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280 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are macrophages and neutrophils?
What are the cells that have digestive granules and send out chemical messengers?
mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils
What cell retains pieces (antigens) after digesting it to present it to the adaptive immune system?
What are specialized cells which destroy forgein and native cells?
natural killer cells
How long does the adaptive immune system reside?
life long or long term
What type of adaptive immune system has antibodies that are stuck on the membranes of certain cells which attach antigens?
cell mediated
What type of adaptive immune system has antibodies that are produced and then attached?
What kind of cells do natural killer cells target?
microbes or cancerous cells
Do natural killer cells require an antigen exposure first to attack?
What two types of cells are considered virgins before exposure to antigen?
t and b lymphocytes
Which lymphocyte is cell mediated and which deals with antibody production?
cell mediated- t
antibody production-b
What occurs after lymphocytes are exposed to their first antigen?
-differentiate into cells which produce effects and may form memory cells which will recognize those antigen in futire
What type of cells process the antigen so that the t and b cells can go to work?
antigen processing cells
What are t cells that have been exposed to an angtigen?
killer t cells
What cells recognize antigens, but act as generals to move the killer t cells?
helper t cells
What occurs when HIV interferes with helper t's?
They cannot effectively combat certain cell-mediated infections
What are proteins that are capable of recognizeing a specific antigen and then binds to it?
What occurs when antibodies bind to antigens?
They get clumped and sticky so the antigen can be phagocytized or destructed
What shape are antibodies in and describe their structure.
Y shape with two heavy and two light chains with two variable regions on upper arms that bind to unique antigen.
What class is found on mucous membranes?
What class has a function that is not understood?
What class binds to mast cells causing allergy?
What class has 5 that bind together to form and is the first to respond to infection?
What class increases levels with each exposure and can cross the placenta?
What occurs when the body comes into contact with something it has no prior exposure to?
It takes a day or two to mount an effective response- why colds last 5-7 days.
What are antigens given in a controlled manner to elicit an immune response?
How are vaccines effective?
The mechanism is already in place for rapid production of that antibody.
What type of immunity is obtained without the self production of antibodies?
passive immunity
How do babies have the same immunity than their mother's?
IgG crosses placenta, and IgA in mother's milk
What are some antibodies that are useful that are produced by another human or animal?
snakes, horse serum, and hepatitis B
What immunity has exposure to antigen and generation of antibodies?
active immunity
What type of immunity are vacccinations?
What are the two great advances in health?
vaccines and sanitation
What type of immunization requires additional exposure?
What are the pros of live vaccinations?
stronger and long lasting
What are the cons to live vaccinations?
may cause disease in others or in compromised host
What are the pros of attenuated vaccines?
less likely to cause disease, gives good responses
What are the cons of attenuated vaccines?
Pain and fever and requires boasters
What are toxoids?
type of immunization antigen that resembles toxins such as tetanus
What are live and attenuated immunizations?
weaker strains of the agent
What are subunits?
pieces of agent in immunization
When do babies begin immunization?
when their immune systems can respond
When are boasters needed?
to re-introduce the organism and response
Why may one need to get a new shot every year of the flu?
organisms change yearly sometmes
What us thimerosol?
in some vaccines and can be metabolized to mercury base compound
What has thimerosol been related to?
What is a concern of vaccinations?
The transfer of live organisms to non-immunized people.
What are the two types of immunodeficiencies?
genetic and acquired
How does the genetic immunodeficiency occur?
rare genetic diseases that result in missing components
How do acquired immunodeficiencies occur?
Poor nutrition, responses decline after 50, hiv and chemotherapy
What is a disorder when the immune system gets exposed to antigens which are similar to "self" antigens?
What occurs during autoimmunity?
Body mounts an immune response to these self antigens-this in turn may destroy self tissues and interes with normal function
What are some examples of auto immunity? 3
diabetes, arthiritis, thyroid disease
What is the overaction of immune system causing injury to self?
What type of hypersensitivity is IgE mediated stimulation of mast cells to release histamine in large quantities?
type 1
What type of hypersensitivity ranges from allergy to anaphylaxis such as bee stings and drug allergies?
type 1
What type of hypersensitivity has antibodies that target and destroy self cells such as blood incompatibility?
type 2
What type of hypersensitivity has antibodies that bind to self antigens and can cause destruction from accumulation of antibody/antigen complexes?
type 3
What type of hypersensitivity is delayed and develops over a few days...poison ivy?
type 4
When is RH a problem?
When some of babie's blood transfers to mom during birth.
If baby is RH positive and mother is negative, what will occur?
Mom will develop antibodies against baby's blood
What if the baby is rh + with subsequent pregnancies?
igg from motheer crosses placenta and targets the baby's rbcs
Name four things that make a good antigen?
1. foreign molecule
2. protein
3. large molecule
4. induces antibody response
What are smaller molecules that have to combine with larger molecules to form antigenic molecule such as penicilin?
What are very tiny viruses containing RNA and infecting plants?
What are proteins that can reproduce?
How big are viruses?
small 1/1000 bacteria
Do viruses contain enzymes or cellular components?
Where do viruses reproduce?
in living cells
What is the structure of a virus?
dna or rna core + capsid +/- lipid coat
What are the 2 functions of the capsid?
1. protects nucleic acid
2. assists in attachment
What is a membrane outside of the capsid on some viruses?
What are they called if they lack envelope?
Why are naked viruses more resistant than enveloped ones?
Many things can damage the envelope
What4 things that can damage the evelope?
freezing or hi temps, acid or base environments, lipid solvents, and disinfectants
Name 4 types of naked viruses
herpes-(chic pox, shingles)
Mono, polio, and common cold
What must first occur for viral replication?
Living cell- tail of virus attaches to specific receptors on cell membrane
How do viruses get inside of cells?
inject DNA or use lysosomes
Where is the head of virus found when it inserts into cell?
outside while only dna enters
During viral transcription, how is it's info copied?
Uses cell's enzymes to copy it's dna into mrna- makes cell process these enzymes and proteins and they replicate viral dna
What are the four reasons why animal viruses are different?
1. cell membrane has no receptors for attachment
2. Virus is taken in by endocytosis
3. Rna transcribed by Rna polymerase
4. Dna transcribed by Dna polymerase
What is special about rna viruses?
do not require transcription first to produce dna
What are the 3 ways that release new viral particles?
lysis of cell, host cell continuously releases particles, viral dna and rna becomes part of host's genome
What is the exchange of genetic material via viruses?
What is when viruses specific to host?
host specific
What are the 3 characteristics of acute viral infections?
2. self limited
3. permanent damage
What are the 3 characteristics of persistant viral infections?
1. viral particles present
2. potentially infectios to others
3. aids
What are the 2 characterisitcs of latent viral infections?
1. virus particles present in body, but can't be detected
2. reactivation occurs, viral particles can be defective
Give two examples of latent infections?
hsv-1 cold sores
hsv 2 - genital herpes
What are the 3 viruses?
What is an intitial infection of cold sores that lives within nerve cells with periodic activations?
Herpes Simplex 1
What is an infection in liver cells that is transmitted sexually via blood products and is a chronic infection last for a year that can result in death from liver failure or cancer?
hepatitis B chronic
What is abnormal growth of cells and tissue?
What type of cancer gene turns on gene transcription?
What is the type of cancer genes that limit abnormal growth?
tumor supression genes
What are slow infections?
Viral infections that develop over years?
Give an example of a slow infection?
What kind of virus is HIV and what is its symptoms?
Rna virusthat does not have reliable replication and may result in protein changes which makes it difficult for immune system to attack.
Name four ways to turn on and off virus and cancer genese?
mutations,mutagens,damage to dna repair mechs,and incorporate viral dna
With RNA viruses-how do they work?
Rna into dna and then inserted in host's dna..where it turns on and off the oncogenes and tumor supression genes?
Name the two viruses that issue proof for genes and viruses?
kaposi sarcoma
What percentage of cancers have viral causes?
What percentage of problems ith oncogenes?
What percentage of cancers with tumor supressor genes?
What causes brain infection which results in tissue degeneration?
Do prions contain dna and rna and what are they made of?
no dna and rna
How do prions reproduce?
The prions believed that are similar to native brain protein-when they come into contact, they cause it to change shape which is similar to prion's
Name the five types of oncoviruses.
1. hpv
2. epstein bar virus
3. hsv 2
4. human t cell leukemia
5. hiv
What is tumor seen in lower jaw in Africa?
Burkitt's syndrome, a epstein bar
Which onco is respon for warts/cerv cancer and genial herpes/cerv cancer?
hsv-genital herpes
Are prions inherited?
Name two types of diseases that prions cause.
neurologic diseases:
1. spongiform encephalopathies- sheep scrapie
2. creutzfeldt-jacob disease,mad cow disease, kuru

3. some similarities to alzheimer's
How many people are infected with parasitic worms?
3.5 billion
What promotes poverty among 3rd world countries?
socio-economic load
How many were infected in Milwaukee and what was the microbe?
400,000 and cryptospiridium
What symptoms does cryptospiridium give?
nausea,vomiting,and diahrrea,severe dehydration and loss of electrolytes
How many people died from cryptospiridium, and who?
200 ppl...old,young,aids
What are the ways you can get a parasite, and which is the worst?
eat,drink,vector..vector is the worst
Which is the single cell organism and what does it cause?
Why are worms studied with microbio?
have a single cell life stage
Which kind of parasites live on the host?
What is the name for elephantisis?
lymphatic filariasis
How many ppl are infected with elephantisis?
100 million
How dows swelling result in elephantiasis?
obstruction of lymph vessels by a round worm
How is elephantiasis transmitted?
Why is elephantiasis hard?
dif to diagnose early and dif to cure later
Why are parasites a global problem? 4 reasons
1. imports of food
2. mobile society
3. not confined to tropics
4. Can come to us
What is the sushi parasite?
What kind of parasite is a round worm found in fish?
What kind of worms are flat and segmented?
tape worms
How are tape worms acquired?
Eating uncooked flesh of animals that have larva..specific tape worm for each type of meat
What is the ingested egg of the pork tape worm hatches and larva migrate to brain?
What are the results of neurocystocerosis?
leaves holes in brain, seizures
Where is neurocystocerosis found?
San Diego and Phoenix
What is the leading cause of immigrants with seizures in communities?
What is the photogenic parasite?
Giardia lamdia
Where is giardia found?
clear mountain streams
What causes giardiasis?
intestinal upset
What is the most common cause of non-bacteria diahrrea in US?
giardia lamdia
How can you kill and treat giardia?
Boil water and antibiotics
What is major concern of muncipal water supplies?
What causes dracunculiasis?
guinea worm
Where does the guinea worm found?
Africa and tropics
What type of agent and condition has the larva in water that grows in fleas to be ingested by humans?
guinea worm-dracunculiasis
What type of organism causes blood flukes and schistosomiasis?
What organism burrows into bloodstream to mate and release continual stream of eggs in stream?
What organism causes bloody urine?
What character played a part in Menorah's revenge in Egypt and Monopole?
How is onchceriasis transmitted?
black fly
What is river blindness?
What type of organism is caught by breeding black flies in streams, and the larva enters body?
onchoceriasis river blind
What disease results in baggie skin and blindness?
onchoceriasis river blind
What is plasmodium falciparum?
How was malaria originally believed to be caught?
BAD AIR around swamps
How many people are infected and die from malaria a year?
300-500 mil infected, 1-3 mil deaths
What type of symptoms does malaria cause? 5
How can Malaria be treated?
No vaccine.
What is a good pesticide against mosquito?
When was DDT banned from the US, synthesized and nobel prize?
1970 banned
1874 synthesized
1939 discovered insect
How did ddt reduce fatalities?
from 192 per 100,000 to 7 per 100,000
What causes toxoplasmosis?
protozoa-toxoplasma gondii
What is the host of toxoplasmosis?
cat and uncooked meat
What are round worms found in children?
pin worm
What organism lives in small intestines and does not migrate into blood stream of other organs?
pin worms
Where are eggs laid on body of pinworms?
peri anal area
What does pin worms cause?
How are pinworms diagnosed?
collected on piece of tape
How must the treatment of pin worm eggs work?
drugs are very effective, but must be couple with sanitary habits
What type of symptoms does toxoplasmosis cause?
mild and IC patient..very bad
What may form cysts in brain and eyes?
What organism can be transferred to the fetus and form cysts?
What is trichomonas vaginalis?
pathogenic parasitic human infection
What is the most common infection in humans in industrial world?
trichomonas vaginalis
How is trichomonas vaginalis spread?
Direct contact with protozoan- can survive for short periods on moist objects
What organism has symptoms such as thick yellow discharge in femals?
trich vaginalis
What org is asymptomatic but are carriers in males?
trich vaginalis
How is trich treated?
metronidazole (flagyl)
What are antibiotics considered against?
What was traditionally associated with agents from living organisms--mainly fungi?
What are man made or synthetic drugs?
Where are antibiotics made from in common use?
man made
How were wounds treated in the past?
mosses, herbs, plants, oils
What herb has antibacterial properties?
How were sore throats treated in middle ages?
hold toad in mouth
What toxic substances were used at antibs?
cyanide, arsenic, strychnine
Who noticed that antibs took different stains?
Who reasoned that toxic agents could be found that would be taken in by offending organisms and kill them without killing the host?
What is a major cause of M/m?
Who found syphillis an arsenic compound that killed it but not the organism?
What is salvation plus arsenic?
When was infections soon to be a things of the past?
the 40's
Why was there aggressive research during the 30's and 40's on infection?
What produces substances which are toxic to other organisms, but are not selective-so they may kill favorable cells?
What are most antibiotics from other microbes come from?
Prokaryotic steptomyces, eukaryotic molds, gram pos bacillus
What are antifungal and antiprotozoans dif to eliminate?
How do antiviral agents work?
Interfere with dna/rna synthesis
What generally works by exploiting differences between the offending organism and the host?
antimicrobial agents
What are 5 differences that antimicrobial agents exploit between the offending organism and host?
1. metabolic pathways
2. protein synthesis
3. transport of drug
4. cell wall/membrane
5. nucleic acid synthesis
What is amount of drug described?
What is the time between dosing?
What is the duration of treatment?
What are undesirable responses which are temporary from antimicrobial agents?
side effects
What are severe and often permanent effects of antimicrobial agents?
toxic effects
What are 5 properties that would make an ideal antibiotic?
1. quickly kill org 100%
2. no interaction with host tissues
3. be able to reach infection site
4. be non-allergenic
5. lack resistance
What is effective against a wide range of organisms?
broad spectrum
What is effective against a very selective range of organisms?
narrow spectrum
What is the dose at which the drug is effective against in a particular organism?
effective dose
What is the dose of the agent which results in toxic side effects?
toxic dose
What is the ratio of toxic dose to effective dose?
therapeutic index
What does a high therapeutic index indicate?
A drug which is less toxic than a low index.
What is blood concentration between minimal effective and toxic ranges?
therapeutic range
What occurs when there are changes to the normal flora of intestine?
What is the disruption of normal flora allowing other organisms to grow?
opportunisitic infections
What are the 3 possible side effects of antibiotics?
allergy infection, diahrrea, opportunistic infection
What are some of the differences that are exploited 5 in antibiotics?
1. cell wall
2. cell membrane
3. 70s 80s ribosome
4. nucleotide replication
5. diff metabolic pathways
How is eukaryotic cells including algae fungi and protozoans similar to your cells a problem?
Some differences do exist, such as ergosterol found in fungi cell walls
How is prokaryotic cells 70s and eukaryotic cells 80s a problem?
Mitochondria also have 70s ribosomes, so may be affected by antibiotics targeting the bacterial 70s ribosome
What are 4 problems with viruses?
1. have few components to target
2. hijack e's cell's machinery so this limits targets
3. no cell wall, ribosomoes, or metabolic pathways
How can viruses be defeated?
Agents can be directed against the attachemnt, reproduct, and release mech of viruses
What can an organism do once it develops resistance?
It can transfer it to other organisms.
What are 8 adverse reactions to antibiotics?
1. allergy
2. toxicity
3. damage kidney
4. depress bone marrow
5. blood cell production
6. deafness
7.developing teeth and cartilage
8.supress normal flora
What can be used to damage the cell wall?
penicillins and cephalosporin
What can damage protein synthesis of 70s ribosomes?
What can disrupt cell membranes unique to prokaryotes?
polymoxin B
What can damage metabolic pathways?
sulfa drugs
Name 4 ways that a microbe developes resistance?
1. develop enzymes
2. develop additional targets to overwhelm antibiotic
3. over prescribing
4. taking it incorrectly
What occurs when folic acid production enzymes are poisoned by sulfa drugs?
cell produces excess enzymes
What is in aminogylcosides?
What is in penicillions?
What is in cephlasporins?
keflex and ceclor
What is in glycopeptides?
What is in macrolides?
What is in polypeptides?
What is in quinolones?
What is in sulfonamides?
What is used against tb?
What do penicillins target?
gram pos usually
What do different penicillin structures design for?
increase absorption, spectrum,resistance
What works by inhibiting the cross-linking in the cell wall and leads to defective or weakened walls?
What is resistant to penicillins?
What are side effects to penicillin?
What is used for gram- organisms?
What binds to ribosome to interfer with mRNA and protein production?
What is given iv because of poor gut absorption?
What can cause major toxicites of deafness and kidney damage?
How is aminoglycosides toxicity watched?
Blood levels measured
What has a similiar mechanism to penicillin?
What antibiotic interferes with peptidoglycan in cell wall production?
What is used in patients that are sensitive to penicillin and cephalsporins?
What ab is very selective against gram + cocci?
What is given slowly by pump infusion?
What does a Z pack consist of?
erthromycin and zithromycin -macrolides
What has a coverage wider than penicillin and is more oftnely used in patients allergic to penicillin?
What covers unusual organisms such as chlamydia and mycoplasma?
What binds to ribosomes to prevent protein synthesis?
What has side effects of gi upset, nausea, and vomitiing because of wide coverages?
What is produced from bacillus subtilis?
What AB interferes with cell wall construction?
What is toxic orally, but great topically?
What is neosporin?
What AB interferes wutg bacteria dna transcription and replication?
What AB has side effect of increased risk of tendon rupture?
What AB Has rapidly developing resistance?
What intereferes with the production of folic acid?
What ab has side effects of allergies annd hemopoetic disorders?
What is used to treat UTI?
What is tetracycline commonly used for? 4
-respiratory infections
-middle ear infections
What AB binds to ribosome and prevents TRNA from attaching?
What is the first line drug for TB?
What inhibits the construction of mycobacterium cell wall?
What are the side effects of isonizad and limits?
-liver damage and hepatitis-cant drink alcohol
What are 4 disorders antifungals used for?
athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), and cryptococcal meningitis
What interferes with fungal cell wall synthesis?
anti-fungal agents
What are 3 otc anti-fungal creams?
How come anti-viral agents offer few targets?
They require few naive cells
What is designed to allow the body to attack the virus before it begins reproducing?
What are the steps for viral replication?
1.binding 2.entry 3. dna/rna replication 4. assembly and release
What prevents dna/rna synthesis by using fake nucleotide which jams the replication mechanism?
What are 7 ways that antiviral agents work?
1. inhibit cell binding
2. entry and release of dna/rna
3. prevent dna/rna synthesis
4. interefere with rna reverse transcription
5.attack special enzymes required by the virus
6. prevent release of assembled particles
7. enzymes cut apart specific viral rna
What works as poison by paralyzing to protozoan cell?
antiprotozoan agent