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383 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
post-
after; behind
radio-
x-rays; radioactivity;radius
(laterial lower arm bine)
-scope
insturment for visual examination
-therapy
treatment
uni-
one
-al
pretaining to
dermat/o
skin
derm/o
skin
gastr/o
stomach
hyper-
above; excessive
-ic
pretaining to
-itis
inflammation
micro-
small
-phobia
fear
pre-
before; infront of
psych/o
mind
rhin/o
nose
splen/o
spleen
-tic
pretaining to
pneumon/o
lung; air; gas
poly-
many; much
ren/o
kidney
retr/o
backward; back; behind
-rrhage
bursting forth
(of blood)
-rrhaphy
suture
-rrhea
flow; discharge
-rrhexis
rupture
-sis
state of; condition
spir/o
to breath
-stasis
to stop; control; place
-stomy
new opening;
(to form a mouth)
sub-
under; below
supra-
above; upper
tachy-
fast
tel/o
complete
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
wind pipe;
(trachea)
thromb/o
clot
-tomy
process of cutting
-thorax
chest; pleual cavity
-trophy
nourishment; development
-um
structure; tissue; thing
glyc/o
glucose; sugar
-graphy
process of recording
-scopy
visual examination
-pnea
breathing
-plasty
surgical repair
-plasm
formation
-plasia
development; formation; growth
phren/o
diaphragm; mind
pharyng/o
throat;
(pharynx)
peri-
surrounding
-penia
deficiency
ped/o
child; foot
-pathy
disease; emotion
path/o
disease
pan-
all
-oma
tumor; mass; fluid collection
-ous
pretaining to
ot/o
ear
-opsy
view of
onc/o
tumor
-oid
resembling
nucle/o
nucleus
neur/o
nerve
nephr/o
kidney
neo-
new
nat/i
birth
-megaly
enlargment
-malacia
softening
mal-
bad
-lysis
break down; seperation; destruction; loosening
-logy
study of
lob/o
lobe
leuk/o
white
laryng/o
voice box
(larynx)
kary/o
nucleus
-ium
structure; tissue
-ist
specialist
-ism
process; condition
inguin/o
groin
immun/o
immune; protection; safe
iatr/o
physician; treatment
intra-
within; into
inter-
between
in-
in; into; not
-ia
condition
hyp/o
deficient; under; below; less than normal
hist/o
tissue
hepat/o
liver
hem/o
blood
hemi-
half
hemat/o
blood
gynec/o
woman; femal
-graph
instrument for recording
-gram
record
gen/o
producing; forming
-genic
produced by or in
-genesis
producing; forming
ex-
out; away from
eu-
good; normal
erythr/o
red
-er
one who
epi-
above; upon; on
entr/o
intestine;
(usually small intestine)
end/o
in; within
encephal/o
brain
en-
in; within
-emia
blood condition
-ectomy
removal; excistion; resection
ec-
out; outside
dys-
bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
-dynia
pain
dia-
complete; through
de-
lack of; down; less; removal of
cyt/o
cell
-cyte
cell
cyst/o
urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
cost/o
rid
contra-
against; opposite
coni/o
dust
col/o
colon;
(large intestine)
cis/o
to cut
cib/o
meal
chrom/o
color
chondr/o
cartilage
cervic/o
neck; cervix;
(neck of uterus)
cephal/o
head
-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid
-cele
hernia
cardi/o
heart
carcin/o
cancer; cancerous
capn/o
carbon dioxide
bronch/o
bronchial tube
brady-
slow
-blast
embryonic; immature
bi/o
life
axill/o
armpit
aut/o
own; self
-ary
pretaining to
arth/o
joint
anti-
against
ante-
before; forward
angi/o
vessel;
(blood)
ana-
up: apart; backward; again; anew
an-
no; not; without
alveol/o
alveolus; air sac; small sac
-algia
pain
adip/o
fat
aden/o
gland
acr/o
extremities; top; extream point
-sclerosis
hardening
-logist
specialist
ad-
towards
cementum
the cementum covers, protects, and supports the dentin in the root of the tooth.
(the outter most layer below closest to the root)
dysphasia
difficult in swallowing
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
lipase
pancrea enzyme necessary to digest fats.
paristalsis
paristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates.
dentin
major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
lieum
third part of the small intestine.
villi
microscopic projection on the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
intussusception
telescoping of the intestines.
volvulus
twisting of the intestine upon itself.
(LFT's)
liver function tests
tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum.
(clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted)
ALT
examples of ALT (alkanine amino transaminase)
Transinubases (enzymes) present in many tissues and elevated in the serum of patients with liver disease.
AST
AST (aspartate amino trasminase)
AST are transaminase (enzymes) presents in many tissues and elevated in the serum of patients with liver disease.
stool culture
test for microorganisms present in stool
hemoccult test
detection of blood in feces
melena
black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passage near the anus.
Crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
(terminal ileum and colon)
diverticulosis
abnormal side pockets (out pouchings)in the intestinal wall.
ileus
failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
rugae
ridges on the hard palate and the walls of the stomach.
flatus
gas expelled through the anus.
hematochezia
passage of bright, fresh, red blood from the rectum.
jejunum
second part of the small intestine.
duodenum
first part of the large intestine.
(is only 1 foot long)
buccal surface
the buccal surface (buss/o means cheek) for premolar and molar teeth, lies adjacent to the cheek.
ac-
before meals; (actecibum)
anabolism
process of building up body tissue; the constructive phase of metabolism by which cells take from the blood nutrients required for repair or growth.
mensentery
the peritoneal fols that encircles the small intestine and connects it to the posterior abdominal wall.
serum builirubin
serum bilirubin levels are elevated in patients with liver disease and jaundice.
stool guaiac
detection of blood in the feces.
cholangiography
x-ray examination of the biliary system after injecting contrast into the bile ducts.
MRI
(magentis resonance imaging)
magnetic and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body.
paracentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen.
BE
barium enema
CT scan
computed tomography
EGD
esphagogastroduodenoscopy
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease.
NPO
nothing by mouth
pc
after meals (post cibum)
po
by mouth
prn
as needed
qid
four times a day
hs
at bed time
periodontal membrane
a periodontal membrane surronds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket.
cholelithiasis
gallstones in the gallbladder.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach.
(GERD)
ALP
alkaline phosphatase (alkaline phospherus) is another enzyme that may be elevated in patients with liver, bone, and other disease.
-emesis
vomiting
inguinal hernia
an inguinal hernia occurs when a small loop of bowl protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle.
labial surface
the labial surface (labi/o means lip) for incisoe and canine teeth, is nearest the lips.
computed tomography
(CT scan)
x-ray series showing cross-sectional images of internal organs allows visualization.
barium enema
x-ray images of the colon and rectum after injecting barium in to the rectum.
colorectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
colonis polyposis
polyps (benighn growth) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
cardiac sphincter
ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach.
amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
TPN
(total parenteral nutrition)
this intravenous (IV) solution contains sugar (dextrose), proteins (amino acid), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride), and vitamins.
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach.
GI
gastrointestinal
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
bid
twice a day
rectum
last section of the colon
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestine tract.
defecation
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
baruim enema
(lower gastrointestinal series)
x-ray images of the colon and return after injecting barium into the rectum.
hiatal hernia
an hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach protudes upward through the diaphragm.
occlusal edge
premolars and molars have an additional occlusal surface (occlusion means to close) that comes in contact with acorresponding tooth in the opposing arch.
pulp
soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
enamel
hard; outermost layer of a tooth.
incisor
one of four teeth in the dental arch.
stool
solid wastes; feces
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon; shaped like an S.
root
which lies within the bony tooth socket.
molar
sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on wither side of the dental arch. Premolas teeth are the fourth and fivth teeth, before the molars.
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the palate into the mouth.
feces
solid waste; stool
crown
shows above the gumline.
canine
pointed, dog-like teeth, next to the incisors. Also called cusids or eyeteeth.
lingua surface
opposite to the facial surface, all teeth have a lingual surface (lingual/o means tongue)
incisal
incisors & canines have sharp incisal edges.
q4h
every four hours
qod
every other day
qd
every day
qh
every hour
tid
three times a day
BM
bowel movement
hepititis A
hepititis A is a virual hepatitis caused by HAV. It is a benighn disorder spread by contaminated food or water and characterized by slow onset of symptoms.
hepitits B
hepititis B is a virual hepatitis caused by HBV and is transmitted by blood tranfusion, sexual contact, or the use of contaminated needles or instruments.
hepititis C
hepititis C is a virual hepatitis caused by HCV and is transmitted by blood tranfusion,or needles inoculation ( such as intravenous drug users sharing needles) the acute illness may prigress to chronic hepatitis.
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
periodontal disease
inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surroundinf bones;
(also called pyorrhea (py/o means pus)
oral leukoplakia
white plawues or pathches (-plakia means plaque) on the mucosa of the mouth.
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth (gingiva, lips, palatem and tongue) by infection with the herpersvirus.
dental caries
cavity; decay ofthe tooth.
nausea
unpleasent sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit.
jaundice
yello-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. (hyperbilirubinema)
dirrhea
frequent passage of loose watery stool.
constipation
difficult in passing stools (feces)
anorrexia
lack of appetite;
(-orexia = appetite)
x
times
lipoma
mass of fat, lipid
(lip/o means fat, lipid, -oma means tumor, mass, fluid collection)
cholecystolithiasis
condition of the gall bladder
-tresia
opening
-stenosis
tightening; stricture; narrowing
-stasis
to stop; control
glysogenolysis
break down of glycogen; animal starch.
hyperglycemia
blood condition exessive sugar.
gluconeogenesis
the function of glucose from excess amino acids, fats, or othernoncarbohydrate sources.
achlorhydria
condition of no hydrochloric acid.
cholelithiasis
abnormal condition of the gall bile stone.
biliary
pretaining to the gall bile.
hyperbilrubinemia
blood condition abave the biliruben.
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth.
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of sigmoid colon.
sialadenitis
inflamation of the salivary gland.
rectocele
hernia of the rectum.
pyloroplasty
surgically repair the pyloric shpincter.
proctologist
specialist of the anus and rectum.
pharyngeal
pretaining to the throat.
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum.
pancreatitis
inflamation of the pancreas.
palatoplasty
surgically repair of the palate
oral
pretaining to the mouth.
endodontist
specialist of within the tooth.
periodontist
specialist of the surronding teeth.
orthodontist
specialist for straight teeth.
submandibular
pretaining to under the lower jaw.
sublingual
pretaining to under the tongue.
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdomen.
labial
pretaining to the lip.
gastrojejunostomy
a connection, usually constructed surgically, beteen the stomach and the jejunum.
choledochojejunostomy
surgically joining the common bile duct to the jejunum of the small intestine.
ileostomy
new opening in the ileum.
ileitis
inflammation of the ileum.
ileocecal sphincter
restriction of the third part of the small intestine.
hepatomegaly
enlargment of the liver.
hepatoma
tumor of the liver.
hypoglossal
pretaining to under the tongue.
gingivitis
inflammation of the gum.
gastrostomy
new opening of the stomach.
facial
pretaining to the face.
enterocolitis
inflamation of the intestine, usually the small intestine.
duodenal
pretaining to the duodenum.
dentibuccal
cheek and teeth.
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon.
colonic
pretaining to the colon.
colostomy
new opening in the colon; large intestine.
sholedochotomy
process of cutting the common bile duct.
cholecystectomy
removal of the gall bladder.
cheilosis
condition of the lips.
cecal
pretaining to the cecum.
celiac
pretaining to the belly or abdomen.
buccal mucosa
mucuose membrane of the cheek.
appendectomy
to remove the appendix.
perianal
surronuding or close to the anus.
protease
enzyme in protein.
sialolith
stone in the saliva, salivary.
steatorrhea
flow of fat.
lipase
fat enzyme.
hematochezia
elimination of waste in the blood.
choledocholithiasis
abnormal condition of a stone in the common bile duct
-phagia
eating, swallowing
-plasty
surgically repair.
-ptosis
prolapse; fall; sag
-ptysis
spitting
-spasm
sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles.
-uro
urine; urinary tract.
-a
no; not; without
-y
condition; process.
ven/o
vein
ab-
away from.
-pepsia
digestion
-lysis
destruction; break down; speration
-emesis
vomiting
-ectasis; -ectasia
stretching; dialation; dilation
postprandial
after meals.
color
(urinalysis test)
Normal color is yellow or straw color.

Pale means to much water in the urine.

Smoky red or brown color means blood in the urine.
ph
(urinalysis test)
This test reveals the chemical nature in the urine.

Range is 0 - 14, normal urine is alittle acidic and measures 6.5. If there is an infection in the bladder it will read alkaline
protein
(urinalysis test)
small amounts are normally found in the urine, but not enough to show a positive result in testing.

If found in the testing it albumin is responsible. Albumin is the major protein in blood plasm, cause could be a leak in the glomerular membrane.
glucose
(urinalysis test)
Sugar is not usually found in the urine.

If it does show, it indecates siabetes mellitus. (excess sugar in the blood stream causeing sugar to spill over into the urine.
specific gravity
(urinalysis test)
Reflects the amount of waste, minerals, adn solids in the urine.
keytone bodies
(urinalysis test)
Brake down products resulting from fat catabolism in cells.
sediment
(urinalysis test)
abnormal particles found in the urine.
(PKU) phenylketonuria
(urinalysis test)
New borns lacking of enzymes. This test is given right after birth to detect it in the blood stream.
glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the kidney glomerulus.
intestitial nephritis
Inflammation of the renal intestitum. (connective tissue that lies between hte renal tubules)
nephrolithiasis
kidney stones (renal calculi)
nephrotic syndrome
a group of symptoms caused by exsessive protein loss in the urine. (also called nephrosis)
polycystic kidney
multiple fluid filled sacs (cysts) within and upon the kidney.
renal cell carcinoma
cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla.
renal failure
Failure of the kidney to excute wastes and maintain its filtration finctions.
Wilm tumor
Maligant tumor of the kidney occuring in childhood.
urinary tract infection
Infection of the kidneys, uters, or bladder.
(BUN) blood urea nitrogen
Measurement if urea levels in blood.
creatinine clearance test
Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
x-ray image of the kidneys and uterus after injectiuon of contrast into a vein.
(KUB) kidneys, ureters, and bladder
x-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
renal angiography
x-ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney.
(VCUG) voiding cystourethrogram
x-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and irethra while the patient is expelling urine.
ultrasonography
Process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves.
cystoscope
Direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
hemodialysis (HD)
uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste filled blood from the patients bloodstream, filters it and returns the dialysed blood to the patients body.
peritoneal (PD)
using a peritoneal catheter (tube), fluid is introduced into the peritoneal (abdomen) cavity. The fluid causes wastes in the capillaries of the peritoneum to pass out of the bloodstream and into the fluid.
(ESWL) extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy
Shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine.
renal transplantaion
Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.
urinary catheterization
Passage of a felxible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
ARF
acute renal failure.
BUN
blood urea nitrogen.
CAPD
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Cath
catheter, catheterization
CRF
Chronic renal; progressive loss of kidney function.
cysto
cystoscopic examination
ESRD
end-stage renal disease; see CKD
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
HD
hemodialysis
IVP
intravenous pylogram
K+
potassium; an electrolyte
KUB
kidney, ureter,a dn bladder
Na+
sodium; an electrolyte
PD
perioneal dialysis
pH
symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity.
PKU
phenylketonuria
UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection