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115 Cards in this Set

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Bone markings
create characteristic featuresand may serve as poitns of attachment for muscles and tendons, join one bone to another or provide cavities and passage for nerves and blood vessels
Bone processes
projections or outgrowths of bone and help to form joints or serve as poitns of attachment for muscles and tendons
bone head
a rounded knowblike end of a long bone
neck
a constricted or narrow section of that connects the head like in the femur
tuberosity
an elevated, broad, rounded process of bone usually for attachement of muscles or tendons
trocanter
large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for attachment of muscles see page 135
condyle
a knucklike projection at the end of a bone, ususally fits into a fossa of another bone to form a unit
crest
a distinct border or ridge of bone
spine
a sharp projection from the surface of the bone, similiar to the crest, for example, the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade) used for muscle attachement
bone depressions
concave areas or openings in a bone
sulcus
a groove or depression in a bone
sinus
an opening or hollow space in a bone, as in the paranasal sinuses or the frontal sinus
fissure
same as sulcus
fossa
a hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone
foramen
a hole within the bone that allows blood vessels or nerves to pass through like in the skull
cranial bones
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid
facial bones
mandibular, maxillary, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, palatine, nasal conchae
hyroid bone
located just above the larynx and below th mandible, It does not connect with any other bone to form a joint but is suspended by ligaments. muscles of the tongue and throat.
vertebral bone
cervical, thoracic, lumber vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx,
bones of the thorax
true ribs, costal cartilage, false ribs, floating ribs, sternum, manubrium, body, xiphoid, clavicle page 143
scapula
a large triangular shaped bone also known as the shoulder blade. p 143
spine
Part of the shoulder blade that you can feel where muscles attach page 144
acromion
sppon-shaped projection of the scaupla that connects with the clavicle to form the highest points of the shoulder. see page 144
Bones of the upper extremities
humerous, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Pelvis bones
pelvic girdle, ilium, iliac crest, ischium, ischial, pubic, symphysis pubis, acetabulum
Bones of the lower extremities
femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges
Pathological conditions
osteoporosis,osteomalacia,osteomyelitis, Ewing's sarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, osteochondroma, talipes, abnormal curviture of the spine, fracture
Types of fractures
closed, open, complete, greenstick, compression, impacted, commuinuted, Colle's, hairline, stress, patholigical
Treatments of fractures
closed reduction, open reduction, internal fixation devices
Diagnostic procedures and Procedures
bone marrow aspirations, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
sutures
immovable joints where the cranial bones meet
frontal bone p 137
the forehead contains eyeballs and sinuses
parietal bone p 137
back of the head, top and upper sides of skull
occipital bone p 137
back of the head and the base contains the foramen magnum (a large opening in its base) which the spinal cord passes through
temporal bone p 137
lower sides and the base of the skull, contain the middle and inner ear, mastoid sinuses, temporal bone, which goes downward and forms the mastoid process, which serves as a point of attachment for muscles
sphenoid bone
bat shaped bone located at base of skull in front of temporal bones and joins and anchors other bones in the skull
ethmoid bone
lies just behind the nasal bone, part of sinuses and eye sockets
fontanelles
soft spots in babies skull where the bones have not fused together yet
mandibular bone
mandible or lower jaw bone. the largest, strongest bone of the face and is the only movable bone of the skull. movable joint is call the TMJ or tenporomandibular joint. Contains teeth
maxillary bones
two bones in the upper jaw.
zygomatic bone
highest point of the cheek and part of the eye orbits
nasal bones
give shape to the nose
lacrimal bone
paper thin and somewhat shaped like a fingernail. Located at the inner corner of eye
vomer
thin, flat bone that forms part of the nose
palatine bones
shaped like the letter L. Part of the nasal cavity
vertebrae
24 bones of the vertical column
cervival vertebrae
first segment of the spine. c1-c7. First one is called the Atlas. Second bone is called axis.
thoracic vertebrae
Second segment of the spine consisting of the next 12 vertebrae. connect with the 12 pairs of ribs and are called T1-T12.
lumar vertebrae
third segement of the spine consisting of the next 5 vertebrae. They are larger and heavier than the rest of the vertebrae. L1-L5.
sacrum
Fourth segment of the spine. The adult sacrum is a single triangular shaped bone wegded between hip bones and attached to the pelvic girdle. These are not one singular bone in a child.
coccyx
the fifth segment of the spine also called the tailbone. one single bone that results from the fusion of for bones in a child.
vertebral body
thick anterior portion of the vertebra that is drum shaped and is the weight bearing part of the spinal column
invertebral disk
Each vertebrae is seperated by this cartilage. Shock absorbers, cushion and flexibility
vertebral foramen
passageway for the spinal cord
true ribs
the first 7 pairs of the ribs. They are called true ribs because they attach to the sternum in front and the vertebrae in the back.
costal cartilage
attach the ribs to the sternum
false ribs
next 3 pairs of ribs see page 143. (ribs 8-10) the are called false because they only attach to the vertebrae and are attached to the 7th rib.
floating ribs
last two pairs of ribs (11 and 12) Although these ribs attach to the vertebrae in the back, they are completely free of attachment in the front.
sternum
also called the breastbone. flat, elongated bone that forms the midline partion of the thorax.
clavicle
also called the collar bone. supports the shoulder by connecting laterally to the scapula and anteriorly to the sternum
scapula
also called the shoulder blade.
humerous see page 144
the upper arm bone
radius see page 144
one of two lower bones of the arm that are joined together to form the lower part of the arm
ulna see page 144
second of two lower arm bones has a large projection called the olcranon process which is the point of the elbow
carpals
bones of the wrist, Each wrist have 8 bones. two rows of four.
metacarpals
bones of the hand.
phalanges
bones of the fingers and toes. Each finger has three except the thumb
pelvic girdle
bony ring formed by the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx. Page 145
ilium
largest of the three hip bones that you can feel if you put your hands on your hips.
iliac crest
see page 145, upper curved edge of the ilium.
femur
the thigh bone see page 147, longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body.
patella
knee bone or knee cap, see page 147, largest seasmoid bone in the body.
tibia
larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. Also called the shin bone.
medial malleolus
bony prominence on the inside of the ankle
fibula
more slender of the two lower leg bones
tarsals
bones of the ankle, there are seven
calcaneus
largest of the tarsals or ankle bones also known as the heel bone and serves as a point of attachment for several muscles of the calf
talus
just above the calcaneus or heel bone, joins with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint. The impact of a person's entire body weight is received by the talus bone at this point of connection and is then distributed to the other tarsal bones see page 148
metatarsals
Bones of the foot see page 148
Bones of the foot are called...
phalanges
osteporosis
porous bones due to loss of bone density
osteomalacia
disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a defiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. This disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weight-bearing bones. When the disease occurs in children, it is called rickets.
osteomyletitis
localized or general infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
Ewing's sarcoma
malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularily adolescent boys
Osteogenic sarcoma
malignant tumor arising from the bone. common sites are just above the knee, just below the knee or just below the shoulder joint
osteochondroma
most common benign bone tumor. The femur and the tibia are most frequently involved.
talipes
Clubfoot. Feet turned inward
Kyphosis
abnormal outward curvature of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback
Lordosis
abnormal inward curvature of the spine commonly known as swayback
Scoliosis
abnormal lateral sideways curvature of the spine to either side
fracture
broken bone, sudeen breaking of bone
closed fracture
simple fracture where there is a break in the bone but no open wounds in the skin
open fracture
compund fracture where there is a break in the bone as well as an open wound in the skin
complete fracture
a break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone
greenstick fracture
an incomplete fracure is a break that does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone. one side of the bone is broken and one side of the bone is bent
compression fracture
bone surfaces being forced against each other like in the back
impacted fracture
direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone
comminuted fracture
force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone
Colle's fracture
occurs at the lower radius, with in 1 inch of the connecting wrist bones
Hairline fracture
or stress fracture. Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. The fracture appears on teh x-ray as a very thin hair-line. Found often in runners and is not always visible.
pathological fracture
when a bone, weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in a response to a force that owuld not cause a normal bone to break.
closed reduction
treatment of fracture that involves aligning the bone fragments through maual manipulation or traction without making an incision into the skin.
open reduction
tratment of a fracture that involves realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery. Devices such as screws, pins, wires and nails may be used internally and these internal devices are called internal fixation devices
bone scan
intravenous injection of fluid that is absorbed by the bone tissue and then scanned
bone marrow aspiration
removing small sample of bone marrow with a needle for the purpose of examining it under a microscope
dual photon absorptiometry
noninvasive procdure that involves beaming a minimal amount of radiation through the bones.
DEXA or Dual Energy A-ray absorption
noninvasive procedure that measures bone density. X-ray machine passes photons through the bones.
THR
Total Hip Replacement
TKR
Total Knee Replacement
TMJ
Temporomandibular Joint
Fx
Fracture
C1
Cervical vertebrae catergorization
T1
Thorax vertebrae categorization
L1
Lumbar vertebrae abbreviation
S1
sacrum