Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bones are classified by?
shape and structure
Femur is example of a _____ bone?
Long bones are cylindrical with ______ ends and often bear weight.
Short bones, such as the ______, are small and bear little or no weight.
Flat bones, such as the ____, protect vital organs and often contain blood-forming cells.
Bones that have unique shapes are known as ______ bones.
The carpal bones in the wrist and the small bones in the inner ear are examples of _____ bones
The ____ bone is the least common type and develops within a tendon (ex: patella)
The cortex is the _____ layer of bone.
The cortex is composed of dense, _____ bone tissue
The inner layer, in the medulla, contains _____, ____ tissue
The long bone typically has a shaft, or _____ , and two knoblike ends, or _____
What is the haversian system?
a complex canal network containing microscopic blood vessels, which supply nutrients and oxygen to bone
What is lacunae?
small cavities that house osteocytes (bone cells)...the canals run longitudinally within the hard, cortical bone tissue
What does cancellous tissue contain?
large spaces or trabeculae, which are filled with red and yellow marrow
What is hematopoiesis and where does it occur?
it's the production of blood cells and occurs in red marrow
What does yellow marrow contain and how can it be life-threatening?
fat cells, which can be dislodged and enter the bloodstream to cause fat embolism syndrome (FES), a life-threatening complication
What do Volkmann's canals connect?
bone marrow vessels with haversian system and periosteum
What is periosteum?
the outermost covering of the bone...the osteogenic cells are found in the deepest layer of the periosteum
bone-forming cells
bone-destroying cells
What does the matrix (osteoid) consist of?
What are calcium salts composed of?
carbonate and phosphate
What provides the hardness of bone?
deposits of inorganic calcium salts
The estimated total blood flow of bone is between ____ and ____ mL/min
Each bone has a principal nutrient _____, which enters near the middle of the shaft and branches into _____ and _____ vessels
The blood vessels in the bone supply the ____, ____, and ______ system
The sparse nerve supply of bone is supplied by?
sympathetic and afferent (sensory) fibers
What controls dilation of blood vessels?
sympathetic nerve fibers
Which fibers transmit pain signals experienced by clients who have primary lesions of the bone?
afferent nerve fibers
The skeletal system provides a framework for the body and allows the body to be ___ _____, or upright
weight bearing
The skeletal system supports the surrounding tissues (e.g., _____ and ___)
The skeletal system assists in movement through ____ attachment and ____ formation.
The skeletal system protects vital organs, such as ____ and ____
The skeletal system manufactures blood cells in ___ ___ ____.
red bone marrow
The skeletal system provides storage for mineral salts (e.g., ____ and _____ )
Which minerals and hormones affect bone growth and metabolism?
growth hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
vitamin D
What percentage of calcium in the body does bone account for?
What percentage of phosphorus in the body does bone account for?
The serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus maintain an _____ relationship. as serum levels of calcium increase, phosphorus levels decrease
What maintains equilibrium when serum levels of calcium and phosphorus are altered?
calcitonin and PTH
If the calcium level of the blood is decreased, the bone, which stores calcium, releases calcium into the _____ system in response to ____ stimulation
Calcitonin is produced by?
thyroid gland
Calcitonin decreases?
the serum calcium concentration if it is increased above its normal level
Calcitonin _______ bone resorption and ______ renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus as needed to maintain equilibrium?
Vitamin D and its metabolites are produced in the body and transported in the 1______ to promote the absorption of 2_____ and 3_____ from the small intestine
1 blood
2 calcium
3 phosphorus
Vitamin D and its metabolites seems to enhance 1____ activity in the release of calcium from the bone
A decrease in the body's vitamin D level can result in?
osteomalacia in the offer an external sourse of Vitamin D if this is the case
When serum calcium levels are lowered, _1_____ secretion increases and stimulates 2_____ to promote osteo-3______ activity and RELEASE calcium to the blood.
2 bone
3 -clastic
PTH _____ the renal excretion of calcium and facilitates its absorption from the intestine
When serum calcium levels increase, PTH secretion 1_____to preserve the bone calcium supply
1 diminishes
1____ hormone secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland is responsible for 2____ bone length and determining the amount of bone matrix formed before puberty.
1 Growth
2 increasing
If too much growth hormone is secreted during childhood, _____ can occur
If not enough growth hormone is secreted during childhood, _____ can occur.
In the adult, an increase causes _____, which is characterized by bone and soft-tissue deformities
What regulates protein metabolism?
adrenal glucocorticoids
How do adrenal glucocorticoids regulate protein metabolism?
by either increasing or decreasing catabolism to reduce or intensify the organic matrix of bone...glucocorticoids also aid in regulating intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption
How do estrogens affect osteoblastic and PTH activity?
stimulates osteoblastic activity

inhibits PTH activity
When estrogen levels decline at menopause, women are susceptible to low serum 1_____ levels with subsequent bone loss (osteoporosis).
1 calcium
Androgens, such as testosterone, promote _____ and increase bone mass.
External sources of _____ and ______ may be prescribed for clients at risk for or diagnosed with osteoporosis.
_______is one of the principal hormones secreted by the thyroid gland.
Thyroxine's primary function is to increase the rate of _____ synthesis in all types of tissue, including bone.
Insulin works together with ______ hormone to build and maintain healthy bone tissue.
What is a joint (articulation)?
a space in which two or more bones come together
What is the primary function of a joint?
to provide movement and flexibility in the body
The three types of joints are?
What is an example synarthrodial (completely immovable) joints found?
What is an example of an amphiarthrodial (slightly movable) joint?
What is an example of a diarthrodial (synovial), or freely movable joint?
Which type of 3 joints is most commonly affected by disease or injury?
diarthrodial (synovial)
Why are synovial joints so named?
because they are the only type lined with synovium
What is synovium?
a membrane that secretes synovial fluid for lubrication and shock absorption
What does the synovium line?
the internal portion of the joint capsule
Where does the synovium NOT extend?
onto the surface of the cartilage at the spongy bone ends
Articular (joint) cartilage consists of a ______ fiber matrix impregnated with a complex ground substance
Clients with inflammatory types of arthritis often have ____
synovitis (synovial inflammation) and breakdown of the cartilage
What are bursae?
small sacs lined with synovial membrane, are located at joints and bony prominences to prevent friction between bone and structures adjacent to bone...inflamed bursa is called BURSITIS
The shoulders and hip permit motion in any direction and are called?
ball-and-socket joints
The elbow allows motion in one plane, flexion, and extension and is called?
hinge joint
The knee is often classified as a HINGE joint, but it rotates slightly, as well as flexes and extends and is best described as a _____ type of synovial (diarthrodial) joint.
The gliding movement of the wrist is characteristic of the _____ joint.
_____ joints permit rotation only, as in the radioulnar area
There are 3 types of muscle in the body?
ANS controls smooth, or non-striated, involuntary muscle which is responsible for?
contractions of organs and blood vessels
Where in the organs is smooth muscle found?
intestines (peristalsis)
uterus (contractions)
throat (swallowing)
bladder (contraction)
blood vessels (dilation and
respiratory tubes
(contraction and dilation)
How does smooth muscle regulate integumentary system?
Smooth muscles around blood vessels regulate the flow of blood to the superficial dermis

smooth muscles of the arrector pili elevate hairs.
How does smooth muscle regulate cardiovascular system?
Smooth muscles encircling blood vessels control the distribution of blood and help regulate blood pressure.
How does smooth muscle regulate respiratory system?
Smooth muscle contraction or relaxation alters the diameters of the respiratory passageways and changes the resistance to airflow.
How does smooth muscle regulate digestive system?
Extensive layers of smooth muscle in the walls of the digestive tract play an essential role in moving materials along the tract. Smooth muscle in the walls of the gallbladder contract to eject bile into the digestive tract.
How does smooth muscle regulate urinary system?
Smooth muscle tissue in the walls of small blood vessels alters the rate of filtration at the kidneys. Layers of smooth muscle in the walls of the ureters transport urine to the urinary bladder; the contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder forces urine out of the body.
How does smooth muscle regulate reproductive system?
Layers of smooth muscle help move sperm along the reproductive tract in males and cause the ejection of glandular secretions from the accessory glands into the reproductive tract. In females, layers of smooth muscle help move oocytes (and perhaps sperm) along the reproductive tract, and contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the uterus expels the fetus at delivery.
Striated or non-striated?
What is cardiac muscle?
Striated or non-striated?
What is smooth muscle?
Striated or non-striated?
What is skeletal muscle?
Skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle and is controlled by?
central and peripheral nervous systems
The autonomic nervous system is comprised of (2)?
sympathetic and parasympatheic nervous system
What is the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system?
The junction of a peripheral motor nerve and the muscle cells that it supplies is sometimes referred to as a _____ ____ _____
motor end plate
Muscle fibers are held in place by ____ _____ in bundles, or fasciculi.
connective tissue
The entire muscle is surrounded by dense, fibrous tissue, or _____, which contains the muscle's blood, lymph, andn nerve supply.
During the aging process, muscle tissue fibers _____ in size and number, even in well-conditioned people.
Also, bone density decreases.
What kind of cartilage is found in joints?
What kind of cartilage connects sternum to rib cage?
What kind of cartilage is in the septum of the nose, larynx, and trachea?
What kind of cartilage is found in the external ear and epiglottis?
Tendons are bands of tough, fibrous tissue that attach ____ to _____.
muscles to bones
Ligaments attach ______ to ____ at joints.
bones to bones
What does a decrease in bone density cause in elders?
postural changes
What can age-related postural changes predispose a person to?
fractures (osteoporosis)
As a person ages, synovial joint cartilage can become less 1______ and 2______ as a person ages...these changes can cause trauma to joint cartilage...resulting in 3_____
1 elastic
2 compressible
3 osteoarthritis
Genetic defects in cartilage may contribute to _____ disease.
The most common joints affected are ____-____ joints of the hip, knee, and cervical and lumbar spine, but joints in the shoulder and upper extremity , feet, and hands can be affected.
African American men typically have _____ bones than African American women.
_____ women have the least amount of bone density of any group, which makes them more likely to have osteoporosis.
What is lactose intolerance and which foods are high in lactose?
inability to convert lactose to glucose and galactose

milk and dairy products
Lactose intolerant individuals should get their calcium from the following?
dark, green leafy vegetables
What are 7 changes in the musculoskeletal system related to aging?
1. decreased bone density
2. increased bone prominence
3. kyphotic posture; widened
gait, shift in the center
of gravity
4. cartilage degeneration
5. decreased ROM
6. muscle atrophy, decreased
7. slowed movement
Elderly with decreased bone density are at increased risk for fractures and should?
learn safety tips to prevent falls...
exercise, esp. weightbearing
Elderly with increased bone prominence are at risk for skin breakdown due to less soft tissue and should?
prevent pressure on bone prominences
Elderly with kyphotic posture (widened gait, shift in center of gravity) are at increased risk for further deformity and should?
learn proper body mechanics esp, by sitting in supportive chairs with arms
Elderly with cartilage degeneration can be helped by?
providing moist heat, such as shower or warm, moist compresses as moist heat increases blood flow to the area
Elderly with decreased ROM can be helped by?
assessing the client's ability to perform ADLs and mobility...the client may need assistance with self-care skills
Elderly with muscle atrophy and decreased strength can increase strength by?
performing isometric exercises
Elderly develop slowed them by?
not rushing them as they become frustrated if hurried