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504 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nas/o
nose
sinus/o
sinuses
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o
lungs
upper respiratory tract
nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea
lower respiratory tract
bronchial tree & lungs
nasal septum
wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections
mucous membranes
specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems
mucus
secreted by the mucous membranes, protects and lubricates these tissues.
tonsils
form a protective circle around the entrance to the respiratory system
paranasal sinuses
located in the bones of the skull, are connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts
frontal sinuses
located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows
sphenoid sinuses
located in the sphenoid bone, are close to the optic nerves. an infection can damage vision
sinus
an air-filled cavity within a bone that is lines with mucous membrane.
maxillary sinuses
the largest of the paranasal sinuses, located in maxillary bones. infection=pain in these teeth
ethmoid sinuses
located in ethmoid bones, are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone
pharynx
a.k.a.- throat
made of 3 divisions: naso-, oro-, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx
posterior to nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth
--only air
oropharynx
portion that is visible when looking into the mouth
transports air, food, and fluids downward
laryngopharynx
air, food, fluid downward to esophagus & trachea
larynx
a.k.a.-voice box, triangular chamber b/t pharynx & trachea
thyroid cartilage
largest of cartilages that protect & hold open larynx
a.k.a.- Adam's apple
vocal cords
contained in larynx, open during breathing, closed during speech
epiglottis
lidlike structure @ base of tongue, swings downward & closes off laryngopharynx so food doesn't enter trachea & lungs
trachea
air passes from larynx to lungs, a.k.a.- windpipe
alveoli
air sacs
right lung
3 lobes
left lung
2 lobes, smaller than right
mediastinum
the cavity b/t the lungs, contains heart, its veins & arteries, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland & lymph nodes
pleura
thin, moist, & slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs & lines inner surface of rib cage
parietal pleura
outer layer of pleura, lines walls of thoracic cavity, covers diaphragm, forms sac containing each lung.
visceral pleura
inner layer of pleura surrounds each lung
pleural space/cavity
airtight area b/t layers of pleural membranes containing a thin layer of fluid
diaphragm
muscle that separates thoracic cavity from abdomen
phrenic nerve
stimulates diaphragm, causes it to contract
external respiration
=breathing: act of bringing air into & out of lungs
intercostal muscles
move rib cage during breathing
inhalation
=inhaling... diaphragm contracts & pulls downward
exhalation
=exhaling... diaphragm relaxes, moves upward
internal respiration
exchange of gases within the cells of all body organs & tissues
otolaryngologist/ otorhinolaryngologist
specialist of ears, nose, throat
pulmonologist
specialist of lungs & associated tissues
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
irreversible respiratory conditions characterized by chronic airflow limitations
emphysema
progressive loss of lung function (long-term smoking); decrease in total number of alveoli, enlargement of alveoli, & progressive destruction of walls/alveoli
asthma
chronic allergic disorder--episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, & wheezing
common cold
upper respiratory infection, acute nasopharyngitis
allergic rhinitis
=an allergy, an allergic rxn to airborne allergens that cause an increased flow of mucus
Croup
acute resp. syndrome in children, characterized by obstruction of larynx, hoarseness, & barking cough
diphtheria
acute bacterial infection of throat & upper resp. tract.
epistaxis
=nosebleed
influenza
=flu; acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection spread by resp. droplets, occurs in epidemics
pertussis
=whooping cough; contagious bact. inf. of upper resp. tract, char. by recurrent bouts of paroxysmal cough, breathlessness, noisy inspiration
Rhinorrhea
=runny nose; watery flow of mucus from nose
sinusitis
inflammation of sinuses
pharyngitis
= sore throat; infl. of pharynx
laryngoplegia
paralysis of larynx
laryngospasm
sudden spasmodic closure of larynx
aphonia
loss of ability of larynx to produce normal speech sounds
dysphonia
any change in vocal quality including hoarseness, weakness, or cracking of boy's voice during puberty
laryngitis
inflammation of larynx; describes voice loss caused by inflammation
para-
near
or/o
mouth
phren-
diaphragm
rhin/o
nose
-rrhea
abnormal discharge
-spasm
sudden involuntary contraction
phon
voice or sound
tracheorrhagia
bleeding from the mucous membranes of trachea
-rrhagia
bleeding
bronchiectasis
chronic, irreversible enlargement of bronchi or bronchioles
- often result of lung infection
-ectasis
enlargement
bronchitis
inflammation of bronchial walls
-usually caused by infection, but also by irritants (smoking)
bronchorrhea
excessive discharge of mucus from bronchi
pleurisy
=pleuritis; inflammation of pleura that produces chest pain with each breath
pleurodynia
pain in the pleura occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumothorax
accumulation of air in pleural space causing pressure imbalance that can make the lung collapse (can be external or internal cause)
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural space. produces feeling of breathlessness b/c it prevents lung from fully expanding
empyema
= pyothorax: accumulation of pus in pleural cavity
hemothorax
collection of blood in pleural cavity
hemoptysis
coughing up of blood from lungs or bronchial tubes
-ptysis
spitting
SARS
Severe acute resp. syn.= sometimes fatal viral resp. disorder, begins w/ fever & progresses to dry nonproductive cough & severe breathing difficulty
ARDS
acute resp. distress syn.= not a spec. disease. form of sudden onset severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, makes breathing extremely diff. caused by trauma, sepsis, diffuse pneumonia, or shock
pulmonary edema
an accumulation of fluid in lung tissues
pneumorrhagia
bleeding from the lungs
atel-
incomplete
-ectasis
stretching
atelectasis
condition in which the lung fails to expand completely bc of shallow breathing or bc the air passages are blocked. also used to describe a condition in which the lungs of a fetus are not fully expanded at birth. can result in a partially or totally collapsed lung.
tuberculosis
an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks the lungs, but can attack other parts of body. Occurs most often in people with weakened immune system.
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
dangerous form of TB bc germs have become reisistant to effect of primary TB drugs
Pneumonia
serious infection or infl. of lungs in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill w/ pus & other liquid
bronchopneumonia
form of pneumonia that affects patches of the bronchioles throughout both lungs
lobar pneumonia
affects 1 or more sections, or lobes, of a lung
double pneumonia
lobar pneumonia involving both lungs, usually a form of bacterial pneumonia
bacterial pneumonia
often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae; only form of pneumonia that can be prevented thru vaccination
viral pneumonia
caused by several diff. types of viruses, accounts for approx. 1/2 of all pneumonias
aspiration pneumonia
foreign substance inhaled into lungs
mycoplasma pneumonia
a.k.a.- atypical or walking pneumonia= milder but longer lasting form of the disease caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
caused by an infection with the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. PCP= opportunistic infection frequently occurs when immune sys. is weakened by an HIV infection.
interstitial lung diseases
ILDs= group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflamm. & scarring of alveoli & their supporting structures, the interstitium. leads to reduction of oxygen being transferred to blood.
interstitial fibrosis
inflamm. & thickening of the walls of the alveoli
fibrosis
condition in which normal tissue is replaced by fibrotic (hardened) tissue.
coni
dust
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of enviromental or occupational contact.
anthrac
coal dust
anthracosis
a.k.a.- coal worker's pneumoconiosis or black lung disease.
caused by coal dust in the lungs
asbest
asbestos
asbestosis
caused by asbestos particles in the lungs
byssin
cotton dust
byssinosis
a.k.a.- brown lung disease
caused by inhaling cotton dust into the lungs and usually occurs in a textile factory environment
silic
glass
silicosis
progressive lung disease caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs
pulmonary fibrosis
the formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity & increased difficulty in breathing.
cystic fibrosis
CF= genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
eu-
good
-pnea
breathing
eupnea
easy or normal breathing; baseline for judging some breathing disorders
tachy-
rapid
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of resp. usually of more than 20 breaths per min.
-ventilation
breathing
hyperventilation
occurs when an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration results in a change of blood gas levels due to a decrease in carbon dioxide at the cellular level
brady-
slow
bradypnea
an abnormally slow rate of resp.
usually of less than 10 breaths per min.
apnea
the absence of spontaneous resp.
sleep apnea syndromes
a group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels.
snoring
noisy breathing caused by vibration of the soft palate during sleep, may be symptom of sleep apnea
cheyne-stokes respiration
pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea of apnea, followed by hyperpnea
dys-
painful
dyspnea
a.k.a.- shortness of breath
difficult or labored breathing. (one of first symptoms of heart failure)
hyperpnea
an increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
hypopnea
shallow or slow respiration
airway obstruction
food or foreign object blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs. =life threatening emergency
smoke inhalation
damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent the normal exchange of gases.
respiratory failure
=respiratory acidosis: condition in which the level of oxygen in blood becomes dangerously low (or level of CO2 becomes dangerously high)
anoxia
the absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues
If more than 4-6 mins.= irreversible brain damage.
hyp-
deficient
-emia
blood
hypoxemia
condition of having below normal oxygen level in blood
hypoxia
condition of having below normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells
capn
carbon dioxide
hypercapnia
the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.
asphyxia
condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function.
asphyxiation
=suffocation: any interruption of breathing resulting in asphyxia.
cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen
SIDS=
sudden infant death syndrome= crib death: the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy infant between the ages of 2 weeks and 1 yr.
respiration
=respiratory rate: an important vital sign
pulse oximeter
an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe. Measures the oxygen saturation level in blood. normal= 95-100% saturation
spir/o
to breathe
spirometry
noninvasive test in which a patient breathes into a device that measures airflow, the length of time of each breath, and air volume
peak flow meter
handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly they can expel air.
pulmonary function tests
group of tests used to measure the capacity of the lungs to hold air as well as their ability to move air in and out and to exchange oxygen and CO2
phlegm
thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages.
sputum
phlegm that is ejected through the mouth
somn/o
sleep
polysomnography
=sleep apnea study: measures physiological activity during sleep and is most often performed to detect noctunal defects in breathing assoc. w/ sleep apnea
bronchoscopy
visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope.
bronchoscope
flexible, fiber-optic device that is passed thru the nose and down the airways
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope inserted thru the mouth and placed into the pharynx to examine the larynx
tuberculin skin testing
screening test for TB in which the skin of the arm is injected w/ a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria.
Mantoux PPD skin test
considered more accurate for diagnosing TB. Very small amount of purified protein derivative tuberculin is injected just under the top layer of skin on forearm. Site checked for reaction 48-72 hrs. later
chest imaging
=chest x-rays: valuable tool to show pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, TB, & emphysema
bronchodilator
agent that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs.
metered dose inhaler
=MDI: mixes a single dose of medication with a puff of air and pushes it into the mouth via a chemical propellant
nebulizer
dispenses larger doses of medication in the form of a mist that is inhaled via a face mask or mouthpiece
tuss
cough
-ive
performs
antitussive
administered to prevent or relieve coughing
sept/o
septum
septoplasty
surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum
functional endoscopic sinus surgery
surgical procedure, performed using an endoscope, in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus.
pharyngoplasty
surgical repair of the pharynx
pharyngotomy
surgical incision of the pharynx
laryngectomy
surgical removal of the larynx
endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube thru the nose or mouth into the trachea to est. or maintain an open airway
tracheoplasty
surgical repair of the trachea
tracheotomy
usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage (usually temporary)
tracheostomy
the creation of an opening into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions
stoma
an opening on a body surface; can occur naturally or may be created surgically
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of all or part of a lung
lobectomy
surgical removal of a lobe of the lung
pleurectomy
surgical removal of part of the pleura
thora
chest
thoracentesis
surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
thorac
thorax or chest
thoracotomy
surgical incision thru the chest wall: incision is made into the pleural space for the visual examination of internal organs & the procurement of tissue specimens
thoracostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity: performed to establish drainage of empyema
supplemental oxygen
administered thru a nasal cannula, using either a rebreather or non-rebreather mask.
postural drainage
patient is tilted head or chest downward to allow gravity to help drain secreations from the lungs
ventilator
mechanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function (forces air into lungs)
respirator
machine used for prolonged artificial respiration.
positive pressure ventilation
used to treat sleep apnea by pumping a steady supply of air into the nose all night thru a tube and mask
diaphragmatic breathing
=abdominal breathing: a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CF
cystic fibrosis
diph
diphtheria
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
pneu, pneum
pneumonia
PPV
positive pressure ventilation
PD
postural drainage
PFT
pulmonary function test
PPD
purified protein derivative
R, Resp
respiration
RF
respiration failure
RR
respiratory rate
SARS
severe acute respiratory syndrome
SIDS
sudden infant death syndrome
URI
upper respiratory infection
or/o
mouth
stomat/o
mouth
gastr/o
stomach
enter/o
small intestine
col/o, colon/o
large intestine
an/o
anus
rect/o
rectum
proct/o
rectum & anus
hepat/o
liver
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
aliment
to nourish
upper GI tract
mouth, esophagus, stomach
lower GI tract
small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
mouth
lips, hard & soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, periodontium
cheil/o
mouth
hard palate
bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
rugae
irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane, cover the anterior portion of the hard palate
soft palate
forms the flexible posterior portion of the palate; closes off nasal passage during swallowing
uvula
hangs from free edge of soft palate, moves upward with soft palate during swallowing
dentition
refers to the natural teeth arranged in the maxillary and mandibular arches
edentulous
without teeth (after natural teeth have been removed)
teeth used for biting and tearing
incisors & canines/cuspids
teeth used for chewing and grinding
premolars/bicuspids & molars
primary/deciduous dentition
baby teeth= 20 teeth
permanent dentition
= 32 teeth
occlusion
any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper & lower teeth
malocclusion
any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
crown
portion that is visible
enamel
covers the crown= hardest substance in the body
root
holds tooth securely in place within the dental arch
cementum
protects the root, not as hard as enamel
dentin
bulk of tooth, protected by enamel & cementum
pulp chamber
inner area of crown that runs downward to form the root canals
pulp
made up of rich supply of blood vessels & nerves
odonti
teeth
periodontium
consists of bone & soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
gingiva
=gums
salivary glands
secrete saliva that moistens food, begins digestive process, and cleanses mouth
parotid glands
located on the face in front of and slightly lower than each ear.
sublingual glands
located on the underside of the tongue
submandibular glands
located on the floor of the mouth
gullet
=esophagus: collapsable tube that leads from the pharynx to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter
=cardiac sphincter: b/t esphagus & stomach
antrum
lower part of stomach
rugae
folds in the mucosa lining the stomach
pylorus
narrow passage connecting the stomach with the small int.
pyloric sphincter
b/t stomach & duodenum
duodenum
first portion of sm. int.
digestive juices from pancreas and liver are received here
jejunum
middle portion of sm. int.
secretes large amounts of digestive enzymes
ileum
last & longest portion of sm. int.
absorption of nutrients
rectum
last division of the lg. int., ends at anus
anorectal
anus & rectum as a single unit
glucose
blood sugar
glycogen
form of starch
bilirubin
pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, released by liver in bile
bile
yellowish-green fluid containing enzymes that break down fat.
biliary tree
=biliary system: channels thru which bile is transported from liver to sm. int.
common hepatic duct
ducts in liver join
cystic duct
from gallbladder to common hepatic duct
common bile duct
common hepatic + cystic
pancreatic juices
made up of sodium bicarbonate (to help neutralize stomach acids) and digestive enzymes (to process protein, carbs, fats in food)
nutrient
substance that is necessary for normal functioning of the body
primary nutrients
carbohydrates, fats, proteins
essential nutrients
vitamins, minerals (required only in small amounts)
metabol
change
-ism
condition
metabolism
sum of anabolism & catabolism: all the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
anabolism
the building up of body cells and substrates from nutrients
catabolism
the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
absorption
completely digested nutrients are taken into the circulatory system by passing thru the capillaries located in the walls of the sm. int.
bolus
mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
chyme
semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach, into sm. int
borborygmus
rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatus
flatulence
orth
straight or normal
bolus
mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
chyme
semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach, into sm. int
borborygmus
rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatus
flatulence
orth
straight or normal
aphthous ulcers
=canker sores, mouth ulcers: grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth
herpes labialis
=cold sores, fever blisters: HSV-1
xer/o
dry
-stoma
mouth
xerostomia
dry mouth: lack of adequate saliva
oral thrush
infections in infants characterized by white spots inside the mouth (candida albicans)
cleft lip
=harelip: developmental defect resulting in a deep fissure of the lip running upward to the nose
cleft palate
failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus.
bruxism
involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress.
dental caries
=tooth decay, cavity: infectious disease that destroys the enamel and dentin of the tooth.
dental plaque
soft deposit consisting of bacteria and bacterial by-products that builds up on the teeth and is a major cause of dental caries and periodontal disease.
dental calculus
=tarter: hardened dental plaque on the teeth that irritates the surrounding tissues.
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
=trench mouth: caused by abnormal growth of bact. in the mouth. Usually occurs in teens or young adults
temporomandibular disorders
TMD: pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing- related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint
-phagia
swallowing
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
gastroesophageal reflux disease
=esophageal reflux: the upward flow of stomach acid into the esoph.
pyr
fever or fire
pyrosis
heartburn: burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
hiat
opening
hiatal hernia
protrusion of part of the stomach thru the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm
gastritis
common inflamm. of the stomach lining often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
gastrorrhea
the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach
pept
digestion
peptic ulcers
affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system
anorexia
the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance, leads to intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.= compulsive dieting & exercising
bulimia
frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, etc.
Pica
eating disorder in which there is persistent eating of nonfood substances such as soil, chalk, starch or clay
malnutrition
lack of proper food or nutrients in the body, either due to shortage of food or the improper absorption or distribution of nutrients
malabsorption
sm. int. cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes thru it.
aerophagia
excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking--> gas in stomach
eructation
belching
-pepsia
digestion
dyspepsia
=indigestion: pain or discomfort in digestion
emesis
=vomiting:
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hyperemesis
extreme, persistent vomiting
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
colorectal carcinoma
common form of cancer that often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon
diverticulum
pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ
diverticulitis
the infl. of one or more diverticula in the colon
diverticulosis
the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
ileus
partial or complete blockage of the sm and/or lg. int.-- caused by cessation of intestinal peristalsis
irritable bowel syndrome
=spastic colon; unknown cause
ulcerative colitis
chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of infl. in the rectum & lg int cause ulcers & irritation
Crohn's disease
chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract, most often in ileum and colon.
intestinal obstruction
partial or complete blockage of sm &/or lg int. caused by a physical obstruction
volvulus
twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
intussusception
telescoping of one part of the sm. int. into the opening of the immediately adjacent part.
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a small loop of bowel thru a weak place in the groin
strangulated hernia
portion of the int. is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off
anal fissure
small tear in the skin of the anus that can cause severe pain during a bowel movement.
amebic dysentery
E. histolytica
Botulism
Clostridium botulinum
Cholera
Vibrio cholerae
E. coli
Escherichia coli
Salmonella
Salmonella
Typhoid fever
Salmonella typhi
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces.
constipation
decrease in frequency in the passage of stools, or difficulty in passing hard, dry stools
Hemorrhoids
=piles: occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or thru the anal opening
melena
the passage of stools with a black and tarlike appearance, caused by the presence of digested blood
jaundice
=icterus: yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
cirrh
yellow or orange
cirrhosis
progressive degenerative disease of the liver in which scar tissue replaces normal tissue
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
cholecystalgia
pain in the gall bladder
gallstone
=biliary calculus
chole
bile or gall
-lithiasis
presence of stones
cholelithiasis
presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
HAV
Hepatitis A virus: infectious hepatitis
HBV
Hepatitis B virus: serum hepatitis
tom/o
slice
abdominal CT
=CT scan: cross-section of the tissue structure within the abd., showing, for ex. the presence of a tumor or obstruction
abdominal ultrasound
noninvasive test to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
Given Diagnostic Imaging System
=capsule endoscopy: tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows
anoscopy
visual exam. of the anal canal and lower rectum
upper GI series
lower GI series
Barium swallow
barium enema
--radiographic studies to examine the digestive system
enema
solution placed into the rectum and colon to empty the lower int. thru bowel activity.
-occult
hidden
hemoccult
=fecal occult blood test: laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools
O & P
Ova and parasites: present in stool samples
colonoscopy
direct visual exam. of the inner surface of the colon from the rectum to the cecum
sigmoidoscopy
endoscopic exam. of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
acid blockers
taken before eating, block effect of histamine that signals the stomach to produce acid
antacids
relieve indigestion or help peptic ulcers heal by neutralizing stomach acids
emet
vomiting
emetic
ex: syrup of ipecac: medication that is administered to produce vomiting
antiemetic
administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
Oral rehydration therapy
solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract dehydration
maxillofacial surgery
specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries
palatoplasty
surgical repair of a cleft palate
dental prophylaxis
the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus
nasogastric intubation
the placement of a tube thru the nose & into the stomach
gastroduodenostomy
the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the est. of an anastomosis b/t the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
anastomosis
surgical connection b/t 2 hollow or tubular structures
ileectomy
surgical removal of the ileum
ostomy
surgical procedure to create an artificial opening b/t an organ and the body surface
proctectomy
surgical removal of the rectum
proctopexy
surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
choledoch/o
common bile duct
choledocholithotomy
an incision in the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
=lap choley: surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope and other instruments inserted thru 3 or 4 sm. incisions in the abdominal wall.
BMI
body mass index
chole
cholecystectomy
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
FOBT
fecal occult blood test
GB
gallbladder
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
HH
hiatal hernia
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
O & P
ova and parasites
HSV-1
oral herpes simplex virus type 1
TMD
temporomandibular disorders
combining terms for kidneys
nephr/o, ren/o
pyel/o
renal pelvis
cyst/o
urinary bladder
home/o
sameness
nephrons
functional unit of the kidneys
glomerulus
cluster of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule
-chrome
color
urochrome
pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color
urethral meatus
=urinary meatus: external opening of urethra
renal failure
=kidney failure: inability of one or both kidneys to perform their functions
anuria
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
uremia
=uremic poisoning: toxic condition caused by excessive amount of urea and other waste products in the bloodstream
acute renal failure
sudden onset and is characterized by uremia
chronic renal failure
the progressive loss of renal function due to a variety of conditions
end-stage renal disease
the late stages of chronic renal failure, in which there is irreversible loss of function of both kidneys
nephrotic syndrome
very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and low levels of protein are present in the blood
nephrosis
any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation
edema
excessive fluid in the body tissues
hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
hyperlipidemia
the presence of abnormally large amounts of lipids in the blood
diabetic nephropathy
kidney disease characterized by hyperproteinuria, result of thickening and hardening of the glomeruli (caused by long-term diabetes mellitus)
hydronephrosis
dilation of one or both kidneys
-ectasis
enlargement or stretching
nephrectasis
distention of a kidney
nephroptosis
=floating kidney: the prolapse, or downward displacement, of a kidney
nephropyosis
suppuration of the kidney
polycystic kidney disease
an inherited kidney disorder in which the kidneys become enlarged b/c of multiple cysts
renal colic
acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone
hydroureter
distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
ureterectasis
distention of a ureter
ureterorrhagia
discharge of blood from the ureter
ureterostenosis
a narrowing of the ureter due to a stricture caused by scar tissue
cyst
bladder
cystalgia
=cystodynia: pain in the urinary bladder
cystocele
=fallen bladder: a hernia of the bladder thru the vaginal wall
UTIs
=urinary tract infections: usually begin in the bladder
vesic/o
bladder
vesicovaginal fistula
an abnormal opening b/t the bladder and vagina
urethrorrhea
abnormal discharge from the urethra
epispadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening: Male: opening on upper surface
Female: opening in region of clitoris
hypospadias
congenital abnormality of the urethral opening: Male: opening on under surface
Female: opening into vagina
paraspadias
congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis
diur
increasing the output of urine
diuresis
increased excretion of urine
dysuria
difficult of painful urination
enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine
nocturnal enuresis
bed-wetting
nocturia
excessive urination during the night
olig-
scanty
oliguria
scanty urination
polyuria
excessive urination
urinary hesitancy
difficulty in starting a urinary stream
urinary retention
the inability to empty the bladder
urinary incontinence
inability to control the voiding of urine
stress incontinence
inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress
overactive bladder
=urge incontinence: occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active
catheterization
performed when a sterile specimen is required for diagnostic purposes
cystoscopy
=cysto: visual exam of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
intravenous pyelogram
IVP: radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to dianose changes inthe urinary tract.
excretory urography
an intravenously administered contrast medium is used to define the kidneys and ureters more clearly
CT scan
computerized tomography: frequently used instead of IVP as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system
KUB
=flat-plate of the abdomen: a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contrast medium
retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra thru a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward thru the urinary tract
cystography
radiographic exam. of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter
voiding cystourethrography
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and thru the urethra
diuretics
medications administered to increase urine secretion to rid the body of excess sodium and water
dia-
complete or through
dialysis
procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function
peritoneal dialysis
the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as a filter to remove waste from the blood
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CAPD: provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his daily activities
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
CCPD: uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps
nephrolysis
the freeing of a kidney from adhesions
nephrostomy
the establishment of an opening b/t the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body
-tripsy
to crush
lithotripsy
=extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: the destruction of a kidney, urinary, or bladder stone with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling thru water or gel
nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a kidney stone thru an incision in the kidney
percutaneuos nephrolithotomy
performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone
lithotomy
a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder
catheterization
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder (chemotherapy solution)
urethral catheterization
performed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder
indwelling catheter
one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time
suprapubic catheterization
the placement of a catheter into the bladder thru a small incision made thru the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
meatotomy
an incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
urethrotomy
a surgical incision into the urethra for the relief of a stricture
ARF
acute renal failure
cath
catheterization
CAPD
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CRF
chronic renal failure
cysto
cystoscopy
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
hemo
hemodialysis
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
KUB
kidneys, ureters, bladder
litho
lithotripsy
PKD
polycystic kidney disease
U/A, UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection
VCUG
voiding cystourethrography