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133 Cards in this Set

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cytoplasm
gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell but is contained within the cell membrane
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
molecule that holds genetic information and makes an exact copy of itself whenever the cell divides
diagnosis
identification of a disease or condition by scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory and clinical test results, and radiographic procedures
endoscope
instrument consisting of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity
etiology
study of the causes of disease
fluoroscope
instrument, consisting of an x-ray machine and a fluorescent screen, used to view the internal organs of the body
idiopathic
pertaining to conditions without clear pathogenesis, or disease without recognizable cause, as of spontaneous origin
metabolism
chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism and produce energy and basic materials needed for all life processes
prognosis
prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated chance of recovery
sign
any objective evidence or manifestation of an illness or a disordered function of the body
symptom
any change in the body or its functions as perceived by the patient
levels of organization from simplest to most complex
cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
cytology
the study of the body at the cellular level
cells are composed of
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
the cell membrane acts as a barrier that encloses the entire cell and regulates
the transport of a multitude of substances to and from the cell
the nucleus is responsible for
metabolism, growth, and reproduction
tissues
groups of cells that perform a specialized activity
epithelial tissue
covers surfaces of organs; lines cavities and canals; forms tubes, ducts and secreting portions of glands; and makes up the epidermis of the skin
connective tissue
supports and connects other tissues and organs and is made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells, and blood
muscle tissue
provides the contractile tissue of the body, which is responsible for movement
nervous tissue
transmits electrical impulses
organs are
body structures composed of at least two or more tissue types that perform specialized functions
a body system is composed of
varying numbers of organs and accessory structures that have similar or interrelated functions
midsagittal (median)
right and left halves
coronal (frontal)
anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
transverse (horizontal)
superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
the body has 2 major cavities
dorsal cavity (posterior) and ventral cavity (anterior)
the thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by
a muscular wall called a diaphragm
the dorsal cavity consists of
cranial- brain
spinal- spinal cord
the ventral cavity consists of
thoracic- heart, lungs, and associated structures
abdominopelvic- digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
two anatomical methods are used to divide the abdominopelvic area of the body
quadrants and regions
Right upper quadrant(RUQ)
right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of the small and large intestines
left upper quadrant(LUQ)
left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
right lower quadrant(RLQ)
part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
left lower quadrant(LLQ)
part of the small and large intesines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
abdominopelvic regions are used primarily to identify
the location of underlying body structures and visceral organs
left hypochondriac region
upper left region beneath the ribs
epigastric region
region above the stomach
right hypochondriac region
upper right region beneath the ribs
left lumbar region
left middle lateral region
umbilical region
region of the navel
right lumbar region
right middle lateral region
left inguinal (iliac) region
left lower lateral region
hypogastric region
lower middle region beneath the navel
right inguinal (iliac) region
right lower lateral region
divisions of the spine
cervical(neck), thoracic(chest), lumbar (loin), sacral (lower back), coccyx (tailbone)
abduction
movement away from the median plane of the body or one of its parts
adduction
movement toward the median plane of the body
medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
lateral
pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad)
toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior (caudal)
awary from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
proximal
nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
distal
further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
anterior (ventral)
near the front of the body
posterior (dorsal)
near the back of the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone
lying horizontal with the face downward, or indicating the hand with palms turned downward
supine
lying on the back with the face upward, or indicating the position of the hand or foot with the palm or foot facing upward
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface of the body
deep
away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
nucle/o, kary/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior, front
caud/o
tail
crani/o
cranium (skull)
dist/o
far, farthest
dors/o
back (of body)
infer/o
lower, below
later/o
side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
back (of body), behind, posterior
proxim/o
near, nearest
ventr/o
belly, belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
gastr/o
stomach
ili/o
ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins, lower back
umbilic/o
navel
pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvis
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
albin/o, leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o, jaund/o, xanth/o
yellow
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
acr/o
extremity
eti/o
cause
fasci/o
band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
morph/o
form, shape, structure
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
somat/o
body
son/o
sound
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
study of the cause or origin of a disease or disorder
etiology
possible causes of disease these are examples of?
diabetes, measles/mumps, cleft lip, hemophilia, burns/trauma, cancer
metabolic, infectious, congenital, hereditary, environmental, neoplastic
diagnosis
establishing the cause and nature of a disease
prognosis
the prediction of the course of a disease and its probable outcome
idiopathic
any disease whose cause is unknown
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds normally separated tissues together, usually occurring within a body cavity
analyte
substance being analyzed or tested, generally by means of a chemical
contrast medium
in radiology, a substance that is injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic imaging of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
dehiscence
bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
febrile
feverish; pertaining to a fever
homeostasis
relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body, which is maintained by the ever changing processes of feedback and regulation in response to external or internal changes
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and, sometimes, loss of function
morbid
diseased; pertaining to a disease
nuclear medicine
branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substance for diagnosis, treatment, and research
radiology
medical discipline concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
diagnostic radiology
medical imaging using external sources of radiation to evaluate body structures and functions of organs
interventional radiology
use of imaging techniques in the nonsurgical treatment of various disorders, such as balloon angioplasty and cardiac catherterization
therapeutic radiology
use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of malignant tumors; AKA radiation oncology
radionuclides
substances that emit radiation spontaneously; AKA tracers
radiopharmaceutical
radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance that travels to the organ or area of the body that will be scanned
scan
term used to describe a computerized image by modality or by structure
sepsis
pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppurative
producing or associated with generation of pus