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214 Cards in this Set

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aden/o
gland
extracellular fluid( how is it used by immune cells?)
All body fluids found outside cells, including intestinal fluid, plasma, lymph, and cerebral spinal fluid. It provides stable external environment for body cells.
im. cells use lymph structures to monitor extracellular fluid as it filters through nodes.
agglutin/o
clumping, gluing
host
Organism that maintains or harbors another organism.
When immune cells identify disease causing agents passing through nodes, they destroy them before it can cause disease in host.
bas/o
base (alkaline)
Plasma
liquid medium containing suspended solid components that comprises Blood( a connective tissue)
plasma is 8% total body weight, allows chemical communication between body cells
granul/o
granule
blast/o
embryonic cell
Plasma components
RBC(erythrocytes), WBC (leukocytes), platelets (thrombocytes)
hem/o
blood
chrom/o
color
hemat/o
blood
antibody
Protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of antigen
immun/o
immune, immunity, safe
eosin/o
dawn (rose colored)
kary/o
nucleus
antigen
Foreign substance recognized as harmful to host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
nucle/o
nucleus
erythr/o
red
leuk/o
white
Bile pigments
Substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by the liver, and excreted in the form of bile
Interference with the excretion of bile may lead to jaundice
lymphaden/o
lymph gland
cytokines
Chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, or decrease activity in other cells.
Cytokines are important chemical communicators in the immune response, regulating many activities associated with immunity and inflammation.
lymph/o
lymph
immunocompetent
Ability to develop an immune response, or the ability to recognize antigens and respond to them.
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
natural killer cells
Specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane causing its intercellular fluids to leak out.
Natural killer (NK) cells destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells. Destroy without specificity
morph/o
form, shape, structure
stem cells
Blood cells develop from these undifferentiated cells
myel/o
bone marrow, spinal cord
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
the development and maturation of blood cells
after blood cells mature they leave marrow and enter circulation
neutr/o
neutral, neither
erythropoiesis
RBC development
during this time RBC decrease in size and nucleus extrudes right before maturity
phag/o
swallowing, eating
leukopoiesis
WBC development
plas/o
formation, growth
thrombopoiesis
platelet development
poikil/o
varied, irregular
reticulocyte
immature RBC that contain small nuclear material fragments that appears as a lacy net
most loose nuclear material prior to entering circulation
reticul/o
net, mesh
hemoglobin
During erythropoesis, RBC develops this specialized iron containing compound
gives RBC its color and carries O2 to tissues
ser/o
serum
hemosiderin
iron compound that hemoglobin breaks down into along with bile pigments
most of hemosiderin returns to bone marrow
sider/o
iron
leukocytes
WBCs that protect body against invasion by pathogens and foreign substances, remove debris from injured tissue, and aid in healing process.
divided into granulocytes and agranulocytes
splen/o
spleen
diapedesis
process by which WBC migrate through endothelial walls of capillaries and venules and enter tissue spaces.
thromb/o
blood clot
Three types of granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
thym/o
thymus gland
Neutrophils
most numerous, highly phagocytic, first cell to appear at injury and begin devouring foreign material.
highly important in body protection, granules stain lilac color with neutral dye
xen/o
foreign, strange
Eosinophils
protect body by releasing substances that neutralize toxic compounds
increase in allergic reactions and animal parasite infestations.
-blast
embryonic cell
eison
red acidic dye that stains granules in eosinophils
-emia
blood condition
Basophils
release histamines and heparin when tissue is damaged.
granules with stain purple alkaline dye
Histamines
initiate inflammatory process by increasing blood flow
Heparin
anticoagulant that acts to prevent blood from clotting at injury site
polymorphonuclear
neutrophils sometimes have up to six lobes
all three granulocytes have nucleus with at least two lobes
Agranulocytes
arise from stem cells, nuclei do not have lobes,
commonly called mononuclear leukocytes
Types of Agranulocytes
Monocytes and lymphocytes
Monocytes
mildly phagotcytic in blood vessels, change to marcrophages when they exit
Macrophages
avid phagocytes that ingest pathogens, dead cells and inflammation site debris
chief role in specific immunity associated activities
Lymphocytes
B cells, T cells and NK cells
provide specific immune response
Specific immune response
custom made protection mode aimed at specific antigen
includes humoral and cellular immunity
Platelets (thrombocytes)
smallest formed element in blood, initiate hemostasis after injury
hemostasis
blood clotting that consists of a series of reactions each requiring specific factor
thromboplastin
released by platelet clotting factors and injured tissues and initiates clot formation
fibrinogen
a soluble blood protein that becomes insoluble by forming fibrin strands that act as blood cell trapping net
thrombus
blood clot; jelly like mass of blood cells and fibrin
plasma proteins
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
serum
resulting fluid in blood if fibrinogen and clotting elements are removed
blood group determination
based on antigen on RBC surface; plasma contains opposite antibodies
hemolytic disease of the newborn
caused by incompatibility btwn maternal and fetal blood due to antigen group containing Rh factor.
lymph system
maintains fluid balance by draining ext.cell fluid from tissue spaces to blood, transports lipids away from digestive organs for body use, filtering unwanted products from lymph nodes
consists of lymph and lymph vessels
Blood capillaries and extracellular fluid
small amount of plasma seeps from these and beomes extracelluar fluid that picks up waste
lymph capillaries
extracelluar fluid returns to blood capillaries OR enters lymph capillaries.
lymph enters vessels increasing in size on its way back to blood stream
lymph nodes
location for deposition of debris and macrophage phagocytisis, B and T cells active
right lymphatic duct
lymph vessels from right chest and arm join this duct and drains into right subclavian vein
thoracic duct
lymph from all body areas besides right chest drain here
then drains into left subclavian vein
Spleen
resembles lymph nodes but also destroys old RBCs and is a repository for heathy blood cells
thymus
located in mediastinum, transforms certain lymphocytes to T cells
mediastinum
upper part of chest
tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue that act filter for upper respiratory system
located in pharynx
cytokines
chemical messengers used by helper T cells to activate, direct, and regulate the activity of most other components of the immune system especially B cells.
cellular immunity
component of specific immune system that protects against intracellular agents such as viruses and cancer cells.
T cells, originates in bone marrow, maturation in thymus and immune system
cytotoxic T cells
destruction of infected cells and cancer cells
helper T cell
assistance for B cells, cytotoxic T cells and other components of the immune system.
suppressor T cell
suppression of humoral and cellular response when infection resolves
memory T cell
active immunity
humoral immunity
component of specific immune system that protects primarily against extracellular agents such as bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered the cell.
mediated by B cells which originate and mature in marrow
plasma cells
antibody formation for destruction of extracellular antigens
memory cells
provide active immunity
antigen - antibody complex
antibody encouters it's specific antigen and attaches to it forming complex.
once formed antigen is inactivated, neutralized or tagged for destruction
Immune resistance
physical (skin, mucous membranes) and chemical innate barriers (tears, saliva, gastric juices)
aquired immune response
develops after birth
monocytes
leave vascular system and become macrophages
macrophages
phagocytic cells that consume pathogens, including bacteria and viruses
antigen presenting cell(APC)
what macrophage becomes after it digests and displays antigen of digested pathogen
APC awaits encounter with lymphocytes
-globin
protein
-graft
transplantation
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-penia
decrease, deficiancy
-phil
attraction for
-phoresis
carrying transmission
-phylaxis
protection
-poiesis
formation, production
-stasis
standing still
a-
without, not
allo-
other, differing from the normal
aniso-
unequal, dissimilar
iso-
same, equal
marcro-
large
micro-
small
mono-
one
poly-
many, much
hematology
branch of medicine that studies blood cells, blood clotting mechanisms, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
anemia
any condition where O2 carrying capcity of blood is deficient
causes include excessive blood loss, excessive blood cell destruction, dec. blood formaiton, faulty hemoglobin.
erythropenia
decrease in # of circulating RBCs; causes anemia
hypochromasia
decrease in amount of hemoglobin on RBC; causes anemia
hematocrit
volume of packed erythrocytes; decrease can cause anemia
normocytic
normal size range of RBC
normochromic
normal range of hemoglobin
macrocytic
excessively large RBC
microcytic
excessively small RBC
hypochromatic
decreased amount of hemoglobin
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
tachycardia
weakness, rapid heart rate
palor
paleness
AIDS
infectious disease caused by HIV virus causing immune system to be immunocompromised
opportunistic infections
immunocompromised patient falls victim to disease health patient would not usually be affected by
lymphandenopathy
swollen lymph glands found in AIDS patients
allergy
acquired abnormal immune response that requires initial sensitization to allergen(antigen)
sensitization
iniatial exposure to allegen
urticaria
hives
indurated
hardened
densensitization
reduces patient sensitivity to allegen
autoimmunity
failure of body to distinguish accurately btwn "self" and "non-self"
ex.: myasthenia gravis affects neuromuscular junction
exacerbations
flare ups seen in autoimmune diseases
remission
latency
hyporoteinemia
decrease in blood level protein,especially albumin, which controls amount of plasma leaving the vascular channels; causes edema
diuretics
meds that promote urination and can be used to treat edema
ascites
condition related to edema where fluid collects in peritoneal or pleural cavity
hemophilia
hereditary disorder where blood clotting mechanism is impaired
hemophilia A
deficiancy in clotting factor VIII
hemophilia B
deficiancy in clotting factor IX
hematomas
blood seepage
hemarthrosis
blood in joints
infectious mononucleosis
one of the accute infections caused by Epstein-Barr virus, causes sore throat, fever, enlarged lymph nodes
anorexia
loss of appetite
splenomegaly
enlarged spleen
hepatomegaly
enlarged liver
leukemia
oncological disease of blood forming organs characterized by proliferation of RBCs
types: granulocytic(myelogenous) or lymphocytic
Hodgkin lymphoma
malignant disease of the lymph system, primarily the lymph nodes
pruitus
severe itching
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
Kaposi sarcoma
malignancy of CT tissue including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue
closely related to AIDS
anisocytosis
condition of marked variation in size of erythrocytes observed in blood smear.
bacteremia
presence of viable bacteria in blood stream usually transient in nature
graft rejection
destruction of transplanted organ or tissue by recipient's immune system
graft vs. host disease
condition that occurs following bone marrow transplant in which the immune cells in the transplanted marrow produce antibodies against host's tissues
hemoglobinopathy
any disorder caused by abnormalities in hemoglobin molecule.
hemolysis
destruction of RBCs with a release of hemoglobin that diffuses into surrounding fluid
hemostasis
arrest of bleeding or circulation
lymphandenopathy
any disease of the lymph nodes
lymphosarcoma
malignent neoplastic disorder of the lymphatic tissue (not related to hodgkin disease)
septicemia
serious, life threatening bloodstream infection that may arise from other infections througout body such as pneumonia, UTIs menegitis, bone or GI infections
blood poisening
serology
lab tests to detect presence of antibodies, antigens, immune substances
titer
blood test that measures amount of antibodies in blood; commonly used as an indicator of immune status
blood culture
test to determine presence of pathogens in blood stream.
differential count (diff)
test that enumerates distribution of WBC in stained blood smear by counting different kinds of WBC and reporting as a percentage of total examined
complete blood count (CBC)
series of tests that includes hemoglobin; hematocrit; RBC, WBC, and platelet counts; differential WBC count; RBC indices; and RBC and WBC morphology
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
measurement of distance RBCs settle to bottom of test tube under standardized conditon; also called sed rate
hemoglobin (Hgb) value
measurement of the amount of hemoglobin found in a whole blood sample.
Monospot
non specific rapid serological test for infections mononucleosis; also called heterophile antibody test
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
test of time that measures length of time it takes blood to clot by screening for deficiancies of some clotting factors and effectiveness of heparin therapy
prothrombin time (PT)
test that measures time it takes plasma portion of blood to clot; also called pro time
RBC indices
mathematical calculation of size, volume, and concentration of hemoglobin for a RBC.
Schilling test
test used to assess absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 by digestive system
lymphadenography
radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a contrast medium
lymphangiography
radiographic examination of lymph vessels after injection of a contrast medium
aspiration
drawing in or out by suction
lymphangiectomy
removal of lymph vessel
transfusion
infusion of blood or blood components into blood stream
autologous transfusion
transfusion prepared with recipient's own blood
homologous transfusion
transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipient
transplantation
grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site or from one person to another
autologous bone marrow transplant
harvesting, freezing, and reinfusing the patient's own bone marrow to treat bone marrow hypoplasisa following cancer therapy
homologous bone marrow transplant
transplanation of bone marrow from one individual to another to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and immunodeficiency disorders
anticoagulants
prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting synthesis or inactivating one or more clotting factors
heparin and warfarin
antifibrinolytics
neutralize fibrinolytic chemicals in mucous membranes of mouth, nose, and urinary tract to prevent breakdown of blood clots
aminocaproic acid
antimicrobials
destroy bacteria, fungi, protozoa, depending on the drug, by interfering with functions of cell membrane or their reproductive cycle
trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, pentamindine
antivirals
prevent replication of viruses within host cells
nelfinavir, lamivudine/zidovudine
fat soluable vitamins
prevent and treat bleeding disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, which is commonly caused by vitamin K deficiancy
phytonadione
thrombolytics
dissolve blood clots by destroying their fibrin strands
alteplase, streptokinase
AB,Ab, ab
antibody , abortion
ALL
acute lymphocytic, leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
APC
antigen presenting cell
APTT
activated partial thromboplastin time
baso
basophil
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia
diff
differential count (WBC)
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Hb, Hbg
hemoglobin
HCT, Hct
hematocrit
ITP
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
IV
intravenous
MCH
mean cell hemoglobin( averge amt. hemoglobin per cell)
MCHC
mean cell hemoglobin conentration (av. concentration of hemoglobin in single red cell)
MCV
mean red cell volume(av. size)
PA
posteroanterior; pernicious anemia; pulmonary artery