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110 Cards in this Set

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anastomosis
surgical joining of 2 ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other.
angiography
A radiographic technique where a radio-opaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast material is injected into a blood vessel for the purpose of identifying its anatomy on X-ray. This technique is used to image arteries in the brain, heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, aorta, neck (carotids), chest, limbs and pulmonary circuit.
arrhythmia
Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat, including sinus arrhythmia, premature beat, heart block, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, pulsus alternans and paroxysmal tachycardia.
ascites
abnormal connection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity (the serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity)
atheroslerosis
for of arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries.
bruit
abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope.
carditis
inflammation of the heart muscles.
claudication
cramplike pain in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs.
coronary
one of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta, the coronary arteries and their branches supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
diastole
period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contradiction phase known as systole.
dysrhythmia
abnormal rhythm.
edema
localized or generalized of fluid within the body tissues causing the area to swell.
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
homan's sign
Slight pain at the back of the knee or calf when the ankle is slowly and gently dorsiflexed (with the knee bent), indicative of incipient or established thrombosis in the veins of the leg.
hyperlipidemia
excessive level of fats in the blood.
hypertension
elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure less than the normal blood pressuring reading.
infarction
localized area of necrosis (death) in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part, resulting from lack of oxygen(anoxia) due to interrupted blood flow to the area
ischemia
decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
lipid
any of a group of fats or fatlike substances found in the blood
lumen
cavity or channel within any organ or structure of the body; the space within the artery, vein, intestine, or tube.
malaise
vague feeling of the body weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease.
murmur
low-pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a heart murmur, heard on auscultation.
myocarditis
Inflammation of the myocardium, inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart.
occlusion
closure or state of being closed.
palpable
detectable by touch
pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium-double membraneous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels.
pitting edema
swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger.
prophylactic
agent that protects against disease.
systole
contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries.first sound heard on auscultation.
thrombosis
formation or existence of a blood clot.
vasoconstriction
narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessel
lumen
cavity or the channel within any organ or structure of the body.
anorexia
loss of appetite
anxiety
feeling of apprehension, uneasiness, or dread, especially the future.
bradycardia
slow heart rate that is characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute
chest pain
feeling of discomfort in teh chest area.
cyanosis
slightly bluish, slatelike or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
fatigue
feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or a side effect from some pyschotropic drugs.
fever
elevation of temperature above the normal
headache/cephalgia
diffuse pain portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area
nausea
unpleasant sensation usually proceeding vomiting
pallor
lack of color; palenss
palpitation
rapid, violent, or throbbing pulsation as an abnormally rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart.
sweat/perspiration/
diaphoresis
perspiration; the liquid secreted by the sweat glands having a salty taste.
tachycardia
abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
vomiting/emesis
ejection through the mouth of the gastric contents
weakness
lacking physical strength or vigor(energy).
coronary artery disease
narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented.
percuatneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
nonsurgical procedure in which a catheter equipped with a small inflatable balloon on the end is inserted into the femoral artery and is threaded up the aorta into the narrowed coronary artery.
directional coronary atherectomy
uses a catheter which has a small mechanically driven cutter that shaves the plaque and stores it in a collection chamber.
coronary bypass surgery
designed to increase the blood flow to the myocardial muscle and involves bypass grafts to the coronary arteries that reroute the blood flow around the occuded area of the coronary artery.
angina pectoris
severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm, creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest.
myocardial infarction
heart attack: a condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries.
congestive heart failure
characterized by weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort; edema in the lower portion of the body resulting from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed and the outflow of blood from the left side of the heart is reduced.
rheumatic fever
inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract.
mitral valve prolapse
drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole resulting in incomplete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency.
aneurysm
localized dilation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall.
arteriosclerosis
arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries, resulting in decreased blood supply.
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot) most frequently in a leg.
varicose veins
enlarged superficial veins, twisted, dilated veins with incompetent valves.
sclerotherapy
form of treatment that involves the injection of a chemical irritant into the varicosed vein.
vein stripping
surgical procedure that consists of ligation of the saphenous vein.
hypertension
condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure than that judged to be normal
essential hypertension
accounting for approximately 90% of all hypertension has no single known cause.
secondary hypertension
accounting for approximately 10% or less of all hypertension.
malignant ypertension
term given to hypertension that is severe and rapidly progressive.
Raynaud's phenomenon
intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles, causing pallor of the fingers or toes followed by cyanosis.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease
obstruction of the arteries in the extremities. leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery.
tetralogy of fallot
congenital heart anomaly that consists of 4 defects; pulmonary stenosis interventricular septal defect, dextraposition of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle.
patent ductus arteriosus
abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth.
coarctation of the aorta
congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities.
heart block
interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle.
atrial flutter
condition in which the contraction of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 to 400 beats per minute.
fibrillation
extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria.
atrial flutter
Pertaining to an atrium. -therapeutic block occurs at the AV node, preventing some impulse transmission.
ventricular
Pertaining to a ventricle.
angiography
x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on x-ray film.
cardiac catheterization
diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm or a leg is then threaded thorugh the circulatory system to the heart.
cardiac enzymes test
performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle.
computed axial tomography/CAT
diagnostic x-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body.
echocardiography/ECHO
diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart.
echocardiogram/ECG/EKG
graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected form various angles to the surface of the skin.
excercise stress testing
means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress. ex: treadmill
holter monitoring
small portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder.
magnetic resonance imaging/MRI
involves the use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain, and soft tissue.
positron emission tomography/PET
computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures
serum lipid test
measures the amount of fatty substances in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture.
thallium stress test
combination of excercise stress testing with thallium imaging(myocardial perfusion scan) to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise.
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CCU
coronary care unit
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT/CAT
computed axial tomography(scan)
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECG/EKG
electrocardiogram
ECHO
echocardiogram
HCVD
hypertensive cardiovascular disease
MI
myocardial infarction
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
PAT
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PET
positron emission tomography
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVCs
premature ventricular contractions