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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
BS
blood sugar
DM
diabetes mellitus
GH
growth hormone
ICSH
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
IDDM
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
LH
luteinizing hormone
NIDDM
non-insuliun-dependent diabetes melitus
PGH
pituitary growth hormone
PTH
parathyroid hormone
RAIU
radioactive iodine uptake
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
CNS
central nervous system
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
EEG
electroencephalogram
EMG
electromyogram
LP
lumbar puncture
po
orally
AP
anteroposterior
PA
posteroanterior
IV
intravenously
CT
computed tomography
PET
positron emission tomography
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
Addison disease
relatively uncommon chronic disorder caused by deficiency of cortical hormones; results when the adrenal cortex is damaged or atrophied; atrophy of the adrenal glands is usually the result of an autoimmune process in which circulating adrenal antibodies slowly destroy the gland
Cushing syndrom
cluster of symptoms caused by excessive amounts of cortisol or adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) circulating in the blood
diabetes
general term that when used alone refers to diabetes mellitus, a disease that occurs in two primary forms, type 1 and type 2 diabetes
diabetes mellitus
chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia and occurs in two primary forms, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
type 1 diabetes
diabetes that is abrupt in onset and usually is diagnosed in children and young adults; it is due to the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, making this type of disease difficult to regulate; also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
type 2 diabetes
diabetes that is gradual onset and is the most common form; it is usually diagnosed in adults older than age 40 and results from the body's deficiency in producing enough insulin or the body's cells are resistant to insulin action
exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball(s); may be due to thyrotoxicosis, tumor of the orbit, orbital cellulitis, leukemia, or aneurysm
Graves disease
multisystem autoimmune disorder that involves growth of the thyroid associated with hypersecretion of thyroxine
insulinome
tumor of the islets of Langerhans; pancreatic tumor
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adults resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland; affects body fluids, causing edema and increasing blood volume, increasing the blood pressure
panhypopituitarism
total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
pheochromocytoma
small chromaffin cell tumor; usually located in the adrenal medulla
pituitarism
any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function
Alzheimer disease
chronic, organic mental disorder; a from of presenile dementia caused by a atrophy of frontal and occipital lobes
cerebrovascular incident
brain tissue damage caused by a disorder within the blood vessels; usually due to the formation of a clot or ruptured blood vessel; the resulting functional deficit depends on the area of the brain affected; also called apoplexy, cerebral infarction, stroke, or CVA
epilepsy
disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent seizures
Huntington chorea
hereditary nervous disorder caused by the progressive loss of brain cells, leading to bizarre, involuntary, dancelike movements
hydrocephalus
cranial enlargement caused by accumulation of fluid within the ventricles of the brain
multiple sclerosis
progressive degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, hardening, and loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscular symptoms
neuroblastoma
malignant tumor composed principally of cells resembling neuroblasts; occurs chiefly in infants and children
palsy
partial or complete loss of motor function; paralysis
Bell palsy
facial paralysis caused by dysfunction of a facial nerve of unknown etiology
cerebral palsy
bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis usually caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can be hereditary
parkinson disease
progressive, degenerative neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement
poliopyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
sciatica
severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, which travels from the hip to the foot
seizure
convulsion or other clinically detectable event caused by a sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain that may be classified as partial or generalized; characteristic symptom of epilepsy
shingles
eruption of acute, inflammatory, herpetic vesicles on the trunk of the body along a peripheral nerve caused by herpes zoster virus
spina bifida
congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete closure of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude; it usually occurs in the lumbosacral area and has several forms
spina bifida occulta
most common and least severe form of spina bifide without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges
spina bifida cystica
more sever type of spinal bifida; involves protrusion of the meninges, spinal cord, or both; the severity of the neurological dysfunction depends directly on the degree of nerve involvement
transient ischemic attack
temporary interference with blood supply to the brain, lasting a few minutes to a few hours
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test
imaging procedure that measures levels of radioactivity in the thyroid after administration of radioactive iodine either orally (po) or intravenously (IV)
cerebrospinal fluid analysis
cerebrospinal fluid obtained from a lumbar puncture is evaluated for the presence of blood, bacteria, malignant cells, and the amount of protein and glucose present
craniotomy
surgical procedure to create an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures
hormone replacement therapy
oral administration or injection o synthetic hormones to replace a hormone deficiency
thalamotomy
partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain
aden/o
gladn
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
anter/o
anterior, front
calc/o
calcium
cerebr/o
cerebrum
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glue; neurological tissue
gluc/o
sugar, sweetness
glyc/o
sugar, sweetness
mening/o
meninges
meningi/o
meninges
myel/o
bone marrow
neur/o
nerve
pancreat/o
pancreas
thym/o
thymus gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
vascul/o
blood vessel
acr/o
extremities
carcin/o
cacner
cyst/o
bladder
dermat/o
skin
enter/o
intestine
hem/o
blood
gastr/o
stomach
hepat/o
liver
hidr/o
sweat
nephr/o
kidney
ren/o
kidney
orchid/o
testis
orchi/o
testis
orch/o
testis
poster/o
back (of body), behind, posterior
scler/o
hardening
spin/o
spine
thromb/o
blood clot
toxic/o
poison
-ectomy
excision, removal
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
incision
-algia
pain
-dynia
pain
-dipsia
thirst
-emia
blood condition
-gen
forming, producing, origin
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
-glia
glue; neurological tissue
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-ism
condition
-itis
inflammation
-lith
stone, calculus
-logist
specialist in study of
-logy
study of
-megaly
enlargement
-malacia
softening
-oid
resembling
-oma
tumor
-osis
abnormal condition; increase
-pathy
disease
-penia
decrease; deficiency
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
-rrhagia
bursting forth (of)
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-uria
urine
a-
without, not
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
endo-
within
hyper-
excessive, above normal
hypo-
under, below, deficient
para-
near, beside; beyond