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142 Cards in this Set

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chromatin
Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins.
Condenses during cell division to form chromosomes.
chromosome
Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a DNA molecule that carries hereditary information of encoded genes.
Each sperm and egg has 23 unpaired chromosomes. After fertilization, each cell of the embryo has 23 paired chromosomes.
cytoplasm
Jellylike substance found within the cell membranes composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients.
All cellular structures are embedded in the cytoplasm.
DNA*
Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever a cell divides.
diaphragm
Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Alternating active inhalation and passive exhalation is essential to the breathing function.
metabolism
Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism.
Matabolism includes the building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism) of body constituents.
organelle
Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, and lysosomes.
pathology
Study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences,=.
Uses laboratory methods rather than clinical examination to determine and study diseases.
peristalsis
Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onwards.
Midsagittal Plane
Right and left halves of the body.
Coronal/Frontal Plane
Anterior and posterior aspects. (Ventral and Dorsal)
Transverse Plane
Superior and inferior aspects.
Dorsal Body Cavity
Cranial - Brain
Spinal - Spinal Cord
Ventral Body Cavity
Thoracic - Heart, lungs, and associated structures.

Abdominopelvic - Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs.
RUQ
Right Upper Quadrant
Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines.
LUQ
Left Upper Quadrant
Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines.
RLQ
Right Lower Quadrant
Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary and fallopian tube, with ureter.
LLQ
Left Lower Quadrant
Part of small and large intestine, left ovary/fallopian tube/ureter.
cyt/o
cell
cytologist - specialist in the study of cells. Study the formation, structure, and function of cells.
hist/o
tissue
histology - study of tissues.
kary/o
nucleus
karyolysis - destruction of the nucleus resulting in the death of the cell.
nucle/o
nucleus
nuclear - pertaining to the nucleus.
anter/o
anterior, front
anterior - pertaining to the front.
caud/o
tail
caudad - toward the tail.
crani/o
cranium
cranial - pertaining to the skull.
dist/o
far, farthest
distal - pertaining to the farthest point form attachment. Distal refers to the point furthest from the center of the body or from the point of attachment to the body. Finger are distal to the wrist.
dors/o
back of the body
dorsal - pertaining to the back of the body.
infer/o
lower, below
inferior - pertaining to a lower structure or surface.
later/o
side, to one side
lateral - pertaining to the side
medi/o
middle
mediad - toward the middle.
poster/o
back of the body, behind
posterior - pertaining to the back of the body.
proxim/o
near, nearest
proximal - pertaining to the nearest point of attachment to the body. The wrist is proximal to the fingers.
ventr/o
belly, belly side
ventral - pertaining to the belly/front side of the body.
abdomin/o
abdomen
abdominal - pertaining to the abdomen.
cervic/o
neck, cervix uteri
cervical - pertaining to the neck
gastr/o
stomach
hypogastric - pertaining to the region just below the stomach.
ili/o
ilium (lateral flaring portion of the hip bone)
ilial - pertaining to the ilium
inguin/o
groin
inguinal - pertaining to the groin. The groin is the depression located between the thigh and the trunk.
lumb/o
lower back
lumbar - pertaining to the lower back.
pelv/i
pelvis
pelvimeter - instrument for measuring the pelvis.
spin/o
spine
spinal - pertaining to the spine
thorac/o
chest
thoracic - pertaining to the chest.
umbilic/o
umbilicus, navel
umbilical - pertaining to the navel.
albin/o
white
albinism - condition of whiteness. Characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.
leuk/o
white
leukocyte - white blood cell
chlor/o
green
chloropia - green vision. Associated with a toxic reaction to digitalis in which objects appear green.
chrom/o
color
heterochromic - pertaining to different colors. is associated with the iris of the eyes, thus someone with heterochromia may have one brown and one blue iris.
cirrh/o
yellow
cirrhosis - abnormal yellowing. The skin, sclera of the eyes, and mucous membrane take on a yellow color. Usually associated with alcoholism or chronic hepatitis.
jaund/o
yellow
jaundice - yellowing. Caused by an abnormal increase in bilirubin (a yellow compound formed when RBCs are destroyed) in the blood.
xanth/o
yellow
xanthocyte - yellow cell
cyan/o
blue
cyanotic - pertaining to blueness. Associated with lack of oxygen in the blood.
erythr/o
red
erythrocyte - RBC
melan/o
black
melanoma - black tumor. Malignancy that arises from melanocyctes.
poli/o
gray; gray matter of the brain and spinal cord
poliomyelitis - Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
acr/o
extremity
acrocyanosis - abnormal condition in which the extremities are blue.
eti/o
cause
etiology - study of the cause of a disease.
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
idiopathic - pertaining to an unknown cause of disease.
morph/o
form, shape, structure
morphology - the study of form, shape, or structure.
path/o
disease
pathologist - specialist in the study of disease. Studies tissue, cell, and bodily fluids for evidence of disease.
radi/o
radiation, x-ray; radius
radiologist - physicians who employ imaging techniques for diagnosing and treating disease.
somat/o
body
somatic - pertaining to the body
son/o
sound
sonography - process of recording sound. Sonography employs ultrasound to produce images.
viscer/o
internal organs
visceral - pertaining to internal organs.
xer/o
dry
xerosis - abnormal condition of dryness of the skin, mucous membranes, or conjunctiva.
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
pathogenesis - the origin or the cause of an illness or abnormal condition.
-gnosis
knowing
prognosis - the prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated chance of recovery.
-gram
record, writing
arteriogram - record of an artery. It is an x-ray film of an artery taken after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.
-graph
instrument for recording
radiograph - instrument for recording x-rays.
-graphy
the process of recording
arhtrography - is an x-ray examination of a joint, such as a knee, shoulder, or elbow, usually with the use of a contrast medium.
-logist
specialist in the study of
dermatologist - specialist in the study of the skin.
-logy
study of
hematology - the study of blood.
-meter
instrument for measuring
thermometer - instrument for measuring heat.
-metry
the act of measuring
ventriculometry - the act of measuring the ventricles.
-pathy
disease
gastropathy - disease of the stomach.
adhesion
Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated. They may result within body cavities as a result of surgery.
analyte
Substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods. In a glucose tolerance test, glucose is the analyte.
contrast medium
Substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films.
dehiscence
Bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound.
febrile
Feverish; pertaining to a fever
homeostasis
Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes.
Such properties as temperature, nutrients, and wastes remain relatively constant.
inflammation
Bodily defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function.
Is a mechanism used by the body to protect against invasion of foreign organisms and to repair injured tissue.
morbid
Diseased; pertaining to disease
radionuclides
Substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers.
The quantity and duration of radioactive material are safe for humans.
radiopharmaceutical
Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned.
scan
Term used to describe a computerized image by modality or by structure.
sepsis
Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or the products in the bloodstream.
suppurative
Producing or associated with generation of pus.
radiology
medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.
interventional radiology
Radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders.
Examples would be balloon angioplasty* and cardiac catheterization*.
therapeutic radiology
Use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer.
Also called radiation oncology.
endoscopy
Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope.
Endoscopy is used for biopsy, surgery, aspirating fluids, and coagulating bleeding areas. The endoscope is usually named for the organ, cavity, or canal being viewed. i.e. gastroscope.
laparoscopy
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall.
thoracoscopy
Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through small incisions between the ribs.
Usually performed for lung biopsy, repairing perforations in the lungs, and diagnosing pleural disease.
complete blood count (CBC)
Common blood test that enumerated RBC, WBC, and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages.*
urinalysis (UA)
Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine.
Can be done immediately by a dipstick test or sent to a laboratory for full analysis.
computed tomography (CT)
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an X-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles.
CT scans generate detailed cross-sectional images to show tumor masses, bone displacement, and fluid accumulation. May be performed with or without a contrast medium.
Doppler
Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves of moving blood cells.
Used to identify irregularities in blood flow due to clots, venous insufficiency, and arterial blockage.
fluoroscopy
Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures.
Used to view the motion of such things as the GI Tract, heart, and joints.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray to produce multi planar cross-sectional images.
Allows superior soft tissue contract, multi planar views, and avoids hazards of ionizing radiation. Also is superior to CT for most central nervous system imaging. Does not require a contrast medium.
nuclear scan
Diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive tracer (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures.
Opposite of conventional radiograph. Radiation comes from the inside of the body and detected by a specialized camera.
positron emission tomography (PET)
Scanning technique using CT to record positrons emitted from a tracer that produces cross-sectional images of metabolic activity in body tissue to determine the presence of disease.
Useful in scanning the brain and nervous system for abnormal tissue metabolism consistent with schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimers.
radiography
X-rays passed through the body are captured on a film.
Dense structures such as bone appear white, while softer organs appear shades of grey.
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Uses CT and a tracer injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissue and organs.
Different from a PET in that the tracer remains in the bloodstream as opposed to absorbed by the surrounding tissue.
tomography
Radiographic technique that produces a cross-sectional image of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth.
CT, PET, SPECT
ablation
Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency.
anastomosis
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
End to end, End to side, Side to side
cauterize
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals.
curettage
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curet.
incision and drainage (I&D)
Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity.
laser surgery
Surgical techniqu employing a device that emits intense heat and power as close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues.
resection
Partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure.
radical dissection
Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence.
Mastectomy - Entire breast, surrounding lymph nodes, and sometimes adjacent muscles are removed.
ant
anterior
AP
anteroposterior
Bx
biopsy
CBC
complete blood count
CT
computed tomography
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
DSA*
digital subtraction angiography
Dx
diagnosis
FS
frozen section
LAT
lateral
LLQ
left lower quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
PET
positron emission tomography
post
posterior
RF
rheumatoid factor
RLQ
right lower quadrant
RUQ
right upper quadrant
sono
sonogram
SPECT
single photon emission computed tomography
Sx
symptom
Tx
treatment
UA
urainalysis
US
ultrasound
biopsy
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish diagnosis.
frozen section biopsy
Ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination.
Used primarily in oncological cases while the patient is still in the operating room. Examination will determine how aggressively the surgeon will treat the patient.
needle biopsy
Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
punch biopsy
Removal of a small core of tissue using a punch.
An anesthetic and suturing are usually required for a punch bx.
shave biopsy
Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions.
ultrasound/ultrasonograpgy (US)
Imaging procedure using high frequency sound waves that display reflected echoes on a monitor.
Unlike most imaging methods, US creates real-time moving images to view organs and functions of organs in movement. Used for visualizing fetuses, the neck, abdomen, pelvis, brain, and heart.