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479 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adenoma
a glandular tumor
adenopathy
any disease of a gland
adrenocortical
pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland
androgen
any steroid hormone that increases male characteristics
antidiuretic
pertaining to the suppression of urine production; an agent given to suppress the production of urine
endocrine gland
a ductless gland that produces a chemical substance called a hormone, which is secreted directly into the bloodstream instead of exiting the body through ducts
endocrinology
the field of medicine that deals with the study of the endocrine system and of the treatment of the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system
euthyroid
pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland
exocrine gland
a gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or a sweat gland
exophthalmia
an abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
gonads
a term used to refer to the female sex glands, or ovaries, and the male sex glands, or testes
hirsutism
a condition in which there is excessive body hair in a male distribution pattern
hypercalcemia
elevated blood calium level
hyperglycemia
elevated blood sugar level
hyperkalemia
elevated blood potassium level
hypernatremia
elevated blood sodium level
hypocalcemia
less than normal blood calcium level
hypoglycemia
less than normal blood sugar level
hypokalemia
less than normal blood potassium level
hyponatremia
less than normal blood sodium level
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyuria
excretion of excessively large amounts of urine
acromegaly
a chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities, due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone after puberty
diabetes insipidus
a condition caused by a deficiency in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior pituitary gland, characterized by large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body
dwarfism
generalized growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone
gigantism
a proportional overgrowth of the body's tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty
goiter
hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease)
hypertrophy of the thyroid gland resulting in an excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone that causes an extremely high boy metabolism, thus creating multisystem changes
hypothyroidism
a condition in which there is a shortage of thyrid hormone causing an extremely low body metabolism due to a reduced usage of oxygen; also called myxedema in the most severe form
cretinism
congenital thyroid defects
thyroiditis (hashimoto's thyroiditis)
chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland
thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm)
an acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
hyperparathyroidism
overactivity of any one of the parathyroid glands, which leads to high levels of calcium in the blood and low levels of calcium in the bones
hypoparathyroidism
decreased production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, characterized by nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany (a state of continual contraction of the muscle)
Addison's disease
a life threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in the gland
conn's disease
a condition characterized by excretion of excesive amounts of aldosterone, the most influential of the mineralocorticoids, which causes the body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium, leading to an increased volume of blood and hypertension
cushing's syndrome
a condition of the adrenal gland in which there is a cluster of symptoms occuring as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or acth circulating in the blood
pheochromocytoma
a vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces extra epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations
virilism
development of male secondary sex characteristics in the female due to the excessive secretion of adrenocortical androgens from the adrenal cortex
diabetes mellitus
a disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of langerhans of thepancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body's inability to appropriatly metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins
gestational diabetes
a disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy; that is they develop and inability to metabolize carbohydrates, with resultant hyperglycemia
pancreatitis
an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
thyroid function tests
test that measure the blood levels of the hormones, t3, t4, and tsh
glucose tolerance test GTT
a test that evaluates the persons ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels
radioactive iodine uptake test RAIU
a throid function test that evaluates the function of the thyroid gland b admnistering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gamma ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine the percentage or quantity of radioactive iodine absorbed by the gland over specific time periods
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
Ca
calcium
GTT
glucose tolerance test
K
potassium
Na
sodium
NIDDM
non insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
RAIU
radioactive iodine uptake
T3
triiodothyronine
T4
thyroxine
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone
appendectomy
surgical removal of the appendix
bilirubin
the orange yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
cholelithiasis
abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
deglutition
swallowing
defacation
the act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus
digestion
the process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells; this occurs in the digestive tract
duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine
emulsify
to disperse a liquid into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension
feces
waste or excrement from the digestive tract that is formed in the intestine and expelled through the rectum
gastroenterologist
a medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and the disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and the bile duct
gavage
a procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
glycogenesis
the converstion of simple sugar into a complex form of sugar for storage in the liver
ileum
the distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum
jejunum
the intermediate or middle of the three portions of the small intestine, connecting proximally with the duodenum and distally with the ileum
lavage
the process of irrigating, or washing out an organ, usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach for therapeutic purposes
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
peristalsis
the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the uterus
pharynx
the throat
uvula
the small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
achlorhydria
an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablilty to eat
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose watery stools
dyspepsia
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutriton
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
eructation
the act of bringing up air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth; belching
flatus; flatulence
air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
gastroesophageal reflux
backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
icterus
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
jaundice
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
melena
abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood
nausea
an unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit
pruritus ani
common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
steatorrhea
greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces, characterized by frothy, foul smelling fecal matter that floats, as in celiac disease, some malabsorption syndromes, and any condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestine
vomit
to expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth
vomitus
material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
achalasia
decreased mobility of the lower 2/3 of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter
anal fistula
an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum
aphthous stomatitis
small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tonue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth; also called canker sores
celiac disease
nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
cirrhosis
a disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
colorectal cancer
the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
crohn's disease
digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
dental caries
tooth decay caused by acid forming microorganisms
divertiular disease
an expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis. diverticulosis describes the noninflamed outpouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon. inflammation of these outpouchings called diverticula is referred to as diverticulitis
dysentery
a term used to describe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
hemorrhoids
a permanently distended vein, called a varicosity, in the distal rectum or anus
hepatitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infction
hernia
an irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
hiatal hernia/diaphragmatic hernia
occurs as a result of an upwar protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm due to an enlarged cardia sphincter
herpetic stomatitis
inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or a secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex
ileus
a term used to describe an obstruction of the intestin
intestinal obstruction
complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the contents in the small or large intestines
intussusception
tlescoping of aportion of proximal intestine into distal intestine usually in the ileocecal region causing an obstruction
irritable bowel syndrome
increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines
oral leukoplakia
a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
pancreatitis
an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
peptic ulcer
a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium
thrush
a fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces
ulcerative colitis
a chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of themucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers. characterized by large watery diarrheal stools containing mucus pus or blood
volvulus
a rotation of loops of bowel causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction
abdominocentesis (paracentesis)
involves insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
barium enema
infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
barium swallow (upper GI series)
involves oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
cheiloplasty
surgically correcting a defect of the lip
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystography
visualization of the gallbladder through sray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
colonoscopy
the direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
colostomy
the surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled by bringing the incised colon out to the abdominal surface
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
a procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
gastric lavage
the irrigation or washing out of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution
gastrointestinal endoscopy
involves the direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a lighted, fiberoptic endoscope
nasogastric intubation
involves tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions gas or food
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
an examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium; also known as a PTHC
stool guaiac
a test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a reagent which identifies the presence of blood in the stool
a.c.
before meals (ante cibum)
BE
barium enema
b.i.d.
twice a day
CT
computerized tomography (scan)
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB
gallbladder
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
GTT
glucose tolerance test
HBV
hepatitis B virus
HCV
hepatitis C virus
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
N&V
nausea and vomiting
NPO
nothing by mouth
p.c.
after meals (post cibum)
auscultation
process of listening for sounds within the body usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera to detect some abnormal condition or to detect fetal heart sounds
inspection
visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture
laryngalgia
pain in the larynx
palpation
process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs
percussion
use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluuid or pus in a cavity
pleura
the double folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleura space
the space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae, which contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing; without breathing
bradypnea
abnormally slow breathing
cough
a forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration. the glottis is partially closed, the accessory muscles of expiration are brought into action, and the air is noisily expelled
nonproductive cough
not effective in bringing up sputum; dry cough
productive
effective in bringing up sputum; wet cough
mucoid sputum
resembling mucus
mucopurulent sputum
containing mucus and pus
purulent sputum
containing pus
serous sputum
resembling serum; containing a thin watery fluid
cyanosis
slightly bluish grayish slatelike or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
dysphonia
difficulty in speaking; hoarseness
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing sometimes accompanied by pain
epistaxis
hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed
expectoration
the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
hemoptysis
expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity larynx trachea bronchi or lungs
hypercapnia
increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia
insufficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen
kussmaul respirations
very deep gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
orthopnea
respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position
pleural rub
friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
rales
an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls
rhinorrhea
thin watery discharge from the nose
rhonchi
rales or rattllings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring
sneeze
to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa
stridor
harsh sound during respiration; high pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages
tachypnea
abnormal rapidity of breathing
wheezing
a whistling sound or sighting sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
coryza
inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes known as the common cold. the phrase common cold is usually used when referring to symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection
croup
a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough suffocating and difficult breathing stridor and laryngeal spasm
diphtheria
serious infectious disease affecting the nose pharynx or larynx usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever. the disease is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx, uwually resulting in dysphonia, cough, and difficulty swallowing
pertussis
an acute upper respiratory infectious disease cause by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; whooping cough
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx usually resulting in sore throat
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain
sinusitis
inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus
tonsillitis
inflammation of the palatine tonsils; located in the area of the oropharynx
asthma
paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
bronchiectasis
chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. often preceded by the common cold
emphysema
a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increae beyond the normal in size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
empyema
pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity usually the result of a primary inection in the lungs
hyaline membrane disease
also known as respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant, hyaline membrane disease is severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn.
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with ressultant dyspnea
pleuritis/pleurisy
inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx, uwually resulting in dysphonia, cough, and difficulty swallowing
pertussis
an acute upper respiratory infectious disease cause by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; whooping cough
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx usually resulting in sore throat
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain
sinusitis
inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus
tonsillitis
inflammation of the palatine tonsils; located in the area of the oropharynx
asthma
paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
bronchiectasis
chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. often preceded by the common cold
emphysema
a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increae beyond the normal in size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
empyema
pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity usually the result of a primary inection in the lungs
hyaline membrane disease
also known as respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant, hyaline membrane disease is severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn.
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with ressultant dyspnea
pleuritis/pleurisy
inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
pneumothorax
a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. the air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung
pulmonary edema
swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
pulmonary embolism
the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus that dislodges from another location, and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung
pulmonary heart disease
hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease
sudden infant death syndrome
the completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, SIDS also known as crib death is the most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life
tuberculosis
an infection disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous necrosis in the tissues of the lungs
anthracosis
accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust; black lung disease; also called coal workers pneumoconiosis
asbestosis
lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
byssinosis
a lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp; aka brown lung disease
silicosis
lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica dust, characterized by formation of small nodules
bronchoscopy
examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted flexible tube known as a bronchoscope
laryngoscopy
examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted flexible tube known as a laryngoscope
pulmonary function test
physicians use this variety of tests to assess respiratory function
thoracentesis
involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
ABGs
arterial blood gases
AFB
acid fast bacilli
AP
anteroposterior
CO2
carbon dioxide
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CXR
chest x ray
DPT
diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus; and immunization given in childhood to prevent thses diseases by providing immunity
IPPB
intermittent positive pressure breathing
O2
oxygen
PA
posteroanterior
PFTs
pulmonary function test (s)
PPD
purified protein derivative; substance used in intradermal test for tuberculosis
SIDS
sudden infant death syndrome
SOB
shortness of breath
TB
tuberculosis
TPR
temperature, pulse, and respiration
URI
upper respiratory infection
anastomosis
a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other
angiography
x ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on xray film
arrhythmia
any deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat
ascites
an abnormal collection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
atherosclerosis
a form of atreriosclerosis characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries
bruit
an abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope
carditis
inflammation of the heart muscles
claudication
cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs
coronary
one of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta; supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle
diastole
the period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase knows as systole
dysrhythmia
abnormal rhythm
edema
the localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the area to swell
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
homan's sign
pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient.
hyperlipidemia
excessive level of fats in the blood
hypertension
elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mmHg; high blood pressure; aka arterial hypertension
hypotension
low blood pressure; less than normal blood pressure reading
infarction
a localized area of necrosis in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part, resulting from lack of oxygen due to interrupted blood flow to the area
ischemia
decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ
lipid
any of a group of fats or fatlike substance found in the blood; some examples of lipids are cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides
lumen
a cavity or the channel within any organ or sturcture of the body; the space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
malaise
a vague feeling of body weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease
murmur
a low pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a heart murmur, heard on auscultation
myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium
occlusion
closure, or state of being closed
palpable
detectable by touch
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
pitting edema
swelling usually of the skin of the extremeties, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger
prophylactic
an agent that protects against disease
systole
the contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. marked by the first sound heard on auscultation, or the first pulse palpated, after the release of the blood pressure cuff
thrombosis
the formation or existence of a blood clot
vasoconstriction
narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel
anorexia
loss of appetite
anxiety
a feeling of apprehension, worry, uneasiness, or dread, especially of the future
bradycardia
a slow heart rate that is characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute
chest pain
a feeling of discomfort in the chest
cyanosis
slightly bluish grayish slatelike or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain
fatigue
a feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotropic drug
fever
elevation of temp above the normal
headache/cephalgia
a diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confirmed to any nerve distribution area
nausea
unpleasant sensation usually preceding vomiting
pallor
lack of color; paleness
palpitation
rapid violent or throbbing pulsation as an abnormally rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart
sweat
perspiration; the liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste
tachycardia
abnormal rapidity of heart action usually defined as a heart rate over 100 bpm
weakness
lacking physical strength or vigor
coronary artery disease
narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adwquate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
a nonsurgical procedure in which a catheter, equipped with a small inflatable balloon on the end, is inserted into the femoral artery and is threaded up the aorta into the narrowed coronary artery
directional coronary atherectomy
a procedure that uses a catheter which has a small mechanically driven cutter that shaves the plaque and stores it in a collection chamber
coronary bypass surgery
a surgical procedure designed to increase the blood flow to the myocardial muscle and involves bypass grafts to the coronary arteries that reroute the blood flow around the occluded area of the coronary artery
angina pectoris
severe pain and constriction about the heart usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm, creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest
myocardial infarction
heart attack; a condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries. this life threatening condition results when myocardial tissue is destroyed in areas of the heart that are deprived of an adequate blood supply due to the occluded vessel
congestive heart failure
condition characterized by weakness breathlessness abdominal discomfort; edema in the lower portions of the body resulting from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed and the outflow of blood fromthe left side of the heart is reduced; the pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs; aka cardiac failure
rheumatic fever
an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group a beta hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiraroty tract
mitral valve prolapse
drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency
aneurysm
a localized dilatation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall. this weakened area balloons out with each pulsation of the artery
arteriosclerosis
an arterial condition in which there is thickening hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries resulting in decreased blood supply especially to the lower extremeties and cerebrum; hardening of the arteries
thombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus; usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg
varicose veins
enlarged superficial veins; a twisted dilated vein with incompetent valves
sclerotherapy
form of treatment for varicose veins that involves the injection of a chemical irritant into the varicosed vein.
vein stripping
surgical procedure that consists of ligation of the saphenous vein
hypertension
a condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure than tht judged to be normal
essential hypertension
accounts for approx 90% of all hypertension, no known cause; risk factors include hypersholesterolemia, obesity, high serum sodium level, and a family history of high blood pressure
secondary hypertension
accounts for approx 10% or less of hypertension; caused by physical conditions such as complications of pregnancy and kidney disease
malignant hypertension
hypertension that is severe and rapidly progresive
raynaud's phenomenon
intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles causing pallor of the fingers or toes, followed by cyanosis then redness before returning to normal color; initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance
peripheral arterial occlusive disease
obstruction of the arteries in the extremities. the leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery. the classic symptom of peripheral arterial occlusive disease is intermittent claudication, which is a cramplike pain in the muscles brought on by exercise and releived by rest
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital heart anomaly that consists of four defects; pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextraposition of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle; named for the french physician etienne fallot, who first described the condition
patent ductus arteriosus
abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth. this defect is seen primarily in premature infants
coarctation of the aorta
a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities
heart block
an interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
atrial flutter
condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 and 400 bpm
atrial fibrillation
extremely rapid incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria
ventricular fibrillation
condition similar to atrial fibrillation which results in rapid trmulous and ineffectual contractions of the ventricles; patient has no audible heartbeat, no palpable pulse, no respiration, and no blood circulation; if prolonged this will lead to cardiac arrest
angiography
x ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on xray film. this substance is injected into an artery or vein
cardiac catheterization
a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm or a leg and is then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart. cardiac cath is used to obtain detailed info about the structure and function of the heart chambers valves and the great vessels
cardiac enzymes test
performed on smaples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
computed axial tomography
diagnostic xray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross sectional image of the body. it is often used to detect aneurysms of the aorta. xray signals are fed into a computer which then turns them into a cross sectional picture of the section of the body being scanned; called CAT scan
echocardiography
diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart it is useful evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
electrocardiogram
graphic record of the electrical the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin; known as an EKG or ECG
exercise stress testing
a means of assessing cardiac function by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress for example using the treadmill
holter monitering
a small portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder. the continuous EKG is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities
magnetic resonance
involves the use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imagind that is valuable in providing images of the heart large blood vessels brain and soft tissue
positron emission tomography
a computerized xray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures such as the heart and blood vessels the patient is given doses of strong radioactive tracers by injection or inhalation; the radiation emitted is measured by the PET camera
serum lipid test
measures the amount of fatty substances in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture
thallium stress test
combo of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CCU
coronary care unit
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT/CAT
computed axial tomography (scan)
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECG/EKG
electrocardiogram
ECHO
echocardiogram
HCVD
hypertensive cardiovascular disease
MI
myocardial infarction
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
PAT
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PET
positron emission tomography
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVC's
premature ventricular contractions
agglutination
the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins. agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulins or immune serums
anisocytosis
an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cels of variable and abnormal size
antibodies
substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances. each class of antibody is named for its actions
antigens
a substance usually a protein, that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody
ascites
an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
coagulation
the process of transforming a liquid into a lolid especially of the blood
corpuscle
any cell of the body; a red or white cell
cytogenesis
formation of a cell
dyscrasia
an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility
edema
the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
embolism
an abnormal condition in which a bloodclot becomes lodged in a blood vessel obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel
embolus
a dislodged circulating clot
erythremia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells
erythroblast
an immature red blood cell
erythrocytopenia
a condition of the red blood cells
erythrocytosis
condition of red cells
erythropoiesis
the process of red blood cell production
hematologist
a medical specialist in the field of hematology
hematology
the scientific study of blood and blood forming tissues
hemolysis
the brakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin that occurs normally at the end of the life span of a red cell
hemolytic
destructio of red blood cells
hemopoiesis
the production of the formed elements in the blood
hemorrhage
a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either externally or internally.
hemostasis
the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body consisting of vasoconstriction platelet aggregation, and thrombin and fibrin synthesis
hyperlipemia / hyperlipidemia
an excessive level of blood fats usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase defieciency or a defect in the conversion of low density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins
hypersplenism
a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
leukocyte
a white blood cell one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system
leukocytopenia
an abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than 5000 cells per cubic millimeter
lymphocyte
small agranulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the blood marrow
morphology
the study of form or shape
myeloid
of or pertaining to the bone marrow or the spinal cord
neutrophil
a polymorphonuclear granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes
pancytopenia
a marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells white blood cells and platelets
plasma
the watery straw colored fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes erythrocytes and platelets are suspended
platelet / thrombocyte
a clotting cell
poikilocytosis
a condition of varied or irregular cells
polycythemia
an abnormal increase in the rbc's granulocytes and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity
purpura
a group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and ucous membranes; small pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic arase are known as ecchymoses or bruises
septicemia
systemicinfection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream having spread from an infection in any part of the body
seroconversion
a change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine
serology
the branch of lab medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating entigen antibody reactions
serum
the clear thin and sticky fluid portio of the blood that remains after coagulation. serum contains no blood cells platelets or fibrinogen
splenomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
thrombocytopenia
an abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced
thrombosis
abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
thrombus
clot