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199 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cerebr/o
cerebrum, large part of the brian
cerebell/o
cerebellum, little brain
crani/o
skull
encephal/o
entire brain
esthesi/o
sensation
gangli/o
ganglion, knot
gli/o
glue
gnos/o
knowing
kinesi/o
movement
lex/o
word or phrase
mening/o
meningi/o
meninges, membrane
myel/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
narc/o
stupor,sleep
neur/o
nerve
phas/o
speech
phob/o
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phor/o
carry, bear
phren/o
psych/o
thym/o
mind
schiz/o
split
somat/o
body
somn/o
somn/i
hypn/o
sleep
spin/o
spine
spondyl/o
vertebr/o
vertebra
stere/o
three dimensional or solid
ton/o
tone, tension
tax/o
order or coordination
thalam/o
thalamus, a room
top/o
place
ventricul/o
ventricle, belly or pouch
cata-
down
-asthenia
weakness
-lepsy
seizure
-mania
abnormal impulse towards
-paresis
slight paralysis
-plegia
paralysis
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
brain
portion of the central nervous system contained in the cranium
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain; divided into left and right halves, which are connected by the corpus callosum
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental fucntions
thalamus
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci
shallow grooves in the brain
fissures
deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem
resion of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebeum, cerebellum and spinal cord; responsible for breathing , heart rate, and body temp
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasmalike clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord; dura mater, oia mater, arachnoid mater
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial verces) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
motor nerves
nerves that also conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and various glands
hypothalamus
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS converned with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. returns body to state of rest
aphasia
inability to speak
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
coma
deep sleep
delirium
state of mental confusion, caused by disturbances in cerebral fucntion
dementia
impairment of intellectual function; memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit
loss of impairment of sensation
neuralgia
pain along the course of a nerve
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
flaccid paralysis
defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paralysis
stiff or awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
hemiparesis
partial parralysis of one side of the body (right/left)
sciatica
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression of the nerve at it's roots
seizure
sudden transient disturbances in the brain function resulting from abnormal firiing of nerve impulses (may or may not have convulsions)
convulsion
to pull together; type of sezure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
syncope
fainting
tactile stimulation
evoking a responce by touching
hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch and pain
paresthesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
agnosia
any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
astereognosis
inability to judge the form of an object by touch
atopognosis
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
alzheimer disease
disease of structural changes in the brain
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development, partial paralysis
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis
fatty plaqe buildup in vessels of the brain
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of blood vessel in the brain
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by a moving clot.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease; e.g. occlusion of a vessel (stoke)
trasient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain; usualy caused by partial occlusion, often preceded CVA
encephalitis
inflamation of the brain
epilepsy
disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrnent seizures
tonic-clonic
stifening-kerking, major motor seizure involving all muscle groups
absence
seizure involing brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement
glioma
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignacy
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated intervertebral disk, causes compression of nerve
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, painful blisters (shingles)
huntington chorea
hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements
hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulaiton of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
meningioma
benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (meninges
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
migraine headache
paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache
multiple sclerosis
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrase in muscle strength
myelitis
inflamation of the spinal cord
narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep
parkinson disease
slowly progressive degeneration of nerves in the brain characterized by tremor, etc
plegia
paralysis
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
paraplegia
paralysis from waist down
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity
polyneuritis
inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by nutritional defiecny
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep
spina bifida
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches
electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of minute electrical impluses in the brain, detect nurological disorders
evoked potentials
minute electrical waves that are sorted out of ongoing EEG activity into diagnose
polysomnography
recording various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine. spinal tap
magnetic resonance imaging
magnetic fields to visulize soft tissues
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of the blood vessels for detecting conditions
intracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the head to visulize the vessels of the circle of willis (common problem area)
extracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the neck to visulize the carotid artery
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
SPECT brain scan
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
positron emission tomography
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes

like SPECT, but better and more expensive
radiography
xray imageing
cerebral antgiogram
xray of the blood vessels of the brain, after injection of contrast
computed tomography
computed tomographic xray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities
myelogram
xray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
reflex testing
test performed to observe the bodies responce to a stimulus
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
test of responce to stimlus

involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon

rated from 1-4
1=low responce
2=normal
4=exagerated
Babinski reflex
pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (turn upward)
transcranial sonogram
image made from ultrasound beams, used to diagnose blood flow.
craiectomy
excision of part of the skull to aproach the brain
craniotomy
incision into the skull
diskectomy
removal of a herniated disk, often done percutaneously (through skin)
laminectomy
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to aproach the spinal cord
vertebral lamina
flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
microsurgery
use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgury
neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies infections and other diseases with chemical agents
radiation thearpy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
stereotactic radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions, multiple precise external radiation beams
stereotactic frame
device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
analgesic
relives pain
sedative
agent that quiets nervousness
hypnotic
agent that induces sleep
affect
emotional feeling or mood
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone
apathy
lack of interest or display of emotion
catatonia
state of unresponsiveness to ones outside environment, usually uncluding muscle rigidity, staring and inabiliity to communicate
delusion
persistant belief that has no basis in reality
grandiose delusion
false belief of possesion of great wealth/power
persecutory delusion
flase belief that someone is plotting against them
dysphoria
restless, dissatisfied mood
euphoria
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
hallucination
false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, hearing or seeing things
ideation
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
mania
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
neurosis
phychologic condition in whihc anxiety is prominent
psychosis
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, inability to communicate or fucntion
thoguht disorder
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
major affective disorder
unipolar disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, slepp, activity, social behavior
dysthymia
milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur in the fall
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic excessive uncontrolaable worry about everyday problems.
major affective disorder
unipolar disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, slepp, activity, social behavior
dysthymia
milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur in the fall
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic excessive uncontrolaable worry about everyday problems.
panic disorder (PD)
disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings
phobia
exaggerated fear of a specific object
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from an extremely traumatic exerience, presistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal
obsessive compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions
hypochondriasis
preoccupation with thoguhts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition
autism
developmental disability, neurologic disorder affecting brain function
dyslexia
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity
mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ <70
anorexia nervosa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions of self
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binging and purging
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances
schizophrenia
disease of the brain chemestry causeing a distorted congnitive and emotional preception of the environment
electroconvulsive thearpy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions, used to treat sever depression
light thearpy
specialized light boxes to treat seasonal affect
psychothearapy
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and non-verbal interaction with paients
behavioral threarpy
treatment to decrese or stop unwanted behavior
cognitive threapy
treatment to changed unwanted patterns of thinking
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illness
antianxiety agents
anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia