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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Location of pancreas?
behind stomach; has endocrine and exocrine functions
islets of Langerhans?
perform endocrine functions of pancreas; cells include alpha, beta, and delta
beta cells?
secrete insulin
alpha cells?
secrete glucagons
delta cells?
secrete somatostatin in pancreas
glucagons and insulin?
affect carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
secreted from pancreas, brain, and intestinal tract; inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion from pancreas; also inhibits release of gastrin, secretin, and other GI peptides
hormone that increase blood sugar; triggered by decreased blood glucose levels and increased blood amino acid levels; works with epinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone; liver is main target organ; also enhances amino acid transport from muscle and promotes gluconeogenesis; enhances lipolysis and ketone formation
conversion of glycogen to glucose
conversion of amino acids to glucose
fat breakdown
anabolic hormone?
one that stimulates growth; ex: insulin
functions of insulin?
lowers blood glucose levels by enhancing glucose movement across cell membranes in many tissues
endocrine changes associated with aging?
changes in gonads, thyroid gland, and endocrine pancreas; important to assess other age related variables when diagnosing abnormal pancreas activity; these abnormal changes can affect nutritional-metabolic, activity, elimination, sleep-rest, and sexuality-reproductive patterns…combine this data with physical, psychosocial, and lab findings for complete assessment of endocrine function
other age related variables that cause confusion with abnormal endocrine activity of pancreas?
acute and chronic illnesses;
alterations in diet, activity, and lean body mass-fat ratio;
disturbances in sleep patterns;
decreased metabolic clearance rate of hormones;
increased use of multiple drugs that affect hormone function
tests that screen for endocrine changes in older adult?
fasting and postprandial blood glucose checks;
calcium level determinations;
thyroid function testing
family history and genetic risk?
ask about:
growth or development difficulties
diabetes mellitus
thyroid disorders
pattern of inheritance..part of family history?
personal history?
ask about:
endocrine dysfunction
symptoms of endocrine disorder and hospitalizations
past and current drugs
oral contraceptives
antihypertensive agents
diet history that may reflect endocrine problems?
ask if patient has had:
nutritional changes
GI tract disturbances
nausea and vomiting
abdominal pain
increase or decrease fluid intake
diabetes insipidus?
triggers excessive thirst
adrenal hypofunction?
triggers salt craving
diabetes mellitus?
may trigger hunger and thirst…may cause weight loss without diet change
pertinent questions to ask regarding current health problems?
Did the symptoms occur gradually, of was the onset sudden?
Has the client been treated for this problem in the past?
How have the current symptoms affected the activities of daily living (ADLs)?
Has there been a change in energy levels? Sleeping longer? Fatigue or generalized weakness?
What is the amount of frequency and urination?
Experiencing nocturia (night urination?)
Pain present with urination (dysuria)?
Changes in menstrual cycle?
Impotence in men?
Changes in libido or fertility problems in both sexes?
Changes in hair texture and distribution?
Facial contours and eye protrusion?
Voice quality?
Body proportions?
Secondary sexual characteristics?