (antedote - to occur before the time of another event)
What does 'pre' mean?
Before, in front of. (prenatal - before birth)
What does 'pro' mean?
Before, in front of. (prodrome - symptoms that precede a disease)
What does 'post' mean?
After, behind. (postnatal -behind the nose)
What does 'dextr/o' mean?
Right. (dextrogastria - displacement of the stomach to the right)
What does 'sinistr' mean?
Left. (sinistromanual - left handed)
What does 'ec, ecto' mean?
Out, outside. (ectopic - out of normal position)
What does ex/o mean?
Away from/ outside. (excise - to cut out)
What does 'end/o' mean?
In, within. (endoderm - device for viewing the inside of a cavity or organ)
What does 'mes/o' mean?
Middle. (mesencephalon - middle portion of brain, midbrain)
What does 'syn, sym' mean?
Together. (synapse - a junction between two nerve cells)
What does 'tel/e, tel/o' mean?
End. (telophase - the last stage of cell division, mitosis)