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100 Cards in this Set

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cirrhosis
Gr. kirrhos = tawny yellow.
Laennec coined this term for the yellowish liver of fat and fibrosis.
It now has a wider application, tending to connote fibrosis irrespective of color.
cisterna
L. cisterna = a reservoir or cistern.
clavicle
L. clavicula, diminutive of clavis = a key.
So named for its resemblance in shape.
coccyx
Gr. kokkyx = cuckoo.
Adopted for anatomy from a supposed resemblance of this bone to the beak of a cuckoo.
coelom
Gr. koiloma = a hollow.
Used in embryology, and as a name for the general body cavity in the adult.
collagen
Gr. kolla = glue, and gennào = to produce. ||
commissure
L. commissura; from con (com-) = together, and mittere = to put.
Hence a joining or a seam.
condyle
Gr. kondylos = a knuckle. ||
conjunctiva
L. con = with, and jungere (junctus) = to join.
constrictor
L. con = together, and stringere = to pull.
conus
Gr. konos = a cone or peg.
Used of various more or less peg-shaped anatomical structures: for example, the conus medullaris of the spinal cord..
cornea
L. corneus = horny.
The cornea of the eye was formally called the cornea tela, which meant the horny tissue or layer.
cornu
L. cornu = a horn.
Applied especially to horn-shaped structures in the CNS.
coronary
L.coronarius = pertaining to or like a crown.
Applied especially to the arteries of the heart, so called because they encircle the organ as a wreath or crown.
corpus
L. corpus = body.
corpus luteum
L. luteus = yellow.
Describing the scarring of the ovary.
cortex
L. cortex = outer layer or bark.
In anatomy, it is applied to the outer layer of organs.
cranium
Gr. kranion = skull.
cremaster
Gr. kremastos = hanging.
Galen used this appropriate name for the muscle on which the testicle is hung. ||
cribriform
L cribrum = a sieve, and forma = form.
Applied to the sieve-like plate of the ethmoid bone.
cricoid
Gr. krikos = a circle or ring, and eidos = resemblance.
crus
L. crista = leg.
Any structure in anatomy resembling a leg or, in the plural crura, of a pair of dividing structures.
cuboid
Gr. kybos = a cube, and eidos = resemblance.
A square bone in the foot. ||
cuneiform
L. cuneus = a wedge, and forma = form.
In anatomy for wedge-shaped bones in the wrist and ankle.
cutaneous
L. cutaneus = relating to the skin; from cutis = skin.
cyst
Gr. kystis = bladder.
cyto-
Gr. kytos = vessel or urn; the same as the Latin vas.
dactyl
Gr. daktylos = finger or toe.
decidua
L. decidus = falling off.
The decidua is the altered mucous membrane lining the uterus during pregnancy and puerperium.
deferens
L. de = away, and ferre = to carry.
deltoid
Gr. delta = the Greek letter , and eidos = resemblance.
Applied to the deltoid muscle because of its triangular shape. ||
depressor
L. de = down, premere = to press, and the suffix -or = the agent.
diaphragm
Gr. diaphragma = a wall or partition; from dia = across, and phragma = a wall.
diastole
Gr. dia = apart, and stellein = to send.
Hence to dilate or spread.
diencephalon
Gr. dia (di-) = through, and encephalon = brain.
Hence the “between” brain.
digastric
Gr. di = two, and gaster = belly.
A term descriptive of this muscle, which has two different bellies.
distal
L. distare = to stand apart or to be distant.
dorsal
L. dorsum = the back.
duodenum
L. duodeni = twelve.
Thus named because of its length in fingerbreadths. ||
dura
L. durus = hard. ||
endocrine
Gr. endon = within, and krinein = to separate.
Denotes a gland whose product passes into the blood, being separated within the gland.
ependyma
Gr. epi = upon, and endyma = a garment.
In anatomy, applied to the lining of the spinal canal or outer covering of the spinal cord.
epicardium
Gr. epi = upon, and kardia = heart.
epigastrium
Gr. epi = upon, and gaster = stomach.
epiphysis
Gr. epi = upon, and physis = growth.
epiploic
Gr. epiploon = omentum.
The epilploic appendages hang from the omentum.
epispadas
Gr. epi = upon, and spadon = a rent or tear.
Applies to a congenital opening of the urethra on the upper surface or dorsum of the penis.
erector
L. erectus = upright.
Applied to a muscle which causes a structure to stand upright.
esophagus
Gr. oisophagos = gullet.
The Greek term was formed from oiso, the future tense of phero = to carry, and phagein = food.
ethmoid
Gr. ethmos = a sieve, and eidos = resemblance.
A term describing the structure of the ethmoid bone of the skull.
eversion
L. evertere = to turn outward; from ex (e-) = out, and vertere = to turn.
extensor
L. extendere = to stretch out.
extrinsic
L. extrinsecus = originating or acting outside; from exter = outside, and -secus = on the side.
falciform
L. falx = sickle, and forma = form.
The falciform ligament has this shape.
fascia
L. fascia = a ribbon or fillet.
femur
L. femur = thigh, but applied to the bone of the upper leg.
The adjective femoral is used of various structures in the thigh.
fibula
L. fibula = a clasp or a pin; originally from figo = fasten.
fimbria
L. fimbria = fringe.
Applied to the processes at the abdominal end of the fallopian tube.
flexor
L. flectere = to bend.
From the same root comes the word flex, flexion, and flexure = a fold or crease
follicle
L. folliculus, diminutive of follis = a bag. ||
foramen
L. foramen = an opening; from forare = to bore. ||
fornix
L. fornix = arch or vault.
fossa
L. fossa = a ditch.
Used in anatomy for depressed areas.
fovea
L. fovea = a pit.
In ophthalmology it applies to the central depression in the retina.
frontal
L. frons = forehead.
fundus
L. fundus = bottom.
ganglion
Gr. ganglion = a swelling.
gastric
Gr. gaster = stomach or belly.
genitalia
L. genitalis = pertaining to reproduction.
genu
L. genu = the knee, but used in anatomy of any bent structure.
glabella
L. glabellus = smooth.
Name for the prominence on the frontal bone just above the nose.
glans
L. glans = acorn.
Used for the head of the penis, which is shaped somewhat like an acorn. ||
glenoid
Gr. glene = joint socket, and eidos = resemblance.
Homer used the word genoid to signify the pupil of the eye; and because of the small images seen reflected there, it also meant doll or little girl.
gluteal
Gr. gloutos = buttocks.
gonad
Gr. gone = a seed or generation.
gubernaculum
L. gubernaculum = helm or little governor; from gubernare = to control, and the diminutive suffix -culum.
The gubernaculum of the testis is the fetal cord which guides the descent of the testis.
gut
AS. guttas = the bowels.
gyrus
Gr. gyros = a circle.
hallux
L. hallux = great toe.
hamulus
L. hamulus, a diminutive of hamus = a hook.
Applied to hook-shaped structures.
helicotrema
Gr. helix = a coil, and trema = a hole.
Applied to the communication between the two channels of the cochlear convolutions.
helix
Gr. helix = a coil or screw.
The coiled or turned-over margin of the auricle.
hernia
L. hernia = a rupture.
hilum (hilus)
L. hilum = a small thing. ||
humerus
L. (h)umerus = the shoulder bone; related to Gr.
omos = the shoulder
hydrocele
Gr. hydor = water, and kele = swelling.
Usually used of a collection of fluid in the tunica vaginalis of the testes.
hyper
Gr. hyper = excessive.
hypo
Gr. hypo = less.
ilium
L. ilium = the flank, and the iliac bone.
Originally because the small intestines are largely supported by this bone, and the old term for the small intestines was ilia (plural of ilium).
incisor
L. incidere = to cut into; from in = in, and caedere = to cut.
Applied to the eight cutting teeth.
incus
L. incus (incudis) = anvil.
inguinal
L. inguen = groin.
innominate
L. innominatus = unnamed; from in = not, and nomen = name.
There are two structures called innominate, one artery and one bone.
insertion
L. in = in, and serere = to put.
Hence, the point of attachment of a muscle in the more movable of the two structures which it joins.
inter
L. inter = between
intestine
L. intestinum = intestine.
The noun intestinum came from the adjective intestinus, which meant nothing more than inner or inward.
The popular term “innards” expresses the same thing.
inversion
L. invertere = to turn about or inside out. ||
in vitro
See vitreous.
in vivo
See vitreous
ipsilateral
L. ipse = self or same, and latus = side.