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246 Cards in this Set

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cellulitis
diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subQ tissue, characterized by localized heat, erythema, pain, and occasionally fever, malaise, chills, and headache.
Gastr-
Stomach
Hemat-
Blood
Arthr-
Joint
-itis
inflammation
-emesis
vomiting
-dynia
pain
-logy
study of
-centesis
surgical puncture
-clasis
to break; surgical fracture
-desis
binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
-ectomy
excision, removal
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture

My/o/rrhapy
-stomy
forming an opening (mouth)

Colostomy, Tracheostomy
-tome
instrument to cut

Osteotome
-tomy
incision

Tracheotomy
-tripsy
crushing

Lithotripsy
-gram
to RECORD, write

Electrocardiogram (Graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart)
-graph
instrument/machine for RECORDING

Cardiograph (Instrument used to record electrical activity of the heart)
-graphy
process of RECORDING

Angiography (Radiographic image of BVs after injection of a contrast medium)
-meter
instrument/machine for MEASURING

Pelvimeter (Instrument for measuring the pelvis when pregnant)
-metry
act ("doing") of MEASURING

Pelvimetry (Act or process of determining the dimension of the pelvis)
-scope
instrument for EXAMINING

Endoscope (Instrument for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity)
-scopy
visual examination

Endoscopy (Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument [endoscope])
-algia
pain

Ex: Neuralgia
-dynia
pain

Ex: Otodynia
-cele
hernia, swelling

Ex: Hepatocele (hernia of the liver)
-ectasis
dilation, expansion

Ex: Bronchiectasis (abnormal dilation of one or more bronchi)
-edema
swelling

Ex: Lymphedema
-emesis
vomiting

Ex: Hyperemesis (excessive vomiting)
-emia
blood condition

Ex: Anemia (blood condition caused by iron deficiency or decrease in RBCs)
-gen
Forming, producing, origin

Ex: Carcinogen (Substance or agent that causes the development of cancer)
-genesis
forming, producing, origin

Ex: Carcinogenesis (the process of initiating/transforming normal cells into cancer)
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)

Ex: Chol/e/lith/iasis (presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct)
-itits
inflammation

Ex: Gastritis
-lith
stone, calculus

Ex: Cholelith (gallstone)
-malacia
softening

Ex: Chondromalacia (softening of the articular cartilage- usually in the patella)
-megaly
enlargement

Ex: Cardiomegaly
-oma
tumor

Ex: Neuroma (tumor of the nerve cells)
-osis
abnormal condition, increase
(used primarily with blood cells)

Ex: Cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin or mucous membrane)
-pathy
disease

Ex: Myopathy (disease of the muscle)
-penia
decrease, deficiency

Ex: Erythropenia (abnormal decrease in RBCs)
-phagia
swallowing, eating

Ex: Dysphagia (inability or difficulty in swallowing)
[DYS = bad; painful; difficult]
-phasia
speech

Ex: Aphasia (absence or impairment of speech)
-phobia
fear

Ex: Hemophobia (fear of blood)
-plasia
formation, growth

Ex: Dysplasia (abnormal growth/development of cells, tissues, or organs)
-plasm
formation, growth

Ex: Neoplasm (a new and abnormal formation of tissue, such as a tumor or growth)
[NEO = new]
-plegia
paralysis

Ex: Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body [usually caused by a brain injury or stroke])
[HEMI = half]
-rrhage
bursting (of)

Ex: Hemorrhage (loss of a large amount of blood in a short period)
-rrhagia
bursting (of)

Ex: Menorrhagia (profuse discharge of blood during menstruation)
-rrhea
discharge, flow

Ex: Diarrhea (abnormally frequent discharge or flow of fluid fecal matter from the bowel)
[DIA = through, across]
-rrhexis
rupture

Ex: Arteriorrhexis (Arterial rupture)
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching

Ex: Blepharospasm (twitching of the eyelid)
[BLEPHAR/O = eyelid]
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture

Ex: Arteriostenosis (abnormal narrowing of an artery [such as in artherosclerosis])
-toxic
poison

Ex: hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver)
-trophy
nourishment, development

Ex: dystrophy (abnormal condition caused by defective nutrition or metabolism)
[DYS = bad; painful; difficult]
-ac
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Cardiac
-al
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Neural (pertaining to a nerve)
-ar
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Muscular
-ary
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Pulmonary
-eal
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Esophageal
-ic
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Thoracic (pert. to the chest)
-ical
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Pathological (pert. to the study of disease)
[PATH/O = disease]
[LOG = study of]
-ile
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Penile (pert. to the penis)
-ior
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: Posterior (pert to the back of the body)
[POSTER = back (of body), behind, posterior]
-ous
pertaining to, relating to, COMPOSED OF, PRODUCING

Ex: Cutaneous (pert. to the skin)
-tic
pertaining to, relating to

Ex: acoustic (pert. to hearing)
-esis
condition

Ex: diuresis (abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine)
[DI = double]
[UR = urine]
-ia
condition

Ex: pneumonia (condition of lung infection, usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or diseases)
-ism
condition

Ex: hyperthyroidism (condition of overactivity of the thyroid gland)
[HYPER = excessive, above normal]
-iatry
medicine; treatment

Ex: Podiatry (medicine/treatment of the foot)
[POD = foot]
-ician
specialist

Ex: Obstetrician (specialist in pregnancy and childbirth)
[OBSTETR = midwife]
-ist
specialist

Ex: Hematologist (specialist in treatment of disorders of blood and blood-forming tissues)
-y
condition; process

Ex: Neuropathy (disease of the nerves)
[NEURO = nerve]
[PATH = disease]
[Y = process/condition]
-icle
small, minute

Ex: Ventricle (small cavity, as of the brain or heart)
[VENTR = belly, belly side]
-ole
small, minute

Ex: Arteriole (Minute artery [the smallest of the arteries]; the arteries narrow to form arterioles [small arteries], which branch into capillaries [the smallest blood vessels])
-ule
small, minute

Ex: Venule (small vein [continues to become a capillary])
epi-
above, upon

Ex: Epidermis (outermost layer of skin)
[DERM = skin]
[-IS = NOUN suffix)
hypo-
under, below, deficient

Ex: hypodermic (under or inserted under the skin, as in a hypodermic injection)
[-IC = pertaining to, relating to]
infra-
under, below

Ex: infracostal (below the ribs)
[COST = ribs]
[-AL = pertaining to, relating to]
sub-
under, below

Ex: sub/nas/al (below the nose)
[NAS = nose]
[-AL = pertaining to, relating to]
inter-
between

Ex: inter/cost/al (between the ribs)
[COST = ribs]
[-AL = pertaining to, relating to]
post-
after, behind

Ex: post/nat/al (pertaining to after birth)
[NAT = birth]
[-AL = pertaining to, relating to]
pre-
before, in front of

Ex: pre/nat/al (pertaining to before birth
[NAT = birth]
[-AL = pertaining to, relating to]
pro-
before, in front of

Ex: Prognosis (prediction of the course and end of a disease, and the estimated chance of recovery)
[-GNOSIS = knowing]
retro-
backward, behind

Ex: retroversion (tipping backward of an organ [such s the uterus] from its normal position)
[-VERSION = turning]
bi-
two

Ex: bi/later/al (pertaining to two sides)
dipl-

diplo-
double

Ex: Dipl/opia (double vision)

Ex: Diplo/bacteri/al (bacterial cells linked together in pairs)
hemi-
one half

Ex: Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body)
a-

an-
without, not

Ex: amastia (without a breast)
[MAST = breast]
[-IA = condition]
anti-
against

Ex: Anti/bacteri/al (against bacteria; pertaining to agents that destroy or stop the growth of bacteria)
contra-
against

Ex: Contra/ception (prevention of conception or impregnation)
[-CEPTION = conceiving]
brady-
slow

Ex: bradycardia (slow heart rate)
dys-
bad; painful; difficult

Ex: Dystocia (difficult childbirth)
[-TOCIA = childbirth, labor]
eu-
good, normal

Ex: Eu/pnea (normal breathing)
[-PNEA = breathing]
hetero-
different

Ex: hetero/graft (transplant of tissue from one species to a different species, aka xeno/graft)
[-GRAFT = transplantation]
homo-

homeo-
same

Ex: homograft (transplant of tissue between the same species, aka allograft)
[-GRAFT = transplantation]

Ex: homeo/plasia (formation of new tissue similar to that already existing in a part)
[-PLASIA = formation, growth]
mal-
bad

Ex: malnutrition (any disorder of nutrition)
pan-
all

Ex: Pan/arthr/itis (abn condition of inflammation of many joints of the body)
[ARTHR = joint]
pseudo-
false

Ex: pseudo/cyesis (condition in which a woman believes she is pregnant when she is not)
[-CYESIS = pregnancy]
syn-
union, together, joined

Ex: Syn/dactyl/ism (congenital anomaly of fusion of the fingers or toes)
[DACTYL = fingers, toes]
[-ISM = condition]
tachy-
rapid, fast

Ex: tachy/pnea (abnormally rapid rate of breathing)
[-PNEA = breathing]
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA

Molecule that holds genetic info and makes an exact copy of itself whenever the cell divides
Etiology
Study of the cause of disease

Eti/o = cause
-logy = study of
Fluoroscope
Instrument consisting of an x-ray machine and a fluorescent screen used to view the internal organs of the body

Fluor/o = fluorescent, luminous
-scope = instrument for examining
Idiopathic
Pertaining to conditions without clear pathogenesis, or disease without recognizable cause, as of spontaneous origin or origin still unknown

Idi/o = unknown, peculiar
path = disease
-ic = pertaining to, relating to
Metabolism
Chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism and produce energy and basic materials needed for all life processes.
Sign
Any OBJECTIVE evidence of manifestation of an illness or a disordered function of the body
Symptom
Any SUBJECTIVE change in the body or its functions, as perceived by the patient
Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue covers surfaces of organs; lines cavities and canals; forms tubes, ducts, and secreting portions of glands; and makes up the epidermis of the skin. It is composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting of one or several layers.
Connective tissue
Connective tissue supports and connects tissues and organs and is made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells, and blood.
Muscle tissue
Muscle tissue provides the contractile tissue of the body, which is responsible for movement.
Nervous tissue
Nervous tissue transmits electrical impulses
Midsagittal plane
Divides the body into right and left halves

aka median plane
Coronal plane
Divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

aka frontal plane
Transverse plane
Divides the body into superior and inferior aspects

aka horizontal plane
Dorsal cavity
Dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity (holding the brain) and the spinal cavity (holding the spinal cord)
Cranial cavity
holds the brain
Dorsal cavity
holds the spinal cord
Ventral cavity
Consists of the thoracic cavity (holds the heart, lungs, and associated structures) and the abdominopelvic cavity (holds the digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures)
Thoracic cavity
holds the heart, lungs, and associated structures
Abdominopelvic cavity
holds the digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
Parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the internal body cavity
Visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs
prone
lying horizontal with the face downward; or indicating the hands with the palms downward
supine
lying on the back with the face upward; or indicating the position of the hand or foot with the palm or foot facing upward
in/version
turning inward or inside out
e/version
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
cyt/o
cell

Ex: cytotoxic (poisonous to cells)
hist/o
tissue

Ex: histology (study of microscopic structures of tissues)
kary/o
nucleus

Ex: karyolysis (destruction of the nucleus, resulting in cell death)
[-LYSIS = separation; destruction; loosening]

aka nucle/o
anter/o
anter/ior, front

Ex: anterior
caud/o
tail

Ex: caud/ad (toward the tail; in a posterior direction)
[-AD = toward]
crani/o
cranium (skull)

Ex: crani/al (pert. to the cranium
dist/o
far, farthest

Ex: dist/al (pert. to a point further from the center (trunk) of the body
dors/o
back (of body)

Ex: dors/al (pert to the back of the body)
infer/o
lower, below

Ex: infer/ior (pert to the undersurface of a structure; underneath; beneath)
later/o
side

Ex: later/al
medi/o
middle

Ex: mediastinum
poster/o
back (of body), behind, posterior
ventr/o
belly, belly side

Ex: Ventr/al (pert to the belly side or front of body)
cervic/o
cervix = neck

cervix uteri = neck of uterus
ili/o
ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins, lower back
umbilic/o
navel
pelv/i

pelv/o
pelvis

Ex: pelv/i/meter (instrument for measuring the pelvix)
thorac/o
chest
albin/o
white
leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o
yellow
jaund/o
yellow
xanth/o
yellow

Ex: Xanthocyte (cell containing yellow pigment)
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
acr/o
extremity

Ex: acr/o/cyan/osis (pertaining to blueness of the extremities)
eti/o
cause
fasci/o
band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)

Ex: fasciitis
idi/o
unknown, peculiar

Ex: idiopathic
morph/o
form, shape, structure

Ex: morphology (study of form, shape, and structure, especially of cells)
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation, x-ray

radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
somat/o
body

Ex: somatic (pert to the body)
son/o
sound

Ex: sonography (process of recording an image or photograph of an organ or tissue using ultrasound [inaudible sound]; also called ultrasonography)
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry

Ex: xerosis (xer/osis = abnormal dryness of the skin, mucous membranes, or conjunctiva)
[-OSIS = abnormal condition]
-gnosis
knowing

Ex: prognosis
-pathy
disease
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
peri-
around

Ex: peri/cardi/al (pert to the area around the heart)
super-
upper, above
trans-
across, through
ultra-
excess, beyond

Ex: ultrasonic (pert to sound frequencies too high to be perceived by the human ear)
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds normally separated tissues together (usually occuring withing a body cavity)
contrast medium
In radiology, a substance that is injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic imaging of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
homeostasis
relative consistency in the internal environment of the body, which is maintained by the every-changing processes of feedback and regulation in response to external or internal changes
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy

marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function
nuclear medicine
branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for dx, tx, and research
suppurative
producing or associated with generation of pus
laparoscopy
visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs

(often performed for lung biopsy, repairing perforations in the lungs, and diagnosing pleural disease)
computed tomography scan
CT scan

Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles (formerly called computerized axial tomography; CAT)

In a CT scan, the computer generates a detailed cross-sectional image that appears as a slice. Tumor masses, bone displacement, and accumulations of fluid may be detected. During a period of two held breaths, as many as 50 continuous images can be produced in a single-slice mode. This technique may be used with or without a contrast medium.
Doppler
Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off of moving blood vessels.

Doppler is used to identify ireegularities in blood flow through the heart and its valves as well as peripheral vascular problems, such as blood clots, venous insufficiency, and arterial blockage
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI

Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images

MRI is the method of choice for dx-ing a growing number of diseases because it provides superior soft tissue contrast, allows multiple plane views, and avoids the hazards of ionizing radiation. MRI commonly proves superior to CT scan for most CNS images, particularly those of the brainstem and spinal cord as well as the musculoskeletal and pelvic area. Usually does not require use of a contrast medium.
positron emission tomography
PET scan

Scan using computed tomography to record the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, producing a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease.

PET is especially useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to dx disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease as well as cardiac and pulmonary disorders.
tomography
radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section or "slice" of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth.

Includes CT, PET, and SPECT
Needle biopsy
removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
Punch biopsy
Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)

An anesthetic and suturing are usually required for a punch biopsy, and minimal scarring is expected
Shave biopsy
Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
Frozen section biopsy
ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination

Frozen section biopsy is used for rapid dx of malignancy, while the pt awaits surgery
Ablation
removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radiofrequency
anastamosis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cauterize
destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
curettage
scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet)
I & D
incision and drainage

incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
radical dissection
surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant to decrease the chance of recurrence (such as radical mastectomy)
resection
partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure
Abbreviation:

AP
anteroposterior
Abbreviation:

Bx, bx
biopsy
Abbreviation:

LLQ
left lower quadrant
Abbreviation:

LUQ
left upper quadrant
Abbreviation:

RLQ
right lower quadrant
Abbreviation:

RUQ
right upper quadrant
Abbreviation:

Sx
symptom
Abbreviation:

US
ultrasound
androgen
an agent, usually a hormone (testosterone) that stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs or stimulates the development of male characteristics
ductule
a very small duct
steat/o
fat

Ex: steatitis (infl. of adipose (fatty) tissue
hidr/o
sweat

(hidr/o NOT hydr/o)

Ex: hidradenitis (infl of the sweat glands)
[ADEN = gland]
sudor/o
sweat

Ex: sudor/esis (profuse sweating)
[ESIS = condition]
ichthy/o

[ik-thE-O]
dry, scaly

ichthyosis (when skin is dry and hyperkeratotic [hardened], resembling fish scales)
[-OSIS = abnormal condition; increase]
kerat/o
hard tissue
myc/o
fungus

Ex: Dermat/o/myc/osis (fungal infection of the skin)
onych/o

ungu/o
nail

Ex: Onychomalacia

Ex: Ungual
pil/o
hair

Ex: pil/o/nid/al (growth of hair in a cyst or other internal structure)
[NID = nest]
trich/o
hair

Ex: trichopathy (any disease involving the hair)
scler/o
2 meanings:

hardening (Ex: Scleroderma)

sclera (white of eye)
seb/o
sebum, sebaceous

Ex: seborrhea (excessive secretion or discharge of sebum [oily secretion of glands])
squam/o
scale

Ex: squamous (relating to or covered with scales)
xen/o
foreign, strange

Ex: xenograft (surgical graft of tissue from an individual of another species, aka heterograft)
xer/o
dry

Ex: xeroderma (dryness and roughness of the skin)
decubitus ulcer
pressure ulcer - skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure, usually in a person who is immobile, aka bedsore. Most commonly found over bony prominences, such as the hip, ankle, heel, shoulder, and elbow.
eschar
[es-kar]

damaged tissue following a severe burn
furuncle
bacterial infection of a hair follicle or sebaceous gland that produces a pus-filled lesion, aka boil. Caused by S. aureus.
hirsutism
condition characterized by excessive growth of hair or presence of hair in unusual places, especially in women.
impetigo
inflammatory skin disease characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture. Caused by Staphylococcus or beta-hemolytic streptococci.
folliculitis
bacterial infection of the hair follicle, usually caused by S. aureus. Lesions appear as pustules with erythema. Contributing factors include prolonged skin moisture, skin trauma, and poor hygiene.

Tx: topical antibiotics
candidiasis
caused by fungus Candida albicans. Normally found on mucous membranes, on the skin, in the GI tract, and in the vagina. Changes to a pathogen, causes infection, when: 1) in local environment of moisture, warmth, maceration, or occlusion (traps yeast inside and provides good environment for yeast growth); 2) systemic administration of antibiotics (changes normal flora of body, especially vagina); 3) pregnancy (hormonal changes); 4) diabetes mellitus; 5) Cushing disease; 6) debilitated states; 7) infants younger than 6 months of age (decreased immune reactivity); 8) immunosuppressed people (can't fight infection); 9) certain neoplastic diseases of the blood and monocyte/macrophage system.

Normal bacteria on the skin inhibit proliferation of C. albicans, unless the environment is changed. Candidiasis affects only the outer layers of mucous membranes and skin and occurs in the mouth, vagina, uncircumcised penis, and large skin folds.
Tx: topical or systemic antifungal agents
pediculosis
infestation with lice
petechiae
minute, pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin
psoriasis
chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales that are the result of excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis.

New lesions appear at sites of trauma, commonly on the scalp, knees, elbows, umbilicus, and genitalia.
Tx: topical application of keratolytics, phototherapy, and UV light therapy to slow hyperkeratosis.
scabies
contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact.

Scabies manifests as papules, vesicles, pustules, and burrows, and causes intense itching commonly resulting in secondary infections. Most commonly affects axillae, genitalia, inner aspect of the thighs, and area between the fingers.
tinea
ringworm (fungal infection), named by body part affected

Ex: tinea barbae (beard), tinea corporis (body), tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea versicolor (skin), tinea cruris (jock itch)
urticaria
hives (pale red elevated patches called wheals)
vitiligo
[vit-il-I-gO]

localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
verruca
warts