Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/130

Click to flip

130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
name the 5 levels of organisation in the body from smalest to largest
Cellular level —› Tissue level —› Organ level —› System level —› Organismic level
C T O S O
cytology is......
the study of the body at the cellular level
what is a cell and what begins at the cellular level
its the structural and functional unit of life.

the disease process originates at the cellular level.
what are tissues
groups of cells that perform a specialised activity.
What are the 4 types of tissue ?
Connective
Muscle
Epithelial
Nervous
C M E N
Connective Tissue .....
supports and connects other tissues and organs
Muscle Tissue is.....
the contractile tissue of the body
Epithelial Tissue is........
composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting of one or more layers.....
it forms the epidermis of the skin, covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes, ducts, and secreting portions of glands.
Nervous Tissues are .....
tissues that are capable of transmitting electrical impulses
Organs are ....
body structures composed of at least two different tissue types that perform specialized functions.

I.E. the stomach is composed of muscle tissue and epithelial tissue.
a body system is composed of....
at least one organ and accessory structures that have similar or interrelated functions.
break down the word disease
dis ease
lack of ease
from a clinical point of view disease is .....
a pathological or morbid condition of the body that presents a group of signs, symptoms, and clinical findings.
clinically morbid means ...
pathological or disease
signs are......
objective indicators that are observible by others
a symptom is ....
subjective and is experienced only by the patient.

dizziness, pain, and malaise are examples
clinical findings are.......
results of laboratory examinations and other tests performed on the patient.
malaise is ....
felling crappy
all body cells require what for survivel ?
oxygen and nutrients
what is homeostasis?
a stable internal environment.
What is a stable internal environment?


IE homeostasis
it's an environment that provides a narrow range of temperature, water, acidity, and salt concentration. as well as oxygen and nutrients.
what is pathology?
when homeostasis is significantly interupted and cells, tissues, organs, or systems are unable to meet the challenges of everyday life the condition.
what is pathogenesis?
the study of the progression of a disease.

this varies from disease to disease
what is Etiology?
the study of all factors involved in the development of disease.
what are the 6 types of etiology?

** give an example for each **
Metabolic (diabetes)
Infectious (measles, mumps)
Congenital(cleft lip)*present at birth*
Hereditary (hemophilia)
Environmental (burns, trauma)
Neoplastic (cancer)
M I C H E N
a diagnosis is ......
establishing the cause and nature of a disease.
a prognosis is .....
the prediction of the course of a disease and its probable outcome.
idiopathic is ....
any disease whose cause is unknown
What is anatomical position?
the placement of the body in a stance that is accepted by the medical practice.
Describe anatomical position.
body is erect and the eyes are looking forward, the upper limbs hang to the sides, with the palms facing to the front; the lower limbs are parallel, with thte toes pointing forward. Regardless of whether the vody actually lies facing upward or downward, or how the limbs are actually placed.
What is an anatomical plane?
it's an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body at different places in order to divide it for anatomical purposes.
name the 4 anatomical planes of the body.
Midsagittal or Medial
Sagittal
Coronal or Frontal
Transverse or horizontal
what is the anatomical division of the midsagittal or median plane?
Equal Right and left halves
what is the anatomical division of the Sagittal plane?
unequal right and left sides
what is the anatomical division of the coronal or frontal?
front side (anterior or ventral aspect) and back side (posterior or dorsal aspect)
what is the anatomical division of the Transverse or horizontal plane?
upper portion (superior aspect) and lower portion ( inferior aspect)
What are the 2 major body cavitis?
dorsal and ventral
The dorsal cavity is divided into 2 sections. what are they and what are the major organs found in each?
Cranial (brain)
Spinal (spinal cord)
the ventral cavity is devided into two cavities.... what are they and what are the major organs found in it?
Thoracic
(heart,lungs,and associated structures)

Abdominopelvic
(Digestive, excetory, and reproductive systems and associated structures.)
The amniopelvic region can be devided into 9 major sections. What are they called?
right and left hypochondriac
Epigastric
right and left lumbar
umbilical
right and left iliac or inguinal
Hypogastric
The epigastric region is located where ?
region of the stomach
the right hypochondriac is located where?
upper right region beneath the ribs
the right lumbar region is located where ?
right middle lateral region
the umbilical region is located where ?
region of the navel
the right iliac region is located where?
right lower lateral region
the hypogastric region is located where?
lower middle region beneath the navel
For the purposes of clinical evaluation the abdomniopelvic region may be divided into 4 quadrants called?
Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
what is an x-ray examination ?
an energy beam in the x band of the radiation spectrum passes through the area of the body to be examined. Denser tissue absorbs more of the beam than does tissue of a lesser density. Because of the difference in densities of various tissues, an image, called a radiograph or x-ray film is produced.
what are radiopaque materials ?
substances that absorb x-rays
computed tomography or ct scan is what?
is a variation of the radiographic technique but more sensitive and particularly valuable in detecting soft body tissue diseases. This image appears as a slice of an organ or body part. the term tomography literally means "a recording or record of a slice."
Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI is?
another type of scanning technique however a magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam is used to produce the image. A magnetic field induces tissue to produce radiofrequency (RF)waves. These produce sharper images of soft tissue than tose obtained using CT scans, and it DOES NOT use x-rays.
Ultrasonography is?
a technique that reflects high-frequency sound (ultrasonic)waves off internal tissues. The resultant images are not as clear as those poduced wth x-rays or RF waves, but the ultrasonography is easy to use and inexpensive and causes little or no risk to the patient.
what are the 5 divisions of the spine?
and about where are they placed?
cervical (neck) C1-7
Thoracic (chest) T1-12
Lumbar (loin) L1-5
Sacral (lower back)S1-5
Coccyx (tailbone) coccyx 1-4 or 5
Superficial
toward the surface of the body
Deep
away from the surface of the body (internal)
Abduction
movement away from the median plane of the body or one of it's parts.
adduction
movement toward the median plane of the body.
medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure.
lateral
pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad)
toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior (caudal)
away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure.
proximal
near the attachment of an extremity to the trunk of a structure
distal
farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure
anterior (ventral)
near the front of the body
postherior (dorsal)
near the back of the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to an organ
prone
FACE DOWN

lying horizontal with the face downward, or denoting the hand with the palms urned downward
supine
ON SPINE
lying on the back with the face upward, or denoting the position of the hand or food with the pam or foot facing upward.
inversion
turning inward or inside out

usually pertains to the feet
eversion
turning outward

usually pertains to the feet
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
cyt-

cytologist
cell

one who studies the cell
hist-

histology
tissue

study of tissue
nucle-

nucleotoxin
nucleus

poison of the nucleus
anter-

anteroposterior
anterior, front

behind the front or anterior of the body
caud-

caudal
tail

pertaining to the tail
dist-

distal
far, farthest

pertaining to the farthest point
dors-

dorsal
back (of body)

pertaining to the back
infer-

inferior
lower, below

pertaining to a lower portion of the body
later-

lateroabdominal
side, to one side

pertaining to one side of the abdomen
medi-

mediolateral
middle

pertaining to the middle side
poster-

posterolateral
back (of body), behind, posterior

pertaining to the posterior side of the body.
proxim-

proximal
near, nearest

pertaining to near the body
ventr-

ventral
belly, belly-side

pertaining to the belly
abdomin-

abdominopelvic
abdomen

pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis
acr-

acromegaly
extremity

enlargement of an extremity
inguin-

inguinal
groin

pertaining to the groin
lumb-

lumbodynia
loin

pain in the loin
omphal-

omphalocele
navel (umbilicus)

herniation of the navel
pelvi

pelvimetry
pelvis

measureing the pelvis
pelv-

pelvoscopy
pelvis

visual examination of the pelvis
albin-

albinism
white

a condition of being white
leuc-

leucocyte
white

white cell
leuk-

leukoderma
white

skin that is white
anthrac-

anthracosis
black, coal

abnormal condition of being black
chlor-

chlorocyte
green

a cell that is green
cirrh-

cirrhosis
yellow

abnormal condition of being yellow
jaund-

jaundice
yellow

yellow looking
xanth-

xanthemia
yellow

yellow blood
cyan-

cyanoderma
blue

skin that is blue in color
erythem-

erythema
red

redish
erythr-

erythrocyte
red

red cell
rube-

rubeosis
red

abnormal condition of being red
melan-

melanoma
black

a tumor that is black
poli-

poliomyelitis
gray

inflammation of a gray spinal cord
fasci-

fasciitis
band

inflamation of a band
home-

homeostasis
same, alike

alike things standing still
idi-

idiopathic
unknown, peculiar

pertaining to an unknown disease
or
Pertaining to a peculiar disease
path-

pathogen
disease

to produce disease
radi-

radiography
radiation, x-ray

process of recording an x-ray
somat-

somatopathic
body

pertaining to a body that is diseased
viscer-

visceromegaly
internal organs, vicera

enlargement of the internal organs
xen-

xenograft
foreign, strange

tissue transplant of a foreign or strange object.
xer-

xerosis
dry

abnormal condition of being dry
-genesis

pathogenesis
forming, producing, origin

forming, producing, or origin of a disease
-genosis

prognosis
knowing

before knowing
-gram

sonogram
record, a writing

a record of sound
-graph

sonograph
instrument for recording

an insrument for recording sound
-graphy

myelography
process of recording

process of recording the spinal cord
-pathy

cystopathy
disease

a diseased cell
allo-

alloplasty
other, differing from the usual

surgical repair that is differing from the usual
peri-

pericardium
around

around the heart
ultra-

ultrasound
excess, beyond

sound that is in excess
Abbreviation

GU
genitourinary
Abbreviation

I&D
incision and drainage
Abbreviation

LAT, lat
lateral
Abbreviation

ROM
range of motion
Abbreviation

U&L, U/L
upper and lower