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241 Cards in this Set

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mitosis
cell division
growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging each cell
hypertrophy
growth that causes tissue to increase in size by increasing number of cells
hyperplasia
any new or continued cell growth not needed for normal development or replacement of dead and damaged tissue
neoplasia
Diet teaching tip is to limit dietray fat, smoked _____, and ___ meats
meat
red
without shape or differentiation, small and round
anaplastic
more or less than the normal number of chromosomes
aneuploid
the finite life span of normal cells, "programmed cell death"
apopotosis
new, nonmalignant cell growth not needed for normal growth or replacement
benign
transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell
carcinogenesis
amount of time it takes for a tumor to double in size by mitotic cell divisions
doubling time
the normal chromosome number
euploid
large extracellular, tranformation-sensitive cell surface protein present on normal cells that allows normal cells to adhere tightly together
fibronectin
activation , or "turning on", of a specific gene to extent that it synthesizes a specific protein that influences the activity of a cell or group of cells
gene suppression
period of time necessary for one cell to enter and
complete one round of cell division by mitosis
initiation
period of time between when a carcinogenic agent or substance damaged the DNA of a normal cell (initiated it) and when an overt cancer is present
latency
cancerous, new growth of cells by invasion that is not needed for normal development or tissue replacement
malignant
invasive growth of cancer cells from the original tumor into distant areas
metastasis
cell division by exact duplication
mitosis
appearance of shape
morphology
an undifferentiated cell that has multiple potential for maturation and differentiation (also called totipotent and pluripotent)
multipotent
new cell growth not needed for normal body growth or replacement of dead or missing tissue
neoplasia
a development gene (proto-oncogene) expressed at an inappropriat time, capable of transforming a normal cell into a cancer cell
oncogene
chromosome content of a cell
ploidy
chromosome content of a cell that is greater or lesser than the normal chromosome number for the species
aneuploid ploidy
normal chromosome content of a cell for species (e.g.> human cells have 46 chromosomes {23 pairs} per cell)
diploid (euploid) ploidy
tumor formed in a specific tissue as a result of a carcinogenic agent or event
primary tumor
enhancement of cell division in a cell initiated by a carcinogen
promotion
development gene expressed during early embryonic development
proto-oncogene
tumor formed as a result of breaking off from a primary tumor and spreading to distant sites (metastasis)
secondary tumor
a gene that suppresses the expression of an oncogene
suppressor gene
changing of a normal cell into a cancer cell by a carcinogenic agent or event
transformation
cell division of a normal cell
none or slow
cell division of an embryonic cell
rapid, continuous
cell division of a benign tumor cell
continuous or inappropriate
cell division of a malignant cell
rapid or continuous
appearance of a normal cell
specific morphologic features
appearance of an embryonic cell
anaplastic
appearance of a benign tumor cell
specific morphologic features
appearance of a malignant cell
anaplastic
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of a normal cell
small
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of an embryonic cell
large
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of a benign tumor cell
small
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of a malignant cell
large
differentiated functions of normal cell
many
differentiated functions of embryonic cell
none
differentiated functions of benign tumor cell
many
differentiated functions of malignant cell
some or none
adherence of normal cell
tight
adherence of embryonic cell
none
adherence of benign tumor cell
tight
adherence of malignant cell
some or none
migratory of normal cell
no
migratory of embryonic cell
yes
migratory of benign tumor cell
no
migratory of malignant cell
yes
growth of normal cell
well regulated
growth of embryonic cell
well regulated
growth of benign tumor cell
expansion
growth of malignant cell
invasion
chromosomes of normal cell
diploid (euploid)
chromosomes of embryonic cell
diploid (euploid)
chromosomes of benign tumor cell
diploid (euploid)
chromosomes of malignant cell
aneuploid
mitotic index of normal cell
low
mitotoic index of embryonic cell
high
mitotic index of benign tumor cell
low
mitotic index of malignant cell
high
Neoplastic cells originate from ____ body cells
normal
transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell involves mutation of the _____ ( ) of the normal cell
genes (DNA)
Early embryonic genes that are _________ can cause a cell to develop into a tumor
overexpressed
Only one cell has to undergo ______ transformation for cancer to begin
malignant
Benign tumors grow by _____, whereas malignant tumors grow by invasion
expansion
Most ____ arise from cells that are capable of cell division
tumors
A key feature of cancer cells is the loss of _____. These cells have an "infinite" life span
apoptosis
_______ prevention of cancer involves avoiding exposure to known causes of cancer
Primary
______ prevention of cancer involves screening for early detection
Secondary
______ use is a causative or permissive factor in 30% of all malignant neoplasms
30%
Tumors that metastasize from the _____ site into another organ are still designated as tumors of the originating tissue
primary
Carcinogen for?
breast
colon
esophagus
liver
mouth
pharynx
rectum
alcoholic beverages
Carcinogen for?
liver
anabolic steroids
carcinogen for?
lung
skin
arsenic
carcinogen for?
lung
pericardium
peritoneum
pleura
asbestos
carcinogen for?
myelogenous leukemia
benzene
carcinogen for?
acute leukemia
lymphoma
chemotherapy drugs
alkylating agents
anthracycline antibiotics
antimetabolites
carcinogen for?
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
cyclosporine
carcinogen for?
lung
diesel exhaust
carcinogen for?
nasopharynx
formaldehyde
carcinogen for?
bladder
hair dyes
carcinogen for?
bone marrow
many organs
thyroid
ionizing radiation
carcinogen for?
skin
mineral oils
carcinogen for?
lung
pesticides
carcinogen for?
lung
skin
scrotum
polycyclic hydrocarbons
carcinogen for?
skin
liver
polychlorinated biphenyls
carcinogen for?
skin
eyes
sunlight
carcinogen for?
bladder
colon
esophagus
kidney
larynx
leukemia
liver
lung
mouth
pancreas
pharynx
stomach
tobacco
Common sites of metastasis for breast cancer?
brain
bone
liver
lung
Common sites of metastasis for lung cancer?
bone
brain
liver
lymph
pancreas
Common sites of metastasis
for colorectal cancer?
adjacent structures
liver
lymph nodes
Common sites of metastasis for prostate cancer?
bone (esp spine and legs)
pelvic nodes
Common sites of metastasis of melanoma?
brain
gastrointestinal tract
lung
lymph nodes
Common sites of metastasis
of primary brain cancer?
central nervous system
What are the steps of metastasis in order?
malignant transformation
tumor revascularization
blood vessel penetration
arrest and invasion
What is a malignant transformation?
Some normal 1_____ cells have undergone 2_____ transformation and have divided enough times to form a 3______area within the cuboidal epthelium
1 cuboidal
2 malignant
3 tumorous
What is tumor vascularization?
Cancer cells secrete tumor 1_____ factor (TAF), stimulating the blood vessels to bud and form new channels that grow into the tumor
1 angiogenesis
What is blood vessel penetration?
Cancer cells have broken off from the main tumor. 1____
on the surface of the tumor cells make holes in the blood vessels, allowing 2____ _____ to enter blood vessel and travel around the body.
1 enzymes
2 cancer cells
What is arrest and invasion?
Cancer cells clump up in ____ ____ ____ and invade new tissue areas. If the new tissue areas have the right conditions to support continued growth of cancer cells, new tumors called ____ ____ will form at this site.
blood vessel walls
metastatic tumors
adeno-
epithelial glands
b-adenoma
m-adenocarcinoma
chondro-
cartilage
b-chondroma
m-chondrosarcoma
fibro-
fibrous connective
b-fibroma
m-fibrosarcoma
glio-
glial cells (brain)
b-glioma
m-glioblastoma
hemangio-
blood vessel
b-hemangioma
m-hemangiosarcoma
hepato-
liver
b-hepatoma
m-hepatocarcinoma
m-hepatoblastoma
leiomyo-
smooth muscle
b-leiomyoma
m-leiomyosarcoma
lipo-
fat/adipose
b-lipoma
m-liposarcoma
lympho-
lymphoid tissues
malignant lymphomas
Hodgkin's lymphoma
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Burkitt's lymphoma
cutaneous t-cell
melano-
pigment-producing skin
m-melanoma
meningio-
meninges
b-meningioma
m-malignant meningioma
neuro-
nerve tissue
b-neuroma
m-neurosarcoma
neuro-
nerve tissue
b-neurofibroma
m-neuroblastoma
osteo-
bone
b-osteoma
m-osteosarcoma
renal-
kidney
m-renal cell carcinoma
rhabdo-
skeletal muscle
b-rhabdomyoma
m-rhabdomyosarcoma
squamous
epithelial layer of skin,
mucous membranes, and
organ linings
b-papilloma
m-squamous cell carcinoma
of skin, bladde, lungs,
cervix
Gx
grade cannot be determined
G1
tumor cells are ____-_____ and closely resemble the normal cells from which they arose...this grade is considered a low grade of ____ change...these tumors are malignant but are relatively ____ growing
well-differentiated
malignant
slow
G2
tumor cells are moderately _____; they still retain some of the characteristics of normal cells but also have more _____ characteristics than do G1 tumor cells
differentiated
malignant
G3
tumor cells are poorly differentiated, but the ____ of origin can usually be established...the cells have few ____ cell characteristics
tissue
normal
G4
tumor cells are poorly ______ and retain normal cell characteristics... determination of the tissue of origin is difficult and perhaps impossible
differentiated
Grading of malignant tumor scale?
Gx
G1
G2
G3
G4
What grade of malignant tumor is one which tumor cells are poorly differentiated and retain no normal cell characteristics...determination of the tissue of origin is difficult and perhaps impossible
G4
What grade of malignant tumor is the one in which tumor cells are moderately differentiated, they still retain some of the characteristics of normal cells but also have more malignant characteristics than do G1 tumor cells
G2
The grade of malignant tumor in which the grade cannot be determined is?
Gx
The grade of malignant tumors in which the tumor cells are well differentiated and closely resemble the normal cells from which they arose...this grade is considered a low grade malignant change...these tumors are malignant but are relatively slow growing
G1
The grade of malignant tumors in which the tumor cells are poorly differentiated, but the tissue of origin can usually be established
G3
Malignancies associated wtih tobacco use?
bladder
cervical
esophageal
kidney
laryngeal
liver
lung
myeloid leukemia
oral cavity
pancreatic
pharyngeal
Burkitt's lymphoma
B-cell lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma

these are malignancies associated with a known viral origin called?
Epstein-Barr virus
primary liver carcinoma is a malignancy assoicated with a known viral origin called?
hepatitis B virus
cervical carcinoma
vulvar carcinoma
other anogenital carcinomas

these are malignancies associated with a known viral origin called?
human papillomavirus
adult T-cell leukemia is a malignancy associated with a known viral origin called?
human lymphotrophic virus type 1
hairy cell leukemia is a malignancy associated with a known viral origin of?
human lymphotrophic virus type II
avoid excessive intake of _____ fat and eat more bran to reduce cancer risk.
animal
to reduce cancer risk, avoid ____ which are found in lunch meats, sausage, bacon
nitrites
to reduce cancer risk, minimize intake of ____ meat
red
Keep your _____ consumption to no more than one or two drinks per day
alcohol
To reduce cancer risk, eat more ______ vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, and cabbage
cruciferous
to reduce risk of cancer, eat foods high in ____ ____
(such as apricots, carrots, and leafy green and yellow vegetables) and _____ ___(such as fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits)
vitamin A
vitamin C
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to ask client whether ___ ____ have changed over the past year
e.g. in consistency, frequency, or color
bowel habits
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to ask client if there is any obvious _____ in the stool?
blood
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to test at least one stool specimen for ___ ___ during client's hospitalization.
occult blood
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to encourage the client to have a _____ colonoscopy
baseline
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to encourage the client to reduce dietary intake of ____ fats, ___ meat, and ____ meats
animal
meat
smoked
An assessment consideration for colorectal cancer is to encourage the client to increase dietary intake of ____, _____, and _____
bran
vegetables
fruit
An assessment consideration for bladder cancer is to ask the patient about the presence of:
1_____ on urination
2_____ in the urine
3_____ urine
4_____ frequency or urgency
1 pain
2 blood
3 cloudy
4 increased
Cancer assessment for prostate cancer includes asking the patient about 1______...change in the size of the urine 2____...pain in the back or 3____...history of urinary 4____ infections
1 hesitancy
2 stream
3 legs
4 tract
Assessment consideration for skin cancer is to examine skin areas for _____ or _____
moles
warts
Assessment consideration for skin cancer is to ask the client about changes in _____
(e.g., color, edges, or sensation)
moles
Assessment consideration for leukemia includes observing skin for ____, ____, ____.
color
petechiae
ecchymosis
When assessing for leukemia, ask the client about?
bleeding tendency
bruising
fatigue
history of infections and
illnesses
night sweats
unexplained fevers
When assessing for lung cancer, observe the skin and mucous membranes for 1____...
how many words can the patient say between 2____...
ask the client about
3 activity tolerance
cough
difficulty swallowing
exposure to inhalation
irritants
frothy or bloody sputum
hoarseness
pain in the arms or chest
shortness of breath
smoking history
1 color
2 breaths
3 activity tolerance
Know acronym for the seven warning signs of cancer?
CAUTION
C-changes in bowel or bladder habits

A-a sore that does not heal

U-unusual bleeding or discharge

T-thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere

I-indigestion or difficulty swallowing

O-obvious change in a wart or mole

N-nagging cough or hoarseness
Types of inherited cancers?
breast cancer
prostate cancer
ovarian cancer
Type of familial clustering?
breast cancer
melanoma
Type of Bloom syndrome?
leukemia
Type of familial polyposis?
colorectal cancer
Type of chromosomal aberrations
Down syndrome
(47 chromosomes)
Klinefelter syndrome
(47, XXY)
Turner's syndrome (45, XO)
leukemia

breast cancer
leukemia
gonadal carcinoma
meningioma
colorectal cancer
Out of the list of racial differences in cancer development...African Americans stand alone in which type of cancer
uterine
Out of the list of racial differences in cancer development...Asians stand alone in which type of cancer?
stomach
Out of the list of racial differences in cancer development...Caucasian, African Americans, Asian, and Hispanic cultures have the following cancers in common?
lung
breast
colorectal
prostate
What is the purpose of apoptosis?
ensures each organ has adequate number of cells at functional peak
What do liver cells make?
bile
What does fibronectin do?
a type of protein which keeps most normal tissues bound tightly to each other...rbcs and wbcs don't do this...this makes rbcs and wbcs migratory
What are the cells called that are living but not actively reproducing...in a resting state
Go
During Go period, cells actively carry out their functions, but do not___
divide
Like nonpregnant women, normal cells spend most of their time in which state?
Go
The steps of entering and completing the cell cycle are predominantly regulated by proteins produced by ___ ____...limit cell division
"suppressor genes"
What are the proteins called that allow resting cells to go from the Go state and enter into different phases of the cell cycle....promote cell division?
cyclins
Suppressor genes control the?
cyclins
How are the phases of the cell cycle divided (4)?
G1
S
G2
M
What is the phase of cell cycle whereby the cell is getting ready for division by taking on extra nutrients, making more energy, and growing extra membrane...the amount of cell fluid (cytoplasm) also increases
G1 phase
What is the phase of cell cycle where the cell doubles its DNA content through DNA synthesis
S phase
What is the phase of cell cycle where the cell makes important proteins that will be used in actual cell division and in normal physiologic function after cell division is complete
G2 phase
What is the phase of cell division where the single cell splits apart into two cells (actual mitosis)
M phase
What is contact inhibited?
Normal cells don't divide unless some of its surface is not in direct contact with another cell
Most normal human cells have ___ pairs of chromosomes.
23
What is generation time?
the time it takes one cell to divide into two cells and ranges from 2-8 hrs
Early embryonic cells have ____ telomeres that do not shorten with each cell division
long
Embryonic cells are not contact _____
inhibited
Suppression and expression of embryonic cells directs normal growth and _____ of specific body cells
differentiation
_____ tumor cells are normal cells growing in the wrong place or at the wrong time.
Benign
Examples of benign tumor cells are?
endometriosis
moles
uterine fibroid tumors
skin tags
nasal polyps
____ tumors look like the tissues they come from, retaining the specific morphology of parent cells.
Benign
Benign tumors grow by _____ expansion. They do not _____.
hyperplastic
invade
Cancer cells do not respond to ______ signals and have an unlimited life span
apoptotic
As a cancer cell becomes even more malignant, it becomes ______ and _____
smaller
rounded
The nucleus of the cancer cell is _____ than that of a normal cell, and the cancer cell is _____
larger
small
Cancer cells serve ___ useful purpose
NO
Cancer cells do not make ____ so they easily break off from the main tumor
fibronectin
Benign tumor cells make _____ and bind tightly to one another.
fibronectin
Cancer cells continue to divide even when touched on all surface areas by other cells; thus their growth is NOT ___ ____
contact inhibited
What are other names for cancer development?
carcinogenesis
oncogenesis
Define malignant transformation?
process of changing a normal cell into a cancer cell...occurs through steps of initiation, promotion, progression, metastasis in this order
What is the first step of carcinogenesis?
initiation
(can be an irreversible event)
Pure carcinogens initially mutate a cell's genes and are thus called?
initiators
A cancer cell is not a health threat unless it can ____
divide...if it can't divide, it can't form a tumor
Since the breast is not a vital organ, a breast tumor alone would not cause patient death...it's the metastasis to a vital area that disrupts life.
okay
Three routes of spread are?
local seeding
bloodborne metastasis
lymphatic spread
What is local seeding?
the shedding of cancer cells in the local area of the primary tumor
What is bloodborne metastasis?
tumor cell release into the blood...most common cause of cancer spread...become trapped in capillaries
What is lymphatic spread?
related to number, structure, and location of lymph nodes and vessels
Grading the cells is one of the first steps in confirming ___ and is a means of evaluating the patient with cancer for _____
and appropriate therapy
cancer
prognosis
What does staging determine?
the exact location of the cancer and its degree of metastasis at diagnosis...influences selection of therapy
What are the 3 staging phases?
clinical
surgical
pathologic
Which stage assesses the client's clinical manifestations and evaluate clinical signs for tumor size and possible spread...clinical tests are used and cancer cells may be obtained for biopsy, but clinical staging does not include major surgery
clinical staging
Which stage assesses the tumor size, number, sites, and spread by inspection at surgery
surgical staging
Which stage is the most definitive type...the tumor size, number, sites, and spread are determined by pathologic examination of tissues obtained at surgery
pathologic staging
Three interacting factors influence cancer development?
exposure to carcinogens
genetic predisposition
immune function
Mutations can damage ___ ___, preventing them from controlling expression of proto-oncogenes
suppressor genes
When proto-oncogenes are turned on, they are then called ____ and can cause cell to change from normal cells to cancer cells
oncogenes
There are about 70 identified _____ that are not abnormal but are part of every cell's normal makeup and were important in early development...oncogenes become a problem only if they are activated AFTER development is complete, as a result of exposure to _____ agents or events
proto-oncogenes
carcinogenic
About ____ of cancer is North America may be the result of environmental, or external, factors
80%
When two carcinogens are taken together, they enhance each other's carcinogenic activity
okay
Cancers of ___ tissue, ____ muscle, and ____ muscle are rare because these cells do not normally undergo cell division
nerve
cardiac
skeletal
External factors causing cancer are?
chemical carcinogenesis
physical carcinogenesis
viral carcinogenesis
Examples of chemical carcinogenesis are?
tobacco
alcohol
Examples of physical carcinogenesis are?
radiation
chronic irritation
tissue trauma
Even ____ doses of radiation affect cells, but they're temporary and can be repaired
small
Two types of radiation?
ionizing
ultraviolet
Ionizing radiation can be found in?
radon
uranium (found in rocks/soil)
radium (found in rocks/soil)
x-rays for diagnosis and
treatment of disease
cosmic radiation
Ultraviolet radiation can be found in?
sun
tanning beds
germicidal lights
Skin cancer is higher in people with ____ scars.
burn
___ _____ testing can confirm or rule out genetic risk for a few specific cancers
peripheral blood
Genetic tests DO NOT diagnose the presence of?
cancer
Define primary prevention?
the use of strategies to prevent the actual occurrence of cancer...this method of cancer prevention is most effective when there is known cause for a cancer type
Define secondary prevention?
is the use of screening strategies to detect cancer early, at a time when cure or control is more likely
Primary prevention measures are?
avoiding tobacco
eliminating environmental
asbestos
avoiding sun exposure
Secondary prevention screening programs include yearly mammography for women older than age ____
40
Secondary prevention screening programs include yearly clinical breast exam for women older than age ____ years
40
Colonoscopy at age ____ years and then every ___ years
50
10
Yearly fecal ____ blood in adults of all ages
occult
Yearly prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) for men over age ___ years
50