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134 Cards in this Set

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a means for measuring height of horses; one hand equals 4 inches.
Hands
base of the neck
Withers
small breeds usually less than 8.2 hands
Miniature breeds
small breeds of horses usually between 8.2 and 14.2 hands, a horse for a child
Pony
breeds of horses intermediate in size and stature, usually more than 14.2 hands
Light
large breed usually over 17 hands, also a body type such as draft pony or draft mule
Draft
large breeds of horses that usually have slower physiological functions than light breeds
Cold blooded
group of horses with faster physiological functions that others
Hot blooded
group of horses exhibiting some characteristics of both cold and hot blooded horses.
Warm blooded
the term for a young male horse; sometimes used for a newborn of either sex.
Colt
a young female horse
Filly
a mature female horse >2 yrs
Mare
uncastrated male >3yrs
Stallion
castrated male
Gelding
a mare that has not had a foal, or a race horse of either sex that has not won a race.
Maiden
equipment and saddlery used with horses
Tack
a horse rider
Equestrian
indicator of success in competition, as in riding or driving
Performance
the basic headgear used for restraint, also used in confirmation competition classes
Halter
equine competitive events that are judged primarily on the rider’s abilities
Equitation
three activities (dressage, cross-country, jumping) completed in 1 to 3 days
3-day eventing –
an equestrian sport that originated in Persia, probably the most ancient goal game
Polo
exhibition of cowboy skills
Rodeo
equestrian events emphasizing speed, action, and activity; games on horseback
Gymkhana
an accumulation of sweat on the horse’s body
Lathered
elevated body temperature
Hyperthermia
a 4 beat gait with equal intervals between the beats, slowest gait and the one the horse uses most often
Walk
a medium fast 2 beat gait in which the diagonal feet strike the ground at the same time
Trot
medium 2 beat gait in which the legs on the same side of the body strike the ground at the same time
Pace
the horse’s fastest gait
Gallop
progeny, offspring
Get
a stallion being used primarily for breeding is said to sand at stud
Stand at stud –
mare used primarily for reproductive purposes
Broodmare
horse used to determine which mares are in estrus (heat)
Teaser
act of determining which mares are in estrus (heat)
Teasing
normal mating, as opposed to artificial insemination
Natural cover –
swelling of the mammary glands or udder before foaling
Bagging up –
first estrus after foaling, usually in 7 to 12 days after foaling
Foal heat –
estrus that occurs approximately 30 days after foaling
30-day heat –
area used for holding, exercising, or enclosing horses (paddock)
Corral
area used for holding, exercising, or enclosing horses (corral)
Paddock
barn or groups of barns where horses are stabled at the racetrack
Shedrow
enclosure in a stable or barn where the horse can move freely without being tied in one place.
Box stall –
a stall in which the horse is tied in place and cannot move about
Tie, slip, or standing stall –
large enclosed area used for exhibitions or exercise (indoor or outdoor)
Arena
cheek side of the teeth
Buccal
tongue side of the teeth
Lingual
filing or removing the points on the teeth
Floating
a strap, rope, or chain attached to the halter and used to lead the horse
Lead shank –
left side of the horse, usually the side from which the horse is led or mounted.
Near side –
right side of the horse, the side not usually used for leading the horse or mounting into the saddle
Far side –
means of restraint in horses, often by using a device twisted on the upper lip or muzzle
Twitch
the part of the horse’s tack that is placed on its head for riding or driving
Bridle
the part of the bridle that goes in the horse’s mouth
Bit
equipment used to attach a horse or horses to carts, wagons, sulkies, or sleighs
Harness
a person who has been trained to trim hooves and make horseshoes, commonly called a blacksmith, smithy, or horseshoer
Farriers
soft portion of the underside of the hoof
Frog
bacterial infection of the frog in the hoof
Thrush
bacteria caused neurologic disease leading to muscle rigidity; often called lockjaw
Tetanus
life threatening, virus caused brain and spinal cord infection often called sleeping sickness
Eastern or western encephalomyelitis –
herpes virus caused respiratory disease or abortion
Rhinopneumonitis
common virus caused respiratory disease
Influenza
fatal virus-caused neurologic disease
Rabies
fever and diarrheal disease with bacterial origin
Potomac horse fever –
virus caused vascular inflammation with multisystemic clinical signs
Equine viral arthritis –
life-threatening viral anemia, sometimes called swamp fever
Equine infectious anemia –
federally recognized serum test for equine infectious anemia
Coggins test –
abdominal pain
Colic
asthma like disease commonly called heaves
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) –
increased abdominal musculature associated with the extra effort of expiration in horses with heaves or COPD
Heave line –
inflammation of the in the foot
Laminitis
fingers of tissue that attach the hoof to the underlying structures of the foot
Laminae
common term for chronic laminitis
Founder
veterinarians whose practice is limited primarily to the horse
Equine practitioners –
progeny resulting from mating two different species
Hybrids
increase in vitality resulting from mating of unrelated animals; hybrid offspring usually perform better than either parent
Hybrid vigor –
dairy and beef cattle that are bred and used for both milk and meat production
Dual purpose –
heart girth and barrel; large heart girth means larger heart and lung and greater feed capacity
Body capacity –
circumference around thoracic cavity; measurement of heart and lung capacity; also used as indicator of animal’s weight
Heart girth –
circumference of abdominal region; used as indication of feed capacity
Barrel
organ of milk production of cow; made up of two mammary glands and four teats
Udder
after slaughter, dressed (head, blood, hide, and offal removed) body of beef animal
Carcass
uncastrated male
Bull
young bovine, male or female less then 1 year of age
Calf
mature female that has given birth and is lactating
Cow
female that is old enough to breed but has not yet calved
Heifer
castrated male
Steer
profuse diarrhea, most commonly seen in young calves
Scours
open stall system of rearing beef cattle
Free stall –
restraint device that secures cattle around neck
Stanchion
feeding beef cattle high-quality feed before slaughter to increase carcass quality and yield
Finishing
Cud-chewing animal with four-compartment stomach
Ruminant
ball of food or large pill
Bolus
process of regurgitating food (bolus) from rumen for remastication
Rumination
open area of grazing land where beef cattle harvest natural feed
Range
amount of food animal eats in 24-hour period
Ration
feedstuffs that are high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients
Roughage
cattle feed (roughage) produced by fermenting chopped whole corn plants or mixed pasture grasses
Silage
removal of calf from cow so it can no longer nurse
Wean
restraint device used to effectively restrain cattle so that procedures can be performed
Squeeze chute –
distal part of bovine tail, consisting of long, coarse hairs
Switch
specialized cells that form horns of cattle
Corium
surgical castration instrument that both crushes and cuts spermatic cord
Emasculator
bloodless castration device that crushes spermatic cord without breaking skin
Burdizzo emasculatome –
bloodless castration device using small bands
Elastrator
mechanical device, either metal or plastic, used to pill large animals
Balling gun –
those in excess of regular number of four teats
Supernumerary teats –
infectious and contagious inflammation of mammary gland (udder)
Mastitis
period of time cow is producing milk
Lactation
period between conception and parturition
Gestation
act of introducing semen into female’s genital tract by use of mechanical methods
Artificial insemination (AI) –
cow or heifer in estrus that will stand to be mounted by bull or another female
Standing heat –
cow that is not lactating; usually last 60 days of gestation in dairy cows
Dry period –
beginning of lactating cycle immediately after parturition
Freshen
paralytic disease following parturition associated with lack of calcium in blood
Milk fever –
metal cup with a black or screened lid; used for detection mastitis
Strip cup –
hormone produced by pituitary gland ; responsible for milk letdown and uterine contractions
Oxytocin
contagious disease of bovine causing abortion late in pregnancy
Brucellosis
test for bovine mastitis; measures number of somatic cells and leukocytes
California mastitis test –
infectious disease of young cattle causing profuse diarrhea
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) –
bacterial disease of cattle causing abortion and infertility; also called vibriosis
Campylobacteriosis
acute infectious disease that causes abortion storms and subacute febrile illness
Leptospirosis
viruses that cause diarrhea in young calves
Rotavirus and Corona virus –
normal inhabitant of intestinal flora; pathogenic form causes epidemic diarrhea in newborn calves
E. coli –
genus of spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria; can cause tetanus, blackleg, and enterotoxemia in cattle
Clostridium –
Disease of newly calved cows in which abomasum assumes abnormal position resulting in abdominal distension and loss of appetite
Abomasal displacement (right) –
caused by perforation of reticulum wall by sharp foreign object such as a nail, screw, or baling wire; also called Hardware disease
Traumatic reticulitis –
accumulation of gas in rumen of cattle; excess gas is removed y stomach tubing or puncturing abdomen and rumen with trocar and cannula
Bloat
disease characterized by accumulation of ketones in blood and tissue; cow has sweet-smelling breath and urine (acetonemia)
Ketosis
contagious disease of cattle caused by Moraxella bovis; characterized by conjunctivitis, lacrimation, and corneal ulceration and opacity
Pinkeye
fungal infection of skin and hair; characterized by thick, round, gray crusted patches over skin surface; hair that is in infected areas falls out or breaks off
Ringworm
caused by viruses, multiple papillomas are located usually on head, neck, shoulders, and back
Warts
disease of young calves caused selenium and vitamin E deficiency; usually result of selenium-deficient diet fed to cow or heifer during or before gestation
White muscle disease –
most common malignant lymphoid tumor found in cattle; also called bovine leukosis
Lymphosarcoma