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89 Cards in this Set

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Three basic functions of the digestive system
Digestion, absorbtion, elimination
Digestive tract aka
Alimentary canal
Mouth aka
Oral cavity
little pouch on the side of your mouth between your teeth and cheek
buccal cavity
watery substance in the mouth that keeps stuff moist. Enzymes break down food. Secreted in the mouth.
Saliva
little fold of tissue underneath the tongue that holds/attaches the tongue to the floor of your mouth
Frenulum
Two types of teeth
Deciduous (baby/milk/primary teeth) and Adult teeth
Name the adult teeth
incisors, cuspids, bicuspids, and molars
What does each type of tooth do?
Incisor -bite & cut
Cuspids – canines. Pointed. Pierce, tearing, grip. “eye teeth.”
Bicuspids – Crush, mash. “premolars.”
Molars – flat. Grind.
How many teeth in an adult mouth?
32
How many of each tooth in the upper jaw
4 incisors, 2 cuspids, 4 bicuspids, 6 molars.
The last molar is the...
3rd molar (wisdom tooth)
Divisions of the tooth
Crown, neck, root
Gums
Gingiva
Hardest substance in the body
Enamel
Under enamel
Dentin
Flesh part of the tooth
Pulp
Microscopic channels in the pulp
Denticles
Keeps the tooth in the socket
Cementum, periodontal membrane
Preventative care of the teeth
Dental prophylaxis
Caries / Carious
Cavities
Bacteria creates a film on the teeth called
Plaque
Calcified plaque
tartar
Cutting off the tip of the root of the tooth
Apicoectomy
The flow of pus around one’s tooth in association with advanced stages of periodontal disease
Pyorrhea
Salivary glands
Parotid, Submaxillary, Sublingual
A tooth filling. Always has mercury in it.
Amalgam
Improper closing of the jaw and therefore, the teeth i.e., overbite, under bite, cross bite.
Maloclusion
Kinds of surfaces of the teeth
Linguinal, labial, buccal, occlusal
Specialists
1. Prosthodontist – Has to do with false teeth.
2. Orthodontist – Straightens one’s teeth.
3. Periodontist – Specializes ain periodontal disease.
Digestion
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
Esophagus:
Gullet
Painful swallowing
Dysphagia
Wave-like motions of smooth muscle in the digestive tract. They occur in the esophagus, the stomach and the intestines.
Peristalsis
End of the esophagus and beginning of the stomach.
Cardiac sphincter
The stomach, upper, body and lower portions:
Fundus, body, pylorus
Absorbed into the bloodstream quickly
Water, alcohol, aspirin
the soupy substance in your stomach that is what’s left of your food.
Chyme
Dissolves food
Hydrochloric acid
When the acid eats through to the stomach
ulcer
moist and wet
weepy
Folds of the stomach lining
Rugae
Rumbling sounds in the stomach and intestines
Borborygmus
On the right side of the stomach near the liver
Lesser curvature
Stomach is attached to the liver by the
Lesser omentum
Hangs from the greater curvature
Greater omentum - hangs over the intestines like an apron.
Sac-like thing that holds the organs
Peritoneum
Most absorbtion occurs in the...
Small intestines
Leads from the distal end of the stomach into the duodenum
Pyloric sphincter
parts of the small intestine
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Finger like projections on the lining of the small intestine. Food gets absorbed in here.
Villus/Villi
Fat from food goes into this vessel
Lymphatic vessel
Lymph vessels in the intestine that absorb the fat that we’ve eaten. Yellowish color
Lacteals
First part of the large intestine
Cecum aka blind pouch
Opening between the ilium and the cecum.
Ileocecal valve
Appendix
Vermiform
incision they make to take out the appendix.
McBurney incision
Colon parts
- Ascending colon – next part after the cecum.
- Transverse colon – goes across
- Descending colon – goes down
- Sigmoid – “s” shaped
- Rectum
- Anus
point of turning from the ascending to the transverse.
Hepatic flexure
point of turning from the transverse to the descending.
Splenic flexure
All throughout the intestine
friendly flora
abnormal pouch on the large intestine
Diverticulum
when the stuff, whatever it is at that point, settles in the diverticulum and putrefies.
Diverticulitis
Intestinal blockage
Ileus
The liver:
acts as a detoxifier, creates bile
Bile is sent from the liver to the gall bladder by the:
Left and right hepatic ducts
Bile:
Emulsifies fats
Crystalized bile
Gallstones
Medical term for gallstones
Cholelith
the yellow discoloration of the skin because of the deposition of bile the blood
Jaundice
Med term for gall bladder
Cholecyst
Gall bladder's location
Tucked underneath the liver
Gall bladder's function
acts as a reservoir for bile
Bile travels:
through the cystic duct to the common hepatic duct.
goes from the common hepatic duct to the pancreas
Common bile duct
About the gall bladder's head and tail
Head – butts into the second portion of the duodenum.
Tail – fits into the second part of the duodenum.
a duct running along the length of the gall bladder, which ends at the head and has an opening into the duodenum
Pancreatic duct
an extra opening which only some people have.
Accessory pancreatic duct
Pancreus's medical term
racemose - looks like grapes
means easily crumbled, in reference to the liver. Medically means it is very easily torn apart, lacerated or ruptured.
Friable
Other crap about the lifer
charged with blood, can re-grow itself
Result of acute alcoholism
Cirrhosis
A space behind the peritoneum within which are certain structures, which are therefore not included within the peritoneum.
Retroperitoneum
Things not included in the peritoneum
kidneys, duodenum, pancreas
The extension of peritoneum, which wraps around the small intestines and attaches them to the posterior abdominal wall
Mesentary
type of intestinal blockage. Very dangerous.
Intussusception
Spontaneous, in a medical sense. Without any discernable cause.
Idiopathic
The large vein, which transports used blood plus dissolved nutrients from the intestines to the liver
Portal vein aka hepatic portal vein
Route of blood leaving the intestines
deoxygenated blood that is full of nutrients > portal vein > liver (which detoxifies the blood) > inferior vena cava