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195 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cervic/o
neck or cervix
colp/o
vagin/o
vagina (sheath)
episi/o
vulv/o
vulva (covering)
gynec/o
woman
hyster/o
meter/o
uter/o
uterus
lact/o
milk
mast/o
mamm/o
breast
men/o
menstruation
oophor/o
ovari/o
ovary
ov/i
ov/o
egg
salping/o
uterine (fallopian) tube
also; eustachian tube
toc/o
labor birth
-arche
beginning
uterus
womb, pear-shaped organ in the pelvic cavity in which the embryo and fetus develops
fundus
upper portion of the uterus above the entry to the uterine tubes
endometrium
lining of the uterus, which is shed about every 28 to 30 days in a non pregnant female during menstruation
myometrium
muscular wall of the uterus
uterine tubes
fallopian tubes
tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus
adnexa
uterine tubes and overies (uterine appendages)
right uterine appendage
left uterine appendage
right/left tube and ovary
ovary
one of two glands locaed on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
cervix
neck of the uterus
cervical os
opening of the cervix to the uterus
vagina
tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body
vulva
external genitalia of the female
labia
folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening, known as the labia majora and labia minora
clitoris
female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva
hymen
fold of mucous membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina
introitus
entrance to that vagina
Bartholin glands
two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse
perineum
region between the vulva and anus
mammary glands
two glands in the female breast capable of producing milk
mammary papilla
nipple
areola
dark pigmented area around the nipple
embryo
the developing organism from fertilization to the end of the eighth week
fetus
the developing organism from the ninth week to birth
placenta
vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus
(placenta = cake)
amniotic sac
membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid
fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus
meconium
intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn
amenorrhea
absence of menstruation
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
oligomenorrhea
scanty menstrual period
anovulation
absence of ovulation
dyspareunia
painful intercourse
leukorrhea
abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge
menorrhagia
excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation
metrorrhagia
bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation
oligo-ovulation
irregular ovulation
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
congenital anomalies
birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or structure
(i.e. double uterus or absent vagina)
dermoid cyst
congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue (teeth, bone, cartilage, and hair) typically found in an ovary; usually benign
displacments of uterus
displacement of the uterus from its normal position
anteflexion
abnormal forward bending of the uterus
retroflexion
abnormal backward bending of ther uterus
retroversion
backward turn of the whole uterus; tipped uterus
endometriosis
condition characterized by migration of portions of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
endometritis
inflammation of the endometrium
fibroid
fibromyoma
leiomyoma
benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
fistula
abnormal passage, such as from one hollow organ to another
(fistula = pipe)
retrovaginal fistula
abnormal opening between the vagina and rectum
vesicovaginal fistula
abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina
cervical neoplasia
abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

cervical dysplasia
potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation:
CIN-1 - mild dysplasia
CIN-2 - moderate dysplasia
CIN-3 - severe dysplasia
carcinoma in situ (CIS) of cervix
malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized without any spread to adjacent structures
menopause
cessation of menstrual periods caused by lack of ovarian hormones
oophoritis
inflammation of one or both ovaries
parovarian cyst
cyst of the uterine tube (fallopian tube)
pelvic adhesions
scarring of tissue within the pelvic cavity resulting from endometriosis, infection, or injury
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflammation of organs in the pelvic cavity; usually includes the flaaopian tubes, ovaries, and endometrium; most often causd by bacteria
pelvic floor relaxation
relaxation of supportive ligaments of the pelvic organs
cystocele
pouching of the bladder into the vagina
rectocele
pouching of the rectum into the vagina
enterocele
pouching sac of peritoneum between the vagina and rectum
urethrocele
pouching of the urethra into the vagina
prolapse
descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal
salpingitis
inflammation of a fallopian tube
vaginitis
inflammation of the vagina with redness, swelling, and irritation, often caused by a specific organism, such as Candida (yeast) or Trichomonas (sexually transmitted parasite)
atrophic vaginitis
thinning of the vagina and loss of moisture because of depleton of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue
vaginosis
infection of the vagina with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milklike discharge and an unpleasant odor; also know as nonspecific vaginitis
adenocarcinoma of the breast
malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue
amastia
absence of a breast
fibrocystic breasts
benign condition of the breast consisting of fibrous and cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patient feels painful lumps that fluctuate with menstrual periods
gynecomastia
development of mammary glands in the male, caused by altered hormone levels
hypermastia
macromastia
abnormally large breasts
hypomastia
micromastia
unusually small breasts
mastitis
inflammation of breast, most commonly in women who are breast feeding
polymastia
presence of more than two breasts
polythelia
supernumerary nipples
presence of more that one nipple on a breast
biopsy (Bx)
removal of tissue for microscopic pathologic examination
aspiration Bx
needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytological examination; also called needle biopsy
endoscopic Bx
removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination
incisional Bx
removal of a piece of suspicious tissue for microscopic examination
needle biopsy
removal of a core specimen of tissue using a special hollow needle
stereotactic breast Bx
use of x-ray imaging, a specialized stereoactic frame, and a computer to calculate, precisely locate, and direct a needle into a breast lesion for the removal of a core specimen for biopsy
colposcopy
examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, a specialized microscope used to examine the vagina and cervix, often with a camera attachment for photographs; used to document findings and follow-up treatments
hysteroscopy
use of a hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assessment of abnormalities (polyps, fibroids, anomalies)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
use of nonionizing images to detect gynecologic conditions (e.g. anomalies of the pelvis or soft tissues of the breast) or to stage tumors arising from the endometrium or cervix
Papanicolaou smear
study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities
radiograpy
x-ray imaging
hysterosalpingogram
x-ray of teh fallopian tubes after injection of contrast medium throught the cervix; used to determine tubal patency (openness)
mammogram
low dose x-ray of the breast tissue made to detect neoplasms
pelvic sonography
ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
endovaginal sonogram
ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made wtih the ultrasonic transducer within the vagina to detect conditions such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion
hysterosonogram
a transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or determine tubal patency
transabdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder, uterus, tubes and ovaries, to detect conditions such as cysts and tumors
adhesiolysis
adhesiotomy
breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions
cervical conization
removal of a cone-shaped portion of the cervix
colporrhaphy
suture to repair the vagina
anterior repair
repair of a cystocele
posterior repair
repair of a rectocele
A&P repair
anterior and posterior repair of cystocele and rectocele
cryosurgery
method of destroying tissue by freezing; used for treating dysplasia and early cancers
dialation and curettage
dialation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium to control bleeding, to obtain tissue for biopsy, or to remove polyps or products of conception
hysterectomy
removal of the uterus
abdominal hysterectomy
removal of the uterus through an incision in the abdomen
vaginal hysterectomy
removal of the uterus through the vagina
total hysterectomy
removal of the uterus and cervix
laparoscopy
inspection of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laparoscope, which is an endoscope used to examine the abdominal and pelvic regions
laparoscopic surgery
surgical procedures within the abdominal or pelvic region using a laparoscope
laser surgery
use of a laser to destroy lesions or dissect or cut tissue, used frequently in gynecology
loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)
loop configured electrosurgical device to treat precancerous cervical lesions
myomectomy
excision of fibroid tumors
oophorectomy
excision of an ovary
ovarian cystectomy
excision of an ovarian cyst
salpingectomy
excision of a uterine tube
bilateral salpingooophorectomy
excision of both uterine tubes and ovaries
salpingotomy
incision into a fallopian tube, often performed to remove an ectopic pregancy
salpingostomy
creation of an opening in the fallopian tube to open a blockage
tubal ligation
sterilization of a woman by cutting and tying (ligating) the uterine tubes
lumpectomy
excision of a breast tumor without removing any other tissue or lymph nodes, usually followed by radiation or chemothearpy if the tumor is found to be cancerous
mastectomy
removal of a breast
simple mastectomy
removal of an entire breast but with underlying muscle and axillary lymph nodes left intact
radial masterectomy
removal of an entire breast along with the underlying chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes
modified radical masterectomy
removal of an entire breast and lymph nodes of the axilla
mammoplasty
surgical reconstruction of a breast
augmentation mammoplasty
reconstruction to enlarge the breast, often by inserting an implant
reduction mammoplasty
reconstruction to remove excessive breast tissue
mastopexy
elevation of pendulous breast tissue
hormonal controceptives
hormones used to prevent conception by suppressing ovulation
oral contraceptive pill (OCP)
birth control pills
contraceptive injection
injection of the hormone into the body
contraceptive implant
insertion of a controceptive capsule under the skin to provide a continual infusion over an extented time
barrier contraceptives
products that provide a physical barrier to prevent conception (e.g. condom, diaphram)
intrauterine device (IUD)
contraceptive device inderted into the uterus that prevents implantation of a fertilized egg
spermicidals
creams, jellies, lotions or foams containing agents that kill sperm
gravida
pregnant woman
nulligravida
never having been pregnant
primigravida
first pregnancy
gravida4
fourth pregancy
para
to bear; a woman who as produced one or more viable (live outside the uterus) offspring
nullipara
a woman who has not borne a child
primipara
first delivery
multipara
a woman who has given birth to two or more children
para4
four pregnancys resulting in births
cervical effacement
progressive obliteration of the endocervical canal during delivery
estimated date of confinement (EDC)
estimated date of dilivery (EDD)
expected date for delivery of the baby, normaly 280 days or 40 weeks from last menstrual period (LMP)
meconium staining
presence of meconium in amniotic fluid
ruptured membranes
rupture of the amniotic sac, usually at onset of labor
macrosomia
large-bodied baby commonly seen in diabetic pregnancies
polyhydramnios
excessive amniotic fluid
abortion (AB)
expulsion of the product of conception before the fetus is viable (able to live outside the uterus)
spontaneous abortion (SAB)
miscarriage; expulsion of products of conception occurring naturally
habitual abortion
spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more consecutive pregnancies
incomplete abortion
incomplete expulsion of products of conception
missed abortion
death of a fetus or embryo within the uterus that is not naturally expelled after death
threatened abortion
bleeding with the treat of miscarriage
cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
condition preventing normal delivery through the birth canal; either the baby's head is too large or the birth canal is too small
eclampsia
true toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions, and coma
preeclampsia
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions and coma
ectopic pregnancy
inplantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in the tube or ovary, or rarely in the abdominal cavity
erythroblastosis fetalis
disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor and a mother who is Rh-negative, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus
Rh Factor
presnce or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fatal anemia
hyperemesis gravidarum
severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother and fetus
meconium aspiration
fetal aspiration of amniotic fluid containing meconium
placenta previa
displaced attachment of the placenta in the lower region of the uterine cavity
abruptio placentae
premature detachment of a normally situated placenta
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
sampling of placental tissue for microscopic and chemical examinatio to detect fetal abnormalities
amniocentesis
aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
fetal monitoring
use of an electronic device for simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions
pelvimetry
obstetric measurement of pelvis to evaluate proper conditions for vaginal delivery
pregnancy test
test performed on urine or blood to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (secreted by the placenta) which indicates pregnancy
endovaginal sonogram
transvaginal sonogram
ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, ovaries made after introduction of an ultrasound tansducer within the vagina; useful for detecting pathology
obstetric sonogram
ultrasound image of the pregnant uterus to determine fetal development
cesarean section (c-section)
surgical delivery of a baby through an incision through the abdomen and into the uterus
episiotomy
incision of the perineum to facilitate delivery
amnioinfusion
introduction of a solution into the amniotic sac; an isotonic solution is most commonly used to relieve fetal distress
therapeutic abortion (TAB)
abortion induced by mechanical means or by drugs for medical reasons
version
manual method for reversing the position of the fetus, usually done to facilitate dilivery
external version
abdominal manipulation
internal version
intravaginal manipulation
abortifacient
drug that causes abortion (i.e. mifepristone, RU-486)
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that causes myometrial contraction, used to induce labor
Rh immune globulin
immunizing agent giving to an Rh-neg mother within 72 hours after dilivering an Rh-pos baby to supress Rh immune responce
tocolytic agent
drug used to stop labor contractions