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139 Cards in this Set

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afterbirth
placenta, the amnion, the chlorion, some amniotic fluid, blood, and blood clots expelled from the uterus after childbirth
alpha-fetoprotein
protein found in the amniotic fluid, amounts are used to determine fetal defects like spina bifida and ancephaly.
amenorrhea
absence of menstrual flow
amniotic fluid
liquid produced by and contained within the fetal membranes during pregnancy. protects the fetus from trauma and temperature variations, maintains oxygen levels, and allows freedom for movement in womb
amniotic sac
double layered sac that contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy.
areola
darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast.
ballottement
technique using the examiner's finger to tap against the uterus through the vagina, to cause the fetus to bounce back within the amniotic fluid and feeling it rebound quickly.
cerclage
suturing the cervix to keep it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy.(purse string) removed at the end of pregnancy.
cervix
part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina; the neck of the uterus.
chadwick's sign
bluish-violet hue of the cervix and vagina after approximately the sixth week of pregnancy.
chloasma
patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy occuring mostly on the forehead, cheeks, and nose(mask of pregnancy)
chorion
outer of the 2 membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and amniotic fluid during pregnancy.
coitus/copulation
sexual intercourse
colostrum
thin, yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during pregnancy and the first few weeks after birth, before lactation begins.
conception
union of a male sperm and a female ovum (fertilization)
corpus luteum
mass of yellowish tissue within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation. functions as temporary endocrine glands for the purpose of secreting estrogen and large amounts of progesterone which will sustain pregnancy, should it occur until the placenta forms.
culdocentesis
needle aspiration, through the vagina, into the cul-de-sac area (peritoneal cavity immediately behind the vagina)for purpose of removing fluid from the area for examination or diagnosis.
dilation (of cervix)
enlargement of the diameter of the cervix during labor
doppler
technique used in ultrasound imaging to monitor the behavior of the moving structure, such as flowing blood and a beating heart.
ejaculation
sudden emission from the male urethra usually during sexual intercourse or masturbation.
embryo
product of conception from the 2nd to 8th week of pregnancy.
endometrium
inner lining of the uterus.
episiotomy
surgical procedure in which the incision is made into the woman's perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the baby.(shortly before delivery to prevent tearing)
estrogen
one of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary characteristics.
fallopian tubes
pair of tubes opening at one end into the uterus and at the other end of the peritoneal cavity
fertilization
union of a male sperm and a female ovum
fetoscope
special stethoscope for hearing the fetal heartbeat through the mother's abdomen
fetus
name given to the developing baby 8 wks after conception until birth.
fimbriae
fringelike end of the fallopian tube.
fundus
superior aspect of the uterus
gamete
mature sperm or ovum
gestation
term for pregnancy equals approximately 280 dyas from onset of last menstrual period through birth.
gestational hypertension
complication of pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure after 20 weeks' gestation with no signs of proteinurea or edema
glycogen
form of sugar that is stored in body cells, primarily the liver.
gonads
gamete-producing gland, such as an ovary or testis.
goodell's sign
softening of the uterine cervix, probable sign of pregnancy.
graafian follicles
mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum.
gravida
woman who is pregnant. (first time) second time: gravida II
heger's sign
softening of the lower segment of the uterus; probable sign of pregnancy
hyperpigmentation
increase in the pigmentation of the skin
hyperovolemic shock
state of extreme physical collapse and exhaustion due to massive blood loss(less than normal) blood volume.
labor
time and the processes that occur during birth, from the beginning of cervical dilation to the delivery of the placenta.
lactation
production and secretion of milk form the female breasts as nourishments for the infant.
lactiferous ducts
channels or narrow tubular structures that carry milk from the lobes of each breast to the nipple.
laparoscopy
visualization of the abdominal cavity with an instrument called a laparoscope through an incision into the abdominal wall.
leukorrhea
white discharge from the vagina
linea nigra
darkening vertical appearing on the abdomen of a pregnant woman, extending from the fundus to the symphysis pubis.
lithotomy position
position in which the patient lies on her back, buttocks even with the end of the table, with knees bent back toward her abdomen and the heel of each foot resting in an elevated foot rest at the end of the examination table.
lordosis
forward curvature of the spine, noticeable if the person is observed from the side.
lunar month
4 weeks or 28 days; approximately the amount of time it takes the moon to revolve around the earth.
mammary glands
female breasts
ovum
female reproductive cell; female sex cell or egg
multigravida
woman who has been pregnant more than once.
multipara
woman who has given birth 2 or more times after 20 weeks gestation.
nagele's rule
formula that is used to calculate the date of birth; subtract 3 months from the first day of the last normal menstrual period and add 7 days to the date to arrive on the estimated due date.
neonatology
branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment and care of the diseases and disorders of the newborn through the first 4 weeks of life.
nullipara
woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyound 20 weeks gestation.
obstetrician
physician who specializes in the care of women during pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first 6 weeks following the delivery, known as immediate postpartum period.
obstetrics
field of medicine that deals with pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first 6 weeks after delivery(postpartum period)
ovary
one of a pair of female gonads responsible for producing mature ova(eggs)released on monthly intervals (produces female hormones-progesterone and estrogen)
para
woman who produced an infant regardless of whether the infant is alive or stillborn.(past 20 weeks)
parturition
act of giving birth
perineum
area between the vaginal orifice and the anus; consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for the pelvic structures.
placenta
highly vascular, disc-shaped organ that forms in the pregnant uterine wall for exchange of gases and nutrients between the mother and the fetus.
pregnancy
period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth.
prenatal
pertaining to the period of time, during pregnancy, that is before the birth of the baby.
primigravada
woman who is pregnant for the first time.
primipara
woman who gave birth for the first time, after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks gestation.
progesterone
female hormone secreted by corpus luteum and the placenta. responsible for changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.
proteinuria; albuminuria
presence of protein (albumin) in the urine
puberty
period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins
quickening
first feeling of movement of the fetus felt by the expectant mother (18-20 weeks)
salpingectomy
surgical removal of a fallopian tube
sexual intercourse
sexual union of 2 people of the opposite sex in which the penis is introduced into the vagina
signs
objective findings as perceived by an examiner, such as the measurement of a fever on the thermometer, the observation of a rash on the skin, or observation of a bluish-violet color of the cervix.
sperms
mature male germ cell; spermatozoon
striae gravidarum
stretch marks that occur during pregnancy due to the great amount of stretching that occurs.
symptoms
subjective indication of a disease or change in condition as perceived by the patient; something experienced or felt by the patient.
tachycardia
rapid heartbeat, consistently over 100 beats a minute
testes
paired male gonads that produce sperm. suspended in the scrotal sac in the adult male.
transvaginal ultrasonography
ultrasound image that is produced by inserting a transvaginal probe into the vagina.
trimester
one of the 3 periods of approximately 3 months into which pregnancy is divided.
ultrasonography
noninvasive procedure that involves the use of reflected sound waves to detect the presence of the embryo or fetus.
umbilical cord
flexible structure connecting the umbilicus(navel) of the fetus with the placenta in teh pregnant uterus.
uterus
hollow, pear-shaped organ of the female reproductive system that houses the fertilized, implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy; also source of menstrual flow from the nonpregnant uterus.
vagina
muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva. approximately 3 inches in length and rests between the bladder and the rectum.
waddling gait
manne of walking in which the feet are wide apart and the walk resembles that of a duck.
amni/o
amnion
ante
before; in front of
culd/o
cul-de-sac
cyesis
pregnancy
episi/o
vulva
fet/o
fetus
gravida
pregnancy
hyper
excessive; high
lact/o
milk
multi
many
nat/o
birth
nulli
none
para
to give birth
primi
first
obstetr/o
midwife
pelv/i
pelvis
perine/o
perineum
salping/o
eustachian tubes; fallopian tubes
tocia
labor
vagin/o
vagina
edema
edema, or swelling of the lower extremities is not uncommon in pregnancy, particularly as the pregnancy progresses.
pyrosis
Heartburn, a burning sensation in the epigastric region of the abdomen.
hemoorhoids
swollen veins of the rectum and the anus that develop are a result of the increasing pressure on the area due to progressing pregnancy
nausea
usually occures first trimester (morning sickness)
varicose veins
twisted, swollen veins that occur as a result of the blood pooling in teh legs, due to the added weight (from the pregnancy) to the lower extremities of the body.
abortion
termination of pregnancy before the fetus has reached a viable age where it can live outside of the uterine environment.
abruptio placenta
premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall, after pregnancy has passed 20 weeks gestation or during pregnancy.
ectopic pregnancy
abnormal implantation of a fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity
gestational diabetes
disorder in which women are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during pregnancy(inability to metabolize carbohydrates)
hydatiform mole/molar pregnancy/hydatid mole
abnormal condition that begins as a pregnancy and deviates from normal development very early.
hyperemesis gravidarum
abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by severe vomiting that results in maternal dehydration and weight loss.
incompetent cervix
condition in which the cervical os (opening) dilates before the fetus reaches term, without labor or uterine contractions usually occurring during the second trimester of pregnancy and resulting in spontaneous abortion of the fetus.
placenta previa
condition of pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus, and precedes the fetus during the birthing process.
eclampsia
most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy and is evidenced by the presence of seizures.
pre-elcampsia
development of hypertension with poreinuria or edema after 20 weeks of gestation.
Rh compatability
incompatability between the Rh negative mother's blood with the Rh positive baby's blood, causing the mother's body to develop antibodies that will destroy the Rh positive blood.
bloody show
vaginal discharge that is a mixture of thick mucus and pink or dark brown blood.
effacement
thinning of the cervix in preparation of childbirth.
braxton hicks contractions
mild, irregular contractions that occur throughout pregnancy.
lightening
expectant mother will notice that she can breathe easier because the descent of the baby relieves some of the pressure from the diaphragm.
amniocentesis
surgical puncture of the amniotic sac for the purpose of removing amniotic fluid.
cesarean section
surgical procedure in which the abdomen and the uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally
contraction stress test
stress test used to evaluate the ability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of labor and delivery (oxycin challenge test)
fetal monitoring
use of an electronic device to monitor the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions
nipple stimulation test
noninvasive technique that produces basically the same results as the contraction stress test by having the pregnant woman stimulate the nipples of her breasts by rubbing them between her fingers
pelvic ultrasound
noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis.
pelvimetry
process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by x-ray, to determine its adequacy for childbearing.
pregnancy test
test performed on maternal urine and or blood to determine the presence of the hormone, HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) HCG is detected shortly after the first missed menstrual period.
c-section
cesearean section
HCG
human chlorionic gonadotropin (hormone detects pregnancy)
LMP
last menstrual period
OB
obstetrics