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118 Cards in this Set

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Hypothalamus - Trophic or releasing hormones GHRH, TRH, CRH, GnRH, PRH, MRH, GHIH, PIH, MIH.
Hormones that stimulate or inhibit release of pituitary hormones.
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) - Somatotrophin growth hormone (GH).
Stimulates growth in all body cells
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)- Thyrotrophin thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) - Corticotrophin adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol and aldosterone.
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) - Gonadotrophin follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Development of ovaries and testes; promotes monthly growth of ovarian egg in females and sperm production in males
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)- Gonadotrophin luteinizing hormone (LH)
triggers ovulation in females; regulates sex hormone secretion in males
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)- Prolactin (PRL)
stimulates production of milk in mammary gland
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
produces melanin for skin pigmentation
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin
regulates water retention in the body
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)- Oxytocin
regulates flow of milk in mammary glands and stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
Thyroid - Thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
increase metabolic rate; stimulates growth
Thyroid - Calcitonin
regulates blood calcium
Parathyroid - parathyroid hormone (parathormone) (PTH)
increases blood calcium; decreases blood phophate
Adrenal cortex - Glucocorticoid hormones, including cortisol, also called hydrocortisone
antibody production; response to stress; metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Adrenal cortex - mineralocorticoid hormones including aldosterone
regulates sodium and potassium levels
Adrenal cortex - sex hormones estrogen and testosterone
development of secondary female and male characteristics
Adrenal medulla - Catecholamines; epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
help body respond to sress
Pineal gland - produces melatonin
function unknown in humans
Type 1 Diabetes - IDDM
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Juvenile onset
Type 2 Diabetes - NIDM
Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Adult onset.
Acromegaly - growth hormone
Enlargement of many skeletal structures, particularly the extremities, nose, forehead, and jaw.
Adenohypophysis
Anterior pituitary gland
Adenoma
Tumor of a gland, cause of a gland hypersecreting
Adrenalectomy (above kidneys)
Excision of the adrenal glands
Adrenocortical
pertaining to the adrenal cortex (corticosteroids produced)
Androgen
substance producing male characteristics, example; testosterone
Antidiuretic - posterior pituitary secrets this
Pertaining to an agent that prevents the loss of excessive amounts of urine
Endocrine
to secrete into the bloodstream
Endorinology
branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders
Estrogen
Female sex hormones (growth of breast)
Euthyroid
normal thyroid gland
Exocrine (ducts)
to secrete outwardly onto the skin or onto the surface of an organ
Exophthalmia; exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eye
Glucogenesis
production of sugar
Gluconeogenesis
production of sugar from fats and proteins
Glycogenesis
production of glycogen
Gonadotrophic; gonadotropic
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete their own hormones
Gynecomastia
Abnormal enlargement of male breast (too much estrogen in system)
Hypergonadism
Condition characterized by excessive secretion of gonadal hormones
Hyperinsulinism
condition characterized by excessive secretion of insulin
Hyperparathyroidism
condition characterzied by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone
Hyperpituitarism
condition characterized by excessive secretion of pituitary hormones
Hyperthyroidism
condition characterized by excessive scretion of the thyroid hormone
Hypocalcemia
deficient amounts of calcium in the blood (muscle cramps)
Hypokalemia
deficient amounts of potassium in the blood
Hyponatremia
deficient amounts of sodium in the blood
Hypophysectomy
excision of the pituitary gland
Hypothyroidism
condition characterized by a deficient secretion of thyroid hormones
Ketoacidosis
accumulation of ketones in the body
Lactogenic
pertaning to production of milk
Oxytocin
pituitary hormone that quickens childbirth
Pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas (which produces insulin)
Panhypopituitarism
condition characterized by a deficiency of all pituitary hormones
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
Polyuria
excessive urination
Diabetic retinopathy
Eye disease caused by diabetes, damanges eyes
Diabetic nephropathy
Disease of kidneys caused by diabetes
Somatotrophic hormone; somatotropic hormone
pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of body tissues
Thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid gland
Thyrotomy
incision of the thyroid gland
Thyrotrophic hormone
pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid to produce its own hormones
Hypophysectomy
removal of hypophysis
Lobectomy
excision of a lobe of the thyroid gland
Parathyroidectomy
excision of the parathyroid gland
Pinealectomy
removal of the pineal gland
Thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid gland
ACTH
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
ADH
antidiuretic hormone (vasopresin)
Ca
calcium
CRH
corticotrophin-releasing hormone
DI
Diabetes insipidus
DKA
Diabetic ketoacidosis
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
GH
growth hormone
GHIH
growth-hormone-inhibiting hormone
GHRH
growth-hormone-releasing hormone
GnRH
gonadotrophin-releasing hormone
HVA
homovanillic acid
LH
luteinizing hormone
MEN
multiple endocrine neoplasia
MRH
melanocyte-releasing hormone
Na
sodium
OT
Oxytocin
PIH
prolactin-inhibiting hormone
PRH
prolactin-releasing hormone
PRL
prolactin
PTH
parathyroid hormone (parathormone)
RIA
radioimmunoassay
T3
triiodothyronine
T4
Thyroxine
TRH
thyrotrophin-releasing hormone
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
VMA
vanillylmandelic acid
Pituitary gland anterior lobe - acromegaly (caused by hypersecretion)
widening of bones, particulary the facial features, hands, and feet caused by increased secretion of the growth hormone after the bone has stopped growing
Pituitary gland anterior lobe - giantism (caused by hypersecretion)
excessive skeletal growth caused by increased secretion of the growth hormone before growing has stopped and before the epiphyseal plate closes
Pituitary gland anterior lobe - galactorrhea (caused by hypersecretion)
increased prolactin, results in production and secretion of milk in women who are not breast feeding an infant; can also occur in men
Pituitary gland posterior lobe - syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) (caused by hypersecretion)
increased ADH results in fluid retention and hypoatremia
Thyroid gland - Graves' disease (caused by hypersecretion)
characterized by overproduction of thyroid hormone, frequently in association with an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos)
Adrenal glands adrenal cortex - virilism (caused by hypersecretion)
preponderance of male characteristics caused by an increase in the secretion of androgens
Adrenal glands adrenal cortex - aldosteronism (caused by hypersecretion)
increased secretions of aldosterone characterized by water retention, weakness, paresthesias, and tetany (muscle spasms and cramps)
Adrenal glands adrenal cortex - Cushing's syndrome (caused by hypersecretion)
caused by an increase of cortisol secretion; the patient exhibits the following characteristics: obesity, moon facies, atrophy of skin, menstrual problems in females
adrenal medulla - pheochromocytoma (caused by hypersecretion)
tumor of teh chormaffic cells of adrenal medulla
parathyroid gland - hyperparathyroidism (caused by hypersecretion)
inceased secretion of PTH results in excessive bone loss, which, over time, can lead to pathological fractures or abnormal curvatures of the spine
Pancreas - hyperinsulinism (caused by hypersecretion)
Overproduction of insulin can be organic, due to a disease of the pancreas such as a tumor, or it can be functional, where the cause is unknown
Pituitary anterior lobe - dwarfism (caused by hyposecretion)
deficiency of growth hormone, resulting in an abnormality small but well-proportioned person
Pituitary anterior lobe - pituitary neoplasms (caused by hyposecretion)
pituitary tumors destroy the tissue of the pituitary gland, decreasing the secretion of hormones
Pituitary anterior lobe - necrosis of the pituitary gland following childbirth (caused by hyposecretion)
decrease in blood pressure following childbirth results in anoxia followed by necrosis of the pituitary gland
Pituitary posterior lobe - diabetes insipidus (caused by hyposecretion)
decrease in antidiuretic hormone resulting in excessive loss of urine accompanied by excessive thirst
Pituitary posterior lobe - uterine inertia (caused by hyposecretion)
inability of the uterus to contract during labor
thyroid gland - myxedema (caused by hyposecretion)
an acquired condition in adulthood characterized by a slowing of the metabolic rate caused by low amounts of thyroid hormones
thyroid gland - cretinism(caused by hyposecretion)
hypothyroidism in infancy or during fetal development, characterized by the slowing of the metabolic rate manifested as reduced activity and infrequent crying and slow mental and physical growth
adrenal glands adrenal cortex - Addison's disease (caused by hyposecretion)
results in weakness, tiredness, darkened pigmentation of the skin, hypotension
Parathyroid gland - hypoparathyroidism (caused by hyposecretion)
reduced levels of PTH has an effect opposite to hyper parathyroidism; there is decreased bone loss and hypocalcemia and hypocalciuria
Parathyroid gland - tetany (caused by hyposecretion)
muscle spasms and cramps
Pancrease - diabetes mellitus (caused by hyposecretion)
a defect in carbohydrate metabolism as insulin is unavailable to change excess glucose to glycogen
Thyroid - Hashimoto's thyroiditis (caused by hyper or hyposecretion)
chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland with hypothyroidism; affects mostly women
Thyroid - euthyroid goiter (caused by hyper or hyposecretion)
enlarged thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency; no evidence of hypothyroidism
Pancreas - multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (caused by hyper or hyposecretion)
genetically based disorder characterized by hyperplasia; and benign and/or malignant growth of several endocrine glands