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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal/o
adrenal gland
andr/o
male
crin/o
to screte
dips/o
thrist
gluc/o
glyc/o
sugar
hormon/o
hormone
ket/o
keton/o
ketone bodies
pancreat/o
pancreas
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
adrenal glands
suprarenal glands
located on the superior surface of each kidney
adrenal cortex scretes steriod hormones
adrenal medula scretes epinephrine
steriod hormones
glucocorticoids
mineral corticosteroids
androgens
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance; have some effect on sexual characteristics
epinephrine
norepinephrine
affect sympathetic nervous systems in stress responce
ovaries
lacted on both sides of the uterus, screte estrogen and progesterone
estrogen
progesterone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation of reproduction
pancreas
located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, secreting insulin and glucagons
insulin
glucagons
regulate carbohydrate and sugar metabolism
parathyroid glands
two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, secreting parathyroid hormone (PTH)
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, secreting melatonin and serotonin
melatonin
exact fucntion unknown; affects onset of puberty
serotonin
a neurotransmitter that serves as the percursor to melatonin
pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain; contains anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) pituitary portions
tyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
follicle stimulatiing hormone (FSH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
luteinizing hormone (LH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
affects skin pigmentation
growth hormone (GH)
anterior pituitary hormone:
influences growth
prolactin
(lactogenic hormone)
stimulates breast development and milk production during pregancy
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
posterior pituitary hormone:
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
oxytocin
posterior pituitary hormone:
influences uterine contraction
testes
located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secreting testosterone
testosterone
affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland
located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart secretomg thymosin
thymosin
regulates immune responce
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, secreting triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
triiodothyronine
regulate metabolism
thyroxine
calcitonin
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
exophthalmos
exophthalmus
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
glucosuria
glycosuria
glucose (sugar) in the urine
hirsutism
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places (bearded lady)
hypercalcemia
hypocalcemia
abnormally high/low level of calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
high/low blood sugar
hyperkalemia
hypokalemia
abnormally high/low level of potassium in the blood
hypersecretion
abnormally high/low secretion
ketosis
ketoacidosis
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of keytone bodies in the blood and urine, indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates such as in uncontroled diabetes and starvation
metabolism
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyuria
excessive urination
Cushing Syndrome
collection of signs and symptoms caused by excessive levle of cortisol hormone from any cause.
symptomoms: upper body obesity, facial puffyness, easily brused
adrenal virilism
excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by apearence of male traits
diabetes mellitus (DM)
pancreas:
metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glycosuria
insulin
pancreas:
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
type 1 diabetes mellitus
pancreas:
diabetes in which these is no beta cell production of insulin. the patient is dependent of insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes mellitus
pancreas:
diabetes in which these isn't enough insulin production or too much resistance to insulin. the patient isn't dependent of insulin for survival
hyperinsulinism
pancreas:
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood, draws sugar out of the blood stream
pancreatitis
pancreas:
inflamation of the pancreas
hyperparathyroidism
parathyroid glands:
hyptersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
hypoparathyroidism
parathyroid glands:
hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
acromegaly
pituitary gland:
disease characterized by enlarged featues, especially the face and hands
pituitary dwarfism
pituitary gland:
condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone, slowing growth causing short but proportional statue, no intelligence changes
pituitary gigantism
condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood, abnormal overgrowth of long bones
goiter
enlargment of thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, or lack of deitary iodine
hyperthyroidism
graves disease
thyrotoxicosis
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by protrusion of the eyeball, tachycardia, goiter and tumor
hypothyroidism
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland characteized by sluggishness, slow pulse, and obesity
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pluse, puffiness in hands and face, and dry skin
cretinism
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development
blood sugar (BS)
blood glucose
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a fasting (not eating) for 12 hours
postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal (~2 hours later)
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose leves every hours thereafter for 4-6 hours
glycohemoglobin
molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin that rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
electrolytes
measurement of level of specific ions (sodium, potassium, CO2) in the blood; electrolyter balance is essential for normal metabolism
thyroid function study
measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions, including T3, T4, TSH
urine sugar and ketone studies
chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as a screen for diabetes
computed tomography (CT)
CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse (horizontal) view of the pituitary gland
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormailities of the pituitary, pancreas, adrenal and thyroid glands
sonography
sonographic images used to identity endocrine pathology, such as a thyroid ultrasound
thyroid uptake and image
nuclear image produced by a scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previoulsy injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
adrenalectomy
excision of adrenal gland
hypophysectomy
excision of pituitary gland
pancreatectomy
excision of pancreas
parathyroidectomy
excision of parathyroid gland
thymectomy
excision of thymus gland
thyroidectomy
excision of thyroid gland
radioiodine thearpy
use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells; treatment is administered in a nuclear medicine facility
antihypoglycemic
a drug that raises blood glucose
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
treatment with a hormone to correct a hormone deficiency (e.g. estrogen, testosterone, thyroid)
hypoglycemic
antihyperglycemic
drug that lowers blood glucose (e.g. insulin)