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155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cytoplasm
gel like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell but is contained within the cell membrane (contains organelles)
Deoxyribonucleic acid
molecule that holds genetic info and makes an exact copy of itself whenever the cell divides
diagnosis
identification of a disease or condition by scientific evaluation of signs/symptoms...
Endoscope
instrument consisting of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity (fitted with light and camera)
etiology
study of the causes of disease
fluoroscope
instrument consisting of an x-ray machine and a fluorescent screen used to view the internal organs of the body
idiopathic
pertaining to conditions without clear pathogenesis or disease without recognizable cause (spontaneous origin)
metabolism
chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism and produce energy and basic materials needed for all life processes
prognosis
prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated chance of recovery
sign
any objective evidence or manifestation of an illness or a disordered function of the body
symptom
any change in the body or its functions as perceived by the patient
Midsagittal plane
divides into right and left halves (Median)
Coronal Plane
aka Frontal, divides anterior/posterior (ventral/dorsal)
Transverse Plane
(horizontal) divides superior from inferior (upper/lower)
diaphragm
separates abdominopelvic from thoracic cavity
RUQ
right upper quadrant- gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, right lobe of liver
LUQ
left upper quadrant- Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
RLQ
right lower quadrant- part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
LLQ
left lower quadrant- part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
Left hypochondriac
upper left region beneath the ribs
right hypochondriac
upper right region beneath the ribs
epigastric
region above the stomach
left lumbar
left middle lateral region
right lumbar
right middle lateral region
umbilical
region of the navel
left inguinal/iliac
left lower lateral region
right inguinal/iliac
right lower lateral region
hypogastric
lower middle region beneath the navel
Abduction
mvt away from the median plane
Adduction
mvt toward the median plane
medial
midline of the body or structure
lateral
pertaining to a side
superior
cephalad- toward the head or upper portion
inferior
caudal- away from the head or toward the tail/lower part
proximal
nearer to the body or point of attachment
distal
further from the center or point of attachment
anterior
ventral-near the front of the body
posterior
dorsal- near the back of the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone
lying horizontal with face down or palms turned downward
supine
lying on the back with face upward or palm of hand or foot facing up
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface of the body
deep
away from the surface of the body/internal
cyto-
-cell
histo-
-tissue
nucleo/karyo-
-nucleus
antero-
-anterior/front
caudo-
-tail
cranio-
-cranium
disto-
-far
dorso-
postero-
-back
-back/behind/posterior
infero-
-lower/below
latero-
-side
medio-
-middle
proximo-
-near
ventro-
-belly side
abdomino-
-abdomen
cervico-
-neck/cervix
gastro-
-stomach
ilio-
-ilium, flaring portion of hip bone
inguino-
-groin
lumbo-
-loins, lower back
umbilico-
-navel
pelvi-
pelvo-
-pelvis
spino-
-spine
thoraco-
-chest
albino-
leuko-
-white
chloro-
-green
chromo-
-color
cirrho-
jaundo-
xantho-
-yellow
cyano-
-blue
erythro-
-red
melano-
-black
polio-
-gray
acro-
-extremity
etio-
-cause
fascio-
-band/fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles
idio-
-unknown/peculiar
morpho-
-form, shape, structure
patho-
-disease
radio-
-radiation/x-ray or radius
somato-
-body
sono-
-sound
viscero-
-internal organs
xero-
-dry
-logy
-study of
-logist
-specialist in the study of
-genesis
-forming/producing
-gnosis
-knowing
-gram
-record/writing
-graph
-instrument for recording
-graphy
-process of recording
-meter
-instrument for measuring
-metry
-act of measuring
-pathy
-disease
ab-
-from/away from
ad-
-toward
infra-
-below/under
hetero-
-different
homeo-
-same, alike
peri-
-around
super-
-upper/above
trans-
-across, through
ultra-
-excess, beyond
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds normally separated tissues together, usually occurring within a body cavity
analyte
substance being analyzed or tested, generally by means of a chemical
contrast medium
in radiology a substance that is injected into the body via catheter or swallowed to facilitate radiographic imaging of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
dehiscence
bursting open of a wound (ie- a surgical abdominal wound)
febrile
feverish
homeostasis
relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body which is maintained by the ever changing processes of feedback and regulation in response to external or internal changes (consistency of temp, acid, nutrients, and waste)
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and sometimes loss of function (protects against invasion and repairs injured tissue)
morbid
diseased
nuclear medicine
branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
radiology
medical discipline concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
radionuclides
substances that emit radiation spontaneously (tracers)
diagnostic radiology
medical imaging using external sources of radiation to evaluate body structures and functions of organs
interventional radiology
use of imaging techniques in the nonsurgical treatment of various disorders such as balloon angioplasty and cardiac catheterization
therapeutic radiology
use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of malignant tumors (oncology)
radiopharmaceutical
radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance that travels to the organ or area of the body that will be scanned
scan
term used to describe a computerized image by modality or structure
sepsis
pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppurative
producing or associated with generation of pus
endoscopy
visual examination of a cavity or canal using an endoscope
laparoscopy
visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between ribs
CBC
complete blood count- common blood test that enumerates red and white blood cells and platelets, measures hemoglobin, estimates volume and percentages
urinalysis
common urine test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
CT scan
computed tomography- imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
doppler
ultrasound technique used to detect and measure bloodflow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off of moving blood cells
fluoroscopy
radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous imaging of the motion of internal structures and immediate serial images
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging- noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
nuclear scan
diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material introduced into the body and a scanning device used to determine size shape location and function of various organs and structures
PET
positron emission tomography- scan using computed tomography to record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, producing a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
radiography
imaged produced when an x-ray is passed through the body or area and captured on a film (x-ray)
SPECT
single photon emission computed tomography- noninvasive imaging technique that provides clear, 3D pictures of a major organ by injecting a radionuclide and detecting the emitted radiation using a gamma camera
tomography
radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section or slice of an area, tissue or organ at a predetermined depth
US
ultrasonography- image produced by high-frequency sound waves and displaying the reflected echoes on a a monitor
biopsy
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination usually to establish a diagnosis
needle biopsy
removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle attached to a syringe
punch biopsy
removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument
shave biopsy
removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
frozen section biopsy
ultra thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
ablation
removal of a part, pathway or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radiofrequency
anastomosis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cauterize
destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
curettage
scraping of a body cavity with a spoon shaped instrument called a curette
I&D
incision and drainage- incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
laser surgery
surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues
radical dissection
surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant to decrease the chance of recurrence
resection
partial excision or bone, organ, or other structure