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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a gland?
A structure that secretes hormones
What is a hormone?
A substance which produces some kind of change in an organ/body
Anterior pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis. Secretes MOST of the hormones.
Posterior pituitary gland
Pituitary gland
What is HGH and what does it do?
Human growth hormone- Makes you grow. At a certain point the levels drop.
Condition of the extremities enlarging.
Overproduction of HGH in childhood
Underproduction of HGH in childhood
Where is the thyroid gland and what does it do?
In the neck- regulates metabolism.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism
Too much thyroxine in the system results in-
Hypoerthyroidism or Graves' disease.
Basal metabolic rate
Swollen/overworking of the thyroid gland.
Part of the thyroid gland that connects them together.
Another hormone secreted by the thyroid gland and what it does.
Calcitonin - regulates the levels of blood calciuim. Takes calcium from the blood and into the bones.
Four glands located on the posterior side of the lobes of the thyroid and what they do
Parathyroids - Regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
Hormone secreted by the parathyroids and what it does
Parathyroid hormone - takes calcium from the bones and puts it in the blood.
Lack of ADH
Diabetes insipidus
thyroid stimulating hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland
What does TSH do?
Causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine.
Too much TSH causes what?
It causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine, causing hyperthyroidism
One particular type of hyperthyroidism
Graves' disease
Characteristic of Graves' disease
Exopthalmos- protruding eyeballs
Too little thyroxine
One type of hypothyroidism present in children
Another name for that disease, but in adults
Too much calcium in the blood
Hyperparathyroidism. Bones become osteocerotic.
Too little calcium in the blood
Muscle twitching
Hyperflexion of the wrist and extension and stiffening of the fingers
Trousseau's sign
Two glands in the pancreas
Endocrine and Exocrine
Explain those glands
Exocrine - 1% - has ducts
Endocrine - 99% - ductless
A cells vs. B cells
A cells - need glucose to live. A cells produce glucagons which go into the liver and convert the stored glucose into glucose that the body can use.
B cells - produce insulin
Allows glucose to get into the cells
What happens when glucose can't get into the cells and the blood-sugar level goes up
Diabetes mellitus
Type 1-
Juvenile Onset / Insulin dependent. The B cells in the pancreas are not producing insulin.
Type 2-
Adult onset. Insulin is being produced, but the surface of the cells dont react to it and so the insulin can't transport the glucose.
A bi product of fat mobilization.
Fatty acids.
What does fat mobilization create and what does it lead to?
Ketone bodies, leads to ketoacidosis.
What is ketoacidosis and what does it result in
It depresses the brian centers that have to do with breathing and awareness. Results in diabetic coma.
Happens if you fast.
Glands located on top of the kidneys
Adrenal glands
Two portions to the adrenal glands
Cortex / Medulla
What does the cortex of the adrenal glands secrete?
Adrenaline aka epinephrine
What does the medulla of the adrenal glands secrete?
To little cortisol secreted by the medulla
Addison's disease-- weight loss, abnormal skin color, blood pressure probs, fainting
Too much cortisol
Cushing's syndrome-- weight gain distributed unevently, lethargic, mental functioning dull
Gland which no one knows exactly what it does
Pineal gland - said to be involved with sleep-wake cycles.