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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lumen?
inner wall of the GI tract
mucosa?
innermost layer of lumen; includes layer of smooth muscle and exocrine gland cells
chyme?
liquid formed from broken down food
absorption?
movement of nutrients from lumen to circulatory system
mastication?
chewing
pharynx?
throat
upper esophageal sphincter (UES)?
sphincter at upper end of the esophagus; prevents air from entering during breathing
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)?
sphincter at lower end of the esophagus; prevents reflux of gastric contents
Kupffer cells?
liver cells which engulf harmful bacteria and anemic red blood cells
bile?
chemical responsible for emulsification of fat
sphincter of Oddi?
sphincter controlling flow of bile into small intestine
anorexia?
loss of appetite for food
dyspepsia?
indigestion or heartburn
Cullen's sign?
presence of ecchymosis around the umbilicus; indication of intra-abdominal bleeding
borborygmus?
bowel hypermotility
bruits?
"swooshing" sounds
percussion notes?
sounds in the abdomen; classified as tympanic or dull
tympanic?
high-pitched, loud sound of an air-filled intestine
dull?
medium-pitched, softer, thudlike sound over a solid organ
hepatomegaly?
liver enlargement
splenomegaly?
enlargement of the spleen
Blumberg's sign?
rebound tenderness in areas of the abdomen
aspartate aminotransferase (AST)?
enzyme found in liver
alanine aminotransferase (ALT)?
enzyme found in liver
amylase?
enzyme manufactured in pancreas
lipase?
enzyme manufactured in pancreas
bilirubin?
primary pigment in bile
oncofetal antigens?
evaluate to diagnose and monitor the success of cancer therapy and assess for recurrence of cancer in the GI tract
fecal occult blood test?
measures the presence of blood in stool from GI bleeding
upper GI radiographic series?
x-ray visualization from oral part of the pharynx to the duodenojejunal junction
barium enema?
radiographic visualization of the large intestine
lower GI series?
radiographic visualization of the large intestine
volvulus?
bowel obstruction form the twisting of the colon upon itself
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)?
x-ray study of the biliary duct system
endoscopy?
direct visualization of the GI tract by means of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)?
visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)?
visual and radiographic examination of liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas
papillotomy?
removal of gallstones
enteroscopy?
visualization of small intestine
colonoscopy?
endoscopic examination of the large bowel
virtual colonoscopy?
noninvasive use of scanner to view the colon