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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
calyx (calyces)
cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules.
glomerulus
ball-shaped collection of very thin, coiled, and intertwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney.
homeostasis
A tendency to stability in the normal body states (internal environment) of the organism.
peritonium
specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera; inner lining of the cavity.
renal pelvis
central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter.
meatus
opening or tunnel through any part of the body as in the urinary meatus, which is the external opening of the urethra.
urethra
small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
ureter
one of the pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
antiseptic
substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
arteriovenous fistula
surgical connection between an artery and a vein that provides access for hemodialysis.
aseptic techniques
any health procedure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms.
azotemia
presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism in which the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea form the blood.
catheter
hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid.
cystometer
instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure.
cystoscope
instrament used to view the interior of the bladder, ureter, or kidney.
dialysate
solution that cotains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and water from the blood.
dialysis
process of removing waste products from the blood when kidneys are unable to do so.
dwell time
length of time the dialsys solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis
glomerular filter
substance that filter out the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli.
meatotomy
An incision made to enlarge a meatus, e.g., of the urethra or ureter.
micturition
act of eliminating urine from the bladder(voiding or urination)
nephrolithiasis
condition of kidney stones
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
pyelitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis.
pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis, beginning in the interstitium and rapidly extending to involve the tubules, glomeruli and blood vessels, due to bacterial infection.
renal
Pertaining to the kidney,
residual urine
urine that remains in the bladder after urination.
solute
substance that dissolves in a solution, as in the waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine.
specific gravity
weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, which is considered to be the standard.
toxic
poisonous
turbid
cloudy
uremia
presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood.
ureterostenosis
Stricture of a ureter; A narrowing, especially of a tube or canal, due to scar tissue or tumour.
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
urinary incontinence
inability to control urination
urinary retention
abnormal, involuntary accumulation of urine in the bladder
urination
act of eliminating urine from the body
urine
fluid released from the kidneys, transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra.
vesicocele
A condition where the bladder herniates into the vaginal canal.
voiding
act of eliminating urine from the body.
albumin/o
albumin, protein
azot/o
nitrogen
bacteri/o
bacteria
cali/o, calic/o
calyz, calyces
cyst/o
bladder, sac or cyst
dips/o
thirst
glomerul/o
glomerulus
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
meat/o
meatus
nephr/o
kidney
noct/i
night
olig/o
few, little, scanty
pyel/o
renal pelvis
py/o
pus
ren/o
kidney
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
uro/, urin/o
urine
uria
urine condition
vesic/o
urinary bladder
albuminuria
presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin.
anuria
cessation (stopping) of urine production, or urinary output of less than 100 ml a day.
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in urine
dysuria
painful urination.
enuresis
condition of urinary incontinence, especially at night; bed wetting.
glycosuria
abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.
hematuria
abnormal presence of blood in the urine.
ketonuria
presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine.
lethargy
state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic(without emotion) or sluggish.
malaise
vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease or infection.
nocturia/nycturia
urination, especially excessive, at night.
oliguria
secretion of diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output.
polydipsia
excessive thirst.
polyuria
excessive abnormally large amounts of urine.
pyuria
presence of pus in the urine, usually a sign of infection of the urinary tract
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
hydonephrosis
distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter.
polycystic kidney disease
hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike, fluid-filled sacs or cysts, replace normal kidney tissue.
renal calculi (nephrolithiasis)
stone formation in the kidney.
glomerulonephritis
A variety of nephritis characterised by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney. It occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms and may be secondary to haemolytic streptococcal infection. Evidence also supports possible immune or autoimmune mechanisms.
treatments of renal failure
hemodialysis, kidney transplants, and peritoneal dialsys
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
blood test performed to determine the amount of urea and nitrogen present in the blood (waste product excreted by kidney)
catherization
introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill substance or removal of fluid.
creatinine clearance test
diagnostic test for kidney function that measures filtration rate of creatinine, waste product which is normally removed by the kidney.
cystometrography
examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding.
cystoscopy
process of viewing the interior of the bladder.
extracorporeal lithotripsy
noninvasive mechanical procedure for breaking up renal calculi so they can pass through the ureters.
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract; kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
x-ray of the lower abdomen that defines the size, shape, and location of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
renal angiography
x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
fluoroscopy
An X-ray procedure that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion.
retrograde pyelogram
radiographic procedure in which small-caliber, catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis.
ultrasonography
aka ultrasound; procedure using sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient's skin.
urinalysis
physical, chemical, or microscopic examination of urine.
voiding cystourethrography
x-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material.
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
C&S
culture and sensitivity-growth of microorganisms in a special medium and subsequent antiobiotic testing to determine appropriate treatment.
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
KUB
kidneys, ureters, bladder
pH
degree of acidity, alkinity of a solution (potential hydrogen)
UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection