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224 Cards in this Set

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Since e.coli is part of good bacterial flora, what are two things that it produces?
Vitamin B and K
What are the benefits of having normal flora?
They prevent and limit growth of pathogens.
When are we first exposed to organisms?
In the birth canal
What are pathogens that are present but fail to establish?
Transient
Give an example of a transient bacteria.
Skin-staph aureus
What type of flora can be removed with washing hands?
Transient
What type of flora causes disease when an opportunity arises?
opportunist
Give 3 examples of opportunist bacteria.
P. Carinii, diahrrea, and yeast infection
What are two instances of when your flora can change?
location or diet
What kind of bacteria is present during breast feeding?
Bifidobacterium
What are the three factors that determines normal flora?
environment, structural defenses,and mechanical systems
Give the four environmental factors that determines normal flora.
Ph of the stomach, temperature, nutrient supply, and oxygen
Why type of symbiosis neither benefits or harms, but because of presence, competes for nutrients and limits growth?
commensalism
What is the symbiotic relationship that benefits both?
mutualism
How does a cow, human, and bacteria exhibit mutualistic behavior?
cow- ferments cellulose
human-vitamin k and b
bacterial-nutrients and shelter
What are protozoas and microbes considered under terms of parasitism?
protozoa-parasite
microbe-pathogen
Give the 5 ways that normal flora limits growth of pathogens?
1.consumes available nutrients
2.overgrows an area to prevent pathogen attachment
3.Produce toxic substances
4.Consumes available oxygen
5.Stimulates antibody production
Give six things that makes a good pathogen.
1. transmission to a susceptible host
2.adherence to target tissue
3.colonization/invasion
4.cell destruction/toxins
5.exit the host
6.remain viable outside of host to infect another
Explain the molecular postulates.
1. Gene or disease causing product should be found in the pathogenic organism but not in non-pathogenic strains.
2.Interference with the pathogen turns it into non-pathogenic
3.Pathogenic genes must be expressed during the disease process.
4. Antibodies produced must be protective
What is the ability of an organism to cause disease?
Virulence
What is the ability of an organism to grow on a body surface?
Colonization
What is a disease producing micro-organism?
pathogen
What is an organism that produces disease when a special situation arises?
opportunist
What is a condition resulting from a micro-organism invading body tissues and producing a response?
infection
True or false: The number of organisms must be enough to cause an infection-and it varies by species?
TRUE
How have micro-organisms developed ways around the skin barrier?
1. ligands-projections which attach to specific receptors on epithelial cells
2.pili-antibodies
What does the lymphoid line produce?
T and B Cells
What does the myeloid line produce?
red blood cells, megakaryocytes,basophils,eosionophils,neutrophils,monocytes
What phil releases histamine to produce inflammation?
basophils
What phil is responsible for allergic reactions?
eosinophils
What phil is responsible for phagocytosis?
neutrophils
What cyte produces macrophages which engulf invaders and digest them?
monocytes
What cytes are responsible for immune response?
lymphocytes
What test includes a blood test and count of each cell type?
complete blood count
What increases during an infection and allergic reactions?
infect- WBCS
allergy- eosinophil
What can you tell from a complete blood count?
Differentiate from bacterial and viral
When do mast cells release histamine and other substances?, and what do they do?
Release duing damage, and they increase blood flow, also increase capillary permeability to wbc and can come in
What is a collection of damaged tissues and leukocytes?
pus
What is the mechanism where phagocytic cells engulf and ingest invaders?
phagocytosis
What is an invader called when it is surrounded by a phagocyte?
phagosome
What do granules contain and what doe they do?
contain proteases and lysozymes that bind to phagosome and digest it
True or false- capsules prevent phagocytosis
true
How does staphylococcus avoid body defenses?
Forms a scab that limits macrophages from entering area
How does rickettsia avoid body defenses?
Uses enzyme which ruptures the phagosome and allows the rickettsia to seep into cytoplasm
How does mycobacterium avoid body defenses?
They change the phagosome so the lysozomes can't bind.
How does yersinia pestis avoid body's defenses/
They can grow within the phagosome.
How does a fever occur and why is it beneficial?
Leukocytes- increass body defenses and blood flow
How is iron dealt with in the body?
Bacteria needs iron to thrive, so certain bodily mechanisms move iron into body's cells so there is less available for the bacteria.
During infection, what increases?
Energy metabolism and protein synthesis
What are the three ways invaders cause disease?
1. kill cells directly
2.trigger inflammatory response
3.toxins
Where are endotoxins and exotoxins founds?
Endo-slime layer of gram -
Exo-environment
What are two ways invaders cause disease by producing enzymes?
hemolysis and coagulases
What is the disruption of health due to a pathogen?
disease
Give examples of portals of entries and exits.
Skin,mucous membranes,GI and GU tracts are entry

Exits are coughing, sneezing, etc.
What does fibrnolysin do?
breaks down clots
What does hyalurondiases do?
breaks down tissues
What dissolves clots in plasma?
staphylokinases
What dissolves collagen tissues?
Collagenases
Name the 3 types of exotoxins.
1. cytotoxin
2.enterotoxin
3.neutrotoxin
Which endotoxin is directly toxic to surrounding cells?
cytotoxin
How does yersinia pestis avoid body's defenses/
They can grow within the phagosome.
How does a fever occur and why is it beneficial?
Leukocytes- increass body defenses and blood flow
How is iron dealt with in the body?
Bacteria needs iron to thrive, so certain bodily mechanisms move iron into body's cells so there is less available for the bacteria.
During infection, what increases?
Energy metabolism and protein synthesis
What are the three ways invaders cause disease?
1. kill cells directly
2.trigger inflammatory response
3.toxins
Where are endotoxins and exotoxins founds?
Endo-slime layer of gram -
Exo-environment
What are two ways invaders cause disease by producing enzymes?
hemolysis and coagulases
What is the disruption of health due to a pathogen?
disease
Give examples of portals of entries and exits.
Skin,mucous membranes,GI and GU tracts are entry

Exits are coughing, sneezing, etc.
What does fibrnolysin do?
breaks down clots
What does hyalurondiases do?
breaks down tissues
What dissolves clots in plasma?
staphylokinases
What dissolves collagen tissues?
Collagenases
Name the 3 types of exotoxins.
1. cytotoxin
2.enterotoxin
3.neutrotoxin
Which endotoxin is directly toxic to surrounding cells?
cytotoxin
Which exotoxin affects the gut lining?
enterotoxin
What exotoxin affects nerve transmissions?
neurotoxins
What types of cells have exotoxins?
gram positive
How are exotoxins inactivated?
heat
How does the immune system neutralize toxins?
produces antibodies
What are the function of toxoids?
to induce immune response
What exotoxin produces a greying membrane in dying tissues?
cornebacterium diptheriae in diptheria
Wht exotoxin produces a skin rash?
Steptoccoccus pyogenes-scarlet fever-erythrogenic exotoxin
Which exotoxin causes TSS?
Staphylococcus aureus
Which exotoxin binds to lining of the gut and secrete massive amounts of fluids?
vibrio chloerae
What exotoxin causes muscle toxins?
clostridium tetani
What is the time from exposure to appearance of signs or symptoms?
incubation period
What is the time when vague symptoms appear?
prodromal period
What is the period when symptoms are most severe and then lessen?
Period of Illness and Decline
What is recovery?
convalescence
What cell type has endotoxins?
gram -
Are endotoxins screted?
noq
What are the endotoxins that are found on the outside membranes?
Lipopolysaccharides
What occurs when endotoxins kill a cell?
The cell types and lipopolysaccharides are released into blood stream, and produce fever, chills, shock, and death.
What kind of toxin produces septic shock?
endotoxin
What occurs during septic shock?
1.drop in bp
2.TNF secreted by macrophages after ingestion of bacteria and causes capillary leaking
3. Results in massive fluid loss
What is the study of distribution and determinations of disease or conditions in a population?
epidemiology
What is the number of new cases per time?
incidence
What are the number of cases ata point in time?
prevalence
What is the number of cases of the disease?
morbidity
What is number of deaths from the disease?
mortality
What is a large number of cases present without causing disease?
endemic
What is a large number of cases present that causes disease?
epidemic
What is an epidemic over a large area?
pandemic
What is an example of endemic?
herpes Zoster
What is an example of an epidemic?
spanish influenze
What is an example of the pandemic?
usually food or water contamination
What is vertical transmission?
parents to child
What is horizontal transmission?
person to person except parent/adult
What is vector transmission?
insect transmission
What are reservoirs?
animals that have disease
What are non-living reservoirs?
Contains organisms which can be transferred to humans
What is a disease that is easily spread such as respiratory infections?
communicable
What is a disease that is not transmitted between hosts?
non-communicable
What infections are caught in hospitals?
noscosmial infections
How many people die as a result of noscomial diseases a year?
20,000
What are the three combined factors in noscomial infections?
-immunocompromised patients
-invasive medical procedure
-antibiotic resistance
Name the five ways that hospitals control of noscomial infections.
1. aseptic techniques
2. universal blood and body fluid precautions
3.education of hospital staff
4.isolation rooms and wards
5.handwashing
Give three compromised host examples.
1. broken skin or mucus membranes
2.weakened ability to fight infection
3.suppressed immune system
What does the CDC do?
collects and analyzes epidemiological info
What is the rate of acquiring a disease or condition during a certain period?
incidence rate
What is the rate of having a disease at any particular time?
prevalence rate
Why are diseases becoming more incident?
1. evolution of new strains
2. over use of antibiotics and pesticides
3. changes in weather patterns
What are the four contributing factors for diseases becoming more prevalent?
1. modern transportation
2.ecological disaster and war
3. animal control measures
4. public health failure
What does the level of risk determine?
The measures we use to attempt to control them.
Do canning industries totally eliminate bacteria and spores from the canned product?
Yes.
Keeping the meat and vegetables separated is what kind of method of control?
physical method
Washing your hands with soap is what kind of control method?
Chemical method
What are the heat and pressure settings for the food industry?
121 C amd 1 atm
What is cleaner the ER or operating room?
Operating room
What is the method of killin g all forms of life, eliminating vegetative bacteria and spores?
sterilization
What is a control method that reduces pathogens?
disinfecting
How is sterilization achieved in hospitals?
autoclave's moist heat under pressure
What is the desctruction of pathogenic organisms on inanimate objects?
disinfection
What is the destruction of pathogenic organisms on living objects?
antisepsis
What is special about surgical suites?
Positive pressure air exchanges
How have microbes used antibiotics?
It can compete with other microbes by eliminating the competition.
How many people a day die from known diseases just because they didn't have the knowledge to prevent and control the disease?
50,000
Why do bacteria grow?
They grow to divide-not to enlargen themselves.
What are the four phases of bacterial growth?
1.lag
2.log
3.stationary phase
4.decline phase
Writing memorization: 4 Phases of Bacterial Growth
1. lag-little growth as cell adapt to new media
2.log-rapid division and increase in numbers
3.stationary phases-cell devision=cell death
4. decline phase-cell death exceeds cell division
Name six methods of controlling microbes.
heat,cold,radiation,filtration,drying,osmotic
What kinds of heat are used to control, and how do they work?
dry heat or moist-denatures proteins, making them inactive
In the home, cold kills all microbes. T or F
false- limits growth but does not kill rapidly
Why is there a problem with freezing microbes?
They are too small to allow ice crystals to form to rupture the cell, so they can remain frozen for a long time.
How does filtration work?
House filters can filter protozoa, but not bacteria. They are only 5 microns.
What are some ways to stop growth?
Limit nutrients, and chemically interfere with metabolic processes
What are the 3 ways to kill cells?
Heat, radiation,chemicals to rupture and inhibit metabolic processes
How does drying work?
Lessens available nutrients
How does osmotic strength work?
Salting foods removes water from cells and bacteria, and not too many bacteria like salt environments.
Which chemical works by damaging cell membranes and killing the cells?
phenolics
Give three examples of phenolics.
carbolic acid, chlorhexidine,antiseptics
What chemical works by dissolving cell membranes?
alcohol
Give two examples of alcohols.
ethanol and isopropyl
How does oxidizing agents work?
They inactivate proteins.
Give four examples of oxidizing agents.
halogens-iodine and chlorine, hydrogen peroxide
What kind of chemical attaches short chain carbon molecules to proteins, deactivating them?
alkylating compounds
Give three examples of alkylating compounds, and describe each.
1,formaldehyde and formulin-preserves
2.ethylene oxide-gas penetration to clean blankets and mattresses in hospital
How do heavy metals work?
They deactivate proteins.
What is a type of heavy metal used in burn patients?
sulfa-silvadine
What is M. pnuemonia?
walking pnuemonia
What is Treponmea palladium?
syphillis
What is Borrelia burdophi
Lyme's disease
What is used for treatment of tick bites?
tetracycline
What is the study of how traits and characteristics are transferred from one generation to the next?
genetics
4 Steps of Dna Game plan..memorize! 5
1. dna info transcribed and translated into proteins
2.read dna strands to produce rna
3. ribosomes use rna as template to assemble amino acids into a polypeptide
4.polypeptide converted into structural and enzyme proteins
5. enzymes used to produce other products
What three things makes up a nucleotide?
nitrogen base, phosphate group, deoxyribose
What forms chains in dna?
nucleotides
What type of rna is transcribed directly from dna and carries dna info to ribosomes for production of polypeptides?
messenger rna
What rna attaches amino acids to transfer them to the growing peptide chain?
transfer rna
What rna is associated with structural components of ribosomes?
ribosomal rna
What kind of rna is found in some viruses?
double stranded rna
What sugar is in dna nucleotide vs rna nucleotides?
dna-deoxyribose
rna-ribose
What is different about rna sugar?
rna has hydroxyl group on the pentose sugar
Which of dna and rna is less stable and what does this make happen?
rna less stable, so it is more subjective to hydrolysis
What are the 3 components of nucleotides?
heterocyclic nucleobase,
pentose sugar,
phosphate
What makes up dna and rna?
nucleotide monomers combine into chain
What does c bind with?
g
What does a bind with?
t or u
True or false? When dna replicates, one strand is used as a template for the production of the new?
True
What are enzymes which unwind the dna into two strands?
helicases
What is the sequence reading enzyme that assembles the compliment dna strand?
dna polymerase
Protein production: Memorize!
1. dna transcribed into mrna
2. mrna is read by ribosome and that info is then used to assemble amino acids into polypeptide
3.used as hormones for structure and enzymes for other molecule production
Transcription Sequence. Memorize!
1. dna opens
2. rna polymerase copies dna, making complementary rna strand
3. mrna transported out of nucleus in eukaryotic cell to ribosome
4. Goes to ER where the mrna is translated into proteins
What is the reading of transcription?
5 to 3
What are the 3 stages of transcription?
1.initiation
2.elongation
3.termination
Which transcrip stages involves the rna polymerase to bind to the prompter?
initiation
Which transcrip stage involves building rna chains?
elongation
Which transcrip stage involves an rna polymerase encountering a sequence which codes for termination of the strand?
terminationq
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes transcription/translation?
pro- transcrip and transl occur simultaneously
euk- mrna travels fron nucleus to the rough endoplasmic reticulum for translation
What is the ribosome composed of?
2 rna subunits that bind to translate the mrna into polypeptide chain
What is the translation sequence? Memorize!
1. Ribosome moves to next 3 base section
2. Ribosome continues reading the mrna until it reaches the end and then terminates
3.chain is then used as a protein or is modified to become a functional protein
What is used to determine the appropriate amino acid to be inserted into the growing polypeptide chain?
groups of 3 mrna bases
What makes up trna?
75 to 100 base chain
What are the two regions for attachment on a trna?
1. region for specific amino acid
2. region for unique sequence to that specific transfer rna and amino acid
Give the summary sequence of protein production?
dna->mrna->rrna->trna->pp
What is the total dna characteristics?
genotype
What is the observable characteristics?
phenotypes
What is a section of dna which codes for a polypeptide?
gene
What kind of mutations result following exposure to a chemical or physical agent that damages dna?
induced mutation
What are the four agents that result in induced mutations?
uv,benzene,pcbs,radiation
What is the probability that a mutation will occur in a gene with each replication?
mutation rate
What is when one base is replaced by another?
point base substitution
What type of mutation does not change the amino acid?
silent mutation
What are the two types of point base substitution?
silent and missense mutation
What is when aac becomes aat?
silent mutation
What mutation results in a different AA and may change the final protein?
missense mutation
--gag to gtg is?
sickle cell anemia-missense
What is a mutation that has a change that results in a stop codon?
nonsense mutation
What is when a base pair is added or subtracted?
frame shift
What results in a frame shift?
3 base sequence shifts and totally changes polypeptide
What selection is when the mutant is selective over the non-mutant?
positive selection
What selection is when the non mutant is selective over the mutant?
negative selection
What is a mutant whose nutritional requirement which are different from parents?
auxotroph
When can normal cells be selected for ames tests?
If an auxotroph is exposed to a mutagen and that mutagen causes mutation which causes it to have normal nutritional requirement.
True or false- mutagens are carcinogens
true
What are the 3 different ways to control the production of mrna?
idubtion,repression and attenuation
What are the 3 segments of the operon model?
promoter, operator, structural gene
When is the gene turned on in the operon model?
When the repressor molecule is removed and cannot bind
When is the gene turned off in the operon model?
when repressor molecule binds to the operator
What is the end product of an enzyme feedback that turns the operon off?
catabolite repression
What is when an attenuator site is located within an operon and prematurely ends the mrna transcription?
attenutation
What enzyme is involved in lactose metabolism?
beta-galactosidase
How does lactose effect the gene expression?
Lactose binds with regulator molecule and prevents it from binding to the operator- gene turns on