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174 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why is political speech protected by the First Amendment?
because of its value to self-governance and public decision making.
What did the Supreme Court say in Valentine v. Chrestensen (1942)?
"the streets are proper places for expressing opinion and spreading info and govts could regulate such expression in the streets as long as they do not unduly burden speakers."
Why did the ad in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964) receive constitutional protection?
said the first amendment protected the ad's political message
What principle did the Pittsburgh Press case (1973) stand for?
there might be some first amendment protection for an advertisement for an ordinary commercial proposal not tainted by illegality.pointed out that commercial advertising enjoys a degree of first amendment protection
because the ad had informational and political elements to it, the court did not or could not address the issue of protection for other, more purely commercial types of advertisements.
What did the Supreme Court recognize for the first time in the Virginia State Board of Pharmacy case (1976)? What was its decision?
first amendment protects purely commercial speech
What was the court's reasoning in coming to this decision?
# Note that this decision was based more in the right to receive information than the right to speak.if "a consumer's interest in commercial information 'may bee as keen, if not keener by far, than his interest in the day's most urgent political debate." Also purely commercial speech contribues to public decision-making in a democracy.
Despite this ruling, is government still free to regulate ads that are false, misleading, deceptive, or that promote illegal products or services?
What are the commonsense differences between commercial speech and other protected types of speech that makes government regulation of untruthful commercial speech tolerable?
1)advertisers may easily verify their commercial speech because they disseminate info about a product or service they provide and, therefore, know more about it than anyone else
2)commercial speech is so much hardier than other t ypes of speech because it's so necessary for generating profits that regulation would not chill an advertiser's speech.
What is the 4-part Central Hudson Test for determining whether a regulation on commercial speech is constitutional?
1)Is the ad accurate, and does it advertise legal product or service?
2)Is the asserted governmental interest substantial?
3)Does the regulation directly advance the governmental interest?
4)Is the regulation no more extensive than necessary to serve the governmental interest?
Is the 4th prong of the Central Hudson Test interpreted by the courts to mean "the least restrictive means possible" or "a reasonable" (narrowly tailored) fit?
Narrowly tailored.
Must government provide proof to support claims that regulations satisfy the Central Hudson Test?
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in Edenfield v. Fane
No studies suggested personal solicitation of prospective business clients by CPAs creates the dangers of fraud, overreaching
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in Florida Bar v. Went For It Inc
Public opinion study to keep attorneys from using direct mail advertising 30 days after death/accident
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in Rubin v. Coors Brewing Co.
Failed 3rd and 4th parts of Hudson test--govt interest not strong evidence of, and less intrusive alternatives existed
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in 44 Liquormart v. Rhode Island
Failed 3rd and 4th parts of Hudson test--no evidentiary support that price-advertising ban would advance state interest, and alternative methods would be more likely to meet the state's goal of promoting temperance.
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in Greater New Orleans Broadcasting v. United States
ads truthful, for a legal activity. substantial interest? didn't seem important with state proof of direct correlation of ads to gambling problems, not narrowly tailored. Said that speakers and audiences, rather than govt, should be allowed to evaluate accurate and non-misleading info about legal conduct.
What was the Supreme Court's rationale in Lorillard v. Reilley (the tobacco advertising case)
Said the regulations were unconstitutional because they covered too much communication.
What entities are involved in advertising regulation?
FTC and the advertising industry
How many commissioners are on the FTC, and how do they get there?
5, nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate
Can all commissioners be from the same political party?
What is the responsibility of the FTC?
responsible for administering a variety of federal statutes that "promote competition and protect the public from unfair and deceptive acts and practices in the advertising and marketing of goods and services"
Where are the regional offices of the FTC, (see footnotes) and what are their responsibilities?
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, LA, NY, San Fran and Seattle. Responsible for enforcing regulations, investigating complaints and educating the public.
Can advertising agencies, along with their clients, be held legally liable for deceptive ads? How does the FTC define a deceptive ad? What are the four key parts of this definition, and what does each mean?
yes, because they have a responsibility to independently check claims made in ads.
Define deceptive ad as one that contains a representation or omission of info that is material and likely to mislead a consumer acting reasonably under the circumstances, to the consumer's detriment.
1)There must be a representation or omission of info or omission that is likely to mislead
2)The representation or omission must be material
3)The representation or omission must be likely to mislead a reasonable consumer
4)The representation or omission must be likely to cause harm
preventative or prospective remedies
activities to help prevent false or deceptive advertising from occurring in the first place.
-advisory opinions
-industry guides
-policy statements
-Rulemaking (est. trade regulation rules)
halting remedies
what the FTC can do in acting against companies that have already run false or deceptive advertising
-Consent agreements
-Cease and desist orders
-Court injunctions
-Civil penalties
-Criminal penalties
Can the FTC regulate advertising and marketing practices on the Internet?
Must advertising on the Internet conform to the same rules as advertising in other media?
What is COPPA and what agency administers it?
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. FTC.
What four "fair information practices" does the FTC favor to protect adult consumer privacy on the Internet?
-consumer notification of privacy policies
-access to data collected and the ability to correct errors in that data
-choice on how the site uses the data
-security of the info collected
The FTC is working with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other governmental agencies to fight deceptive advertising about what kinds of products?
deceptive advertising and marketing of health-related products online.
What three groups from the advertising industry does the text mention as being involved with advertising self-regulation?
National Advertising Division, the National Advertising Review Board, and the Children's Advertising Review Unit.
The main advertising industry group that regulates ads is what? And is a program of what?
The National Advertising Division. A program of the council of BBB.
What is the purpose of NAD?
provide a system of voluntary self-regulation, minimize government intervention and foster public confidence in the credibility of advertising
NAD focuses on truth or accuracy claims, but not on what?
"is not the appropriate forum to address concerns about the 'good taste' of ads, moral questions about products that are offered for sale or political or issue advertising"
From whom does NAD receive complaints, and what courses of action does/can NAD take on those complaints?
any person or organizations, but most are from advertisers, individuals, local BBB and trade associations. Their staff attorneys review disputed claims in ads, collect and evaluate relevant data, and decide whether the claims have been substantiated.
What is NARB, and how does it relate to NAD? What does NARB do if advertisers do not accept their decisions and recommendations?
The National Advertising Review Board. Either an advertiser whose claim in in question or a challenger of an advertising claim may appeal a finding of the NAD to the NARB. It's a group of about 85 ad professionals, sit in panels of 5. If decision not accepted, they refer case to an appropriate law-enforcement agency ie FTC
What organization sponsors CARU?
The advertising industry,BBB
What activities does CARU engage in?
views and analyzes advertising targeting children under the age of 12 by monitoring advertising in broadcast and cable tv, radio, kids magazines, comic books and online services
What seven principles form the foundation of the Self-Regulatory Guidelines for Children's Advertising?
-Advertisers should always take into account the level of knowledge, sophistication and maturity of the audiences to which their messages are primarily directed
-Realizing that children are imaginative and that make-believe play constitutes an important part of the growing up process, advertisers should exercise care not to exploit the imaginative quality of children
-products and content inappropriate for use by children should not be advertised or promoted directly to children
-Recognizing that advertising may play an important part in educating children, advertisers should communicate info in a truthful and accurate manner and in language understandable to children
-Advertisers should capitalize on the potential of advertising to influence behavior by developing advertising that, wherever possible, addresses itself to positive and beneficial social behavior, such as friendship, kindness, honesty, justice, generosity and respect for others
-Care should be taken to incorporate minority and other groups in advertisements in order to present positive and prosocial roles and role models
-Although many influences affect a child's personal and social development, it remains the prime responsibility of parents to provide guidance for children. Advertisers should contribute to this parent-child relationship in a constructive manner
How is commercial speech defined?
an expression that proposes a commercial transaction or expression related solely to the economic interests of the speaker and its audience.
In what ways do corporate entities have many of the same rights and privileges as natural persons under the Constitution?
have the right to publicize their positions about issues the believe to be important--especially political positions--and the corporations may use corporate monies to fund the process. Also the right of self-promotion and the right to make money off their likeness and activities (the right of publicity). Also protected by 5th amendment's protections against double jeopardy.
Do corporations have the right to privacy?
Can corporations be required to testify against themselves and to reveal their corporate records?
What is caveat emptor?
let the buyer beware
What are time, place, and manner restrictions, and how do they apply to the regulation of speech?
Does the importance of free expression outweigh the social interests furthered by the regulation being proposed.
Why do PR practitioners need to know regulations regarding economic speech?
Public safety, aesthetics and other community concerns may take precedence when courts consider the right to communicate through economic speech.
What should PR practitioners know about lobbying issues and obtaining permits for expressive activity?
Their speech doesn't take precedence over the regulations
What is public relations law?
plain old business law polished with a veneer of first amendment protections.
How does the text define public relations?
the explanation of business or institutional concerns to the public
Was economic expression historically protected by the First Amendment?
What did the Supreme Court provide for in Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council?
the first amendment protection for truthful marketing of legal products and services
Why did the Supreme Court say corporate speech was protected in First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti?
the type of speech indispensable to decision-making in a democracy, and no less true bc the speech comes from a corporation rather than an individual
What does the text say was the result of Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission?
differentiated between commercial and political advertising and est a 4part test for determining when a commercial claim may be regulated
Why is there a close, symbiotic relationship between business law and public relations law?
because pr involves the marketing of corporate ideas and ideals, as well as the defense of economic actions and transactions
What is a contract?
simply a promise the law will enforce in some way
What must a contract include to be legally binding?
-an offer to do something
-consideration (bargained-for exchange)
-legal detriment in that the person making the promise agrees to do something he or she does not have to do
-acceptance by both parties or mutual assent
Why should all points of a contract be thoroughly understood before either side agrees?
The whole panoply of contract law rests on the principle that one is bound by the contract which he knowingly and voluntarily signs
The law assumes that a contractual agreement has been fully what?
negotiated between its parties
Why can standard form contracts be dangerous?
1)standard form contracts generally provide no opportunity for one party to bargain over terms
2)a party to such contracts with no real opportunity to study the terms may be thus unfamiliar with the provisions of the agreement
3)the bargaining is not between equals, usually the party in the weaker bargaining position may not understand what they're signing
Hold-harmless or indemnification clauses should clearly state what?
the pr practitioner shall not be held responsible for any material approved by the client or corporate officers for public dissemination that results in negative or unwanted publicity or legal action.
A hold-harmless clause would generally be unenforceable if what?
1)is unconscionable
2)is a violation of public policy
3)lacks true mutual and informed assent
A successful challenge to the hold-harmless clause could arise if what?
if one party to the agreement unfairly shifts the burden of responsibility for any act of wrongdoing to the weaker party, wrongly taking advantage of that party
What are no-compete clauses (what do they restrict)?
restrict the employment of the pr practitioner by a company's competitors.
What four requirements generally must be met for no-compete clauses to be enforceable?
1)must be in writing
2)must be part of the contract at the initial time of employment or change in the employee's status and involve consideration or payment
3)must be reasonable in both duration and space
4)must be reasonably necessary to protect the business interests or activities of the employer
Who determines "reasonableness"?
Made by the courts as a matter of law, not a factual determination for the jury
Most debate focuses on which of the four elements (requirements)?
No-compete clauses must not deny the practitioner the right to what?
earn a living
Do courts traditionally disfavor employers or practitioners?
Which party has the burden of proof for "reasonableness"?
Do PR practitioners have a "privileged" relationship with clients?
no in the legal sense
What does a confidentiality agreement forbid?
any sharing of info outside the organization
Merger or integration clauses attest to what?
the contract's being a full and final statement of the agreement between the parties, requiring no additional info to explain or supplement it
What did the Supreme Court rule in 1989 regarding independent contractors or free-lancers? Who owns the copyright to the works they create?
unless an express agreement exists to the contrary, free-lancers own the copyright to the works they create.
Under what conditions does a corporation that has contracted with a public relations practitioner to create a particular campaign project or plan own the finished work under the Copyright Act of 1976?
the co only owns the finished work only if the creator is an employee acting "within the scope of his or her employment" an express agreement that the work is to be considered "work-made-for-hire," a contribution to a collective work as a part of a motion picture or other audio-visual work, as a translation, as a supplementary work, as compilation, as an instructional text, as a test, as answer material for a test, or as an atlas.
Generally, do creators maintain ownership of their campaigns, projects, programs, or plans?
Why should corporations and public relations practitioners carefully agree to the origin and ownership of public relations plans in very specific terms?
because most pr campaings, projects, programs or plans created by free lancers don't fit under the Copyright Act definition of "work-made-for-hire"
Why should a statement of ownership be included on a proposal's title page?
Because prospective clients can easily use part or all of a proposal after having seen it during a presentation
What is the basic rule of thumb for use of consent agreements?
if the use is economic, releases are necessary
Can minors sign such agreements/forms?
What does this text say is the bottom line in this area?
Whenever there is any doubt as to the origin of any material to be used in an economic campaign, copies of all consent agreements or releases should be obtained to protect against corporate liability from improper use of the material
What are the three purposes of tort law?
compensation, justice and deterence
What is a tort?
>a result of conduct--by an act of either commission or omission
>that has a detrimental affect on one's legal interest in either person or property
>usually committed with a certain state of mind (such as recklessness or carelessness)
>that causes damage, assuming that consequences were at least "reasonably foreseeable"
With an adequate defense, what must a defendant pay to the injured individual?
at least nominal damages, usually compensatory damages and sometimes punitive damages to the injured individual
What is "passing off"?
similar to misrepresentation in that it involves a business selling or presenting its goods and services in such a way that they appear to be the goods and services of another, allowing the first to benefit from the good reputation of the second. The unfairness lies in the manner in which the first company conducted its business.
What is "malice in trade"?
involve companies overstepping the proper bounds of competition, seeking to drive others out of business through malicious public relations or actions
What was the Supreme Court's decision in International News Service v. Associated Press?
On the grounds that the AP's news stories were "quasi-property" and redistributing w/o authorization denied the AP full value for its news-gathering efforts, leading customers to believe that the news stories in question originated w/ the INS
How does this case apply to public relations?
the presentation of a campaign or program to the public doesn't lessen the monetary value to pr practitioners of their hard work, esp when those efforts are viewed in comparison or competition with the efforts of another co "endeavoring to reap where it has not sown and...appropriating to itself the harvest of those who have sown."
When does a PR practitioner's duty to warn arise most commonly?
in product liability situations, in which the manufacturer of a product could be held liable for failing to warn consumers of dangerous conditions associated with the product
What is the general rule in pr practitioners' responsibility to warn?
for a duty to warn to exist, a product must be dangerous beyond the extent to which a reasonable consumer, with knowledge common to the community as to the product's characteristics, would use it.
Where a warning is given, can a seller assume that it has been read and heeded?
What is the "common sense" defense?
sellers are generally not required to warn consumers about products or ingredients that are only dangerous or potentially dangerous when consumed in excessive amounts, over an extended period of time, or when the danger is generally known and recognized
What, then, is the "threshold question" in the warning area?
whether the circumstances of a case demand a duty to warn at all, and, then, whether the warning is accurate
What do judges balance in determining the adequacy of directions or warnings?
"the likelihood that the product would cause the harmed complained of, and the seriousness of that harm, against the burden on the manufacturer of providing an adequate warning
What elements are considered in determining adequacy?
-what is stated
-the manner in which it is stated
When federal statute dictates the specific wording of a product's labeling requirements, does federal law preempt state tort law claims?
What is the core of the tort of misrepresentation?
a person' reliance on a false statement
What does it mean that a statement is "material"?
substantially central to a person's decision to rely on the statement
When might a PR practitioner be liable for fraudulent misrepresentation?
if they know that it is false, his/her intent is to induce people to make decisions based upon the statement, if justifiable reliance results and causes damages
When does negligent misrepresentation occur?
when a pr practitioner makes a false representation of a material fact in their professional capacity, when they fail to use care to determine the statement's truth, and when the practitioner owes a duty to the person who justifiable relied on it, causing damages
Is "nondisclosure" generally grounds for a misrepresentation claim?
Third parties, such as PR practitioners, are not generally liable for negligent misrepresentation unless what conditions exist?
1)they know their statements will be used for a particular purpose
2)they know another specific part will rely on their statements
3)they are somehow linked to that party and understand the consequences of that party's reliance on their statements
Public relations practitioners must have a basic understanding of their responsibilities to clients under what?
under corporate speech case law and federal trademark law
The degree of constitutional protection for corporate expression varies depending on what?
depending on the the type of expression
Are corporations artificial persons under the Constitution, entitled to First Amendment protections?
Why did the Supreme Court uphold limits on campaign contributions in Buckley v. Valeo?
didn't believe were a form of direct expression, as long as the regulation was "closely draw" and matched a "sufficiently important [governmental] interest
What was the intent of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002?
settle questions regarding the role of corporations in public life, their influence on the democratic process, an their involvement in the political sphere through "soft money" assistance to political parties
(Nike case) Still, according to the text, the U.S. Supreme Court has left no doubt about what? False or misleading corporation expression is considered by the U.S. Supreme Court to be what? (p. 194) Does it have First Amendment protection?
materially false or misleading corporate expression of an affirmative nature, knowingly designed to mislead consumers, is fraudulent and has no First Amendment protection whatsoever
What may be protected by the Lanham Act of 1946?
words or designs, or a combo of the two, that denote a specific product, service or co may be protected by the Lanham Act of 1946
What are the basic federal requirements for a trademark or service mark?
that it be distinctive, though it also must not be scandalous or deceptive, consist of a flag or emblem of any country, resemble a person's signature or likeness w/o consent
Once registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, how long does a mark last and what must be done?
good fr ten years and may be renewed for unlimited ten-year periods, as long as it is used regularly in commerce
range of trademark protection
fanciful mark
coined words or designs with no dictionary meeting, such as "Exxon"
arbitrary mark
Commonplace words or symbols that do not describe the product or co with which they're associated, such as "Apple" computers
suggestive mark
familiar words or phrases that are used to suggest what the product or service really is (ie Nickelodeon)
descriptive mark
actually describe the thing or co, such as Personal Finance, a financial investment magazine
generic mark
the names of the product or service itself and cannot function as trademarks, such as asprin
Why are corporations constantly on the look-out for public misuse of their marks?
to prevent "generecide"--the killing of trademarks by common or generic use
What does it mean to conduct a trademark search, and why is it prudent?
in order to determine if a similar logo or co name is already in use by a co in a similar line of business. Failure to do so could expose the co or pr person to a lawsuit seeking to prevent the use of the logo or mark, even though it is already in use and developing business and goodwill for the co, in addition to a tort claim for unfair competition.
How does administrative law differ from other types of law?
it is not based on the separation of powers, in which the legislative branch of govt makes the law, exec enforces, judicial interps. In est administrative agencies that promulgate rules, regulations and guidelines, congress and the states, in essence, called upon experts to administer a new type of law.
Why does the text say "it is almost impossible to beat administrative agencies at their own game"?
each agency makes its own regulations, enforces them and provides initial judicial review
What agencies directly affect the practice of public relations?
Securities and Exchange Commission, Food and Drug Administration, Federal Trade Commission, & Federal Communications Commission
What does the SEC regulate?
particularly concerned with the regulation of the buying and selling of stocks and bonds and with the corporate communication surrounding that buying and selling
What is its guiding principle?
"no essentially important element [may] be concealed from the buying public"
What must companies disclose and when?
important financial info that reveals a full and complete understanding of their fiscal conditions, in a timely manner.
Failure or delay in disclosure can be evidence of what?
deceptive or misleading actions on the part of the company or even proof of an intent to defraud
A duty to disclose material information exists where there is what kind of a relationship, or what kinds of knowledge?
a fiduciary relationship, knowledge of insider info or knowing participation in a fraudulent scheme
Corporate communications may not omit what?
any material or significant fact or claim to the buying public
How is "the buying public" defined?
reasonable and objective persons and investors making purchasing decisions
Must a material claim actually influence an investor's decision to buy? Must the investor actually lose money for the claim to be considered deceptive?
No, no.
Can omissions make corporate communications false and misleading?
When is an omitted fact material, according to the Supreme Court?
If there is a substantial likelihood that a reasonable shareholder would consider it important in deciding how to vote
Can corporate release of false and misleading information be equated with fraudulent misrepresentation?
Can information be fraudulent and mis representative when it uses indefinite and unverifiable terms?
What is a good faith disclosure?
Disclosure that is made with honesty of purpose and freedom from faudulent intent, wo the knowledge of any circumstances that would cause a reasonable individual to inquire further
Are false financial statements, deceptive corporate press releases, or incomplete public communication by the corporation subject to SEC sanction?
Yes--everything used in connection w the sale or purchase of securities in a manner "reasonably calculated to influence the investing public"
What is a mere agent?
one acting on behalf of or representing another, but acting without the insight or influence into the affairs of the employer
Are PR professionals mere agents, according to the SEC and the courts?
Must PR professionals make fair, proper, and appropriate investigations as to the accuracy of the statements they produce?
What is an insider?
one who has company info that is not avail to the general public, that is, one normally is involved in confidential relationships in the conduct of business
Can PR practitioners be classified as insiders?
What must an insider do to be in violation of the law?
must act for personal gain in order to be in violation of the law
What duty does an insider have?
disclose info in one's possession to the public if the info in question could change the mind of an average individual making an investment decision
What is the SEC's "misappropriation theory" and how is it applied?
even someone who is not a true co insider may still restricted as an insider would from taking advantage of market info obtained from sources outside the co itself
Anything other than what is considered misleading?
objectively verifiable statements of fact are presumptively misleading
Must a PR practitioner disclose his or her disbelief as to the reality of a situation if he or she does not have factual evidence to support that disbelief?
What kinds of commercial speech must be approved by the FDA?
all press releases, advertising, package inserts or other promotional copy about medical devices and prescription and nonprescription drugs
What does the FTC control, and how does it differ from what the FDA controls?
the contents ofbook, magazine or non-label advertising of food and drug products, and evaluates them under a "truthful and not misleading" standard
The FTC has the authority to do what?
define and control unfair practices in the marketplace, though primarily after the fact
The FTC has the power to ban what?
types of promotional claims be altered so they are no no longer improper
Can the FTC order that advertisers alter their product claims?
When is publicity considered to be deceptive
1) it is likely to deceive
2) a reasonable consumer
3) with an omission or material representation of fact so significant that it has the capacity to affect a decision to purchase or to act on its recommendation
What is a material claim?
omissions or claims about health, safety, durability, performance, warranties, efficiency, cost and quality
Deception may take place through falsehoods, but what about false implications and omissions?
yes, even an omission if the consumer needs the omitted info to form an impression
When does puffery become deceptive?
until marketing claims falsely imply material assumptions of superiority--when exaggerated claims falsely imply material assumptions of superiority
Does a claim have to actually deceive someone to be improper? If not, what is the standard?
taken as a whole, it only has to be likely to or have a tendency or capacity to mislead, regardless of the businessperson's intent, a good # of the target public
How does the FTC determine the likelihood of deception?
relies on expert testimony and the results of consumer surveys to assess the likelihood of deception
Are deceptive practices limited to advertising and marketing? What other examples does the text provide?
No--online surveys
Where should you send any deceptive spam you receive?
What is unfairness?
it is the extent to which a practice offends public policy, is immoral or unethical, or causes substantial injury to consumers or businesses
The FTC has generally narrowed the focus of its unfairness inquiries to what?
to examine whether marketing practices cause substantial injury that is not outweighed by by offsetting benefits to consumers or competitors who cannot reasonably avoid the injury
Do the states also have unfair competition laws?
A few simple practices can help corporations avoid what?
misunderstanding and lawsuits
Why is it a good idea to tape record interviews with journalists?
deliberate misquoting that materially changes the meaning of what was said can be the legal equivalent of actual malice
What will you be able to prove if you are misquoted?
actually malice
What must you be very careful not to violate if you are tape recording an interview?
state privacy laws
What does the text advise in the careful pr section?
should never do or say anything they do not want disseminated by the media
Why should you clarify expectations before talking with the media?
the rules for off-the-record remarks are difficult to understand because they are almost always unwritten
What is the usual meaning of "on the record," "for background," "for deep background" and "off the record"?
on the record: every comment made by a corporate employee may be attributed to the employee through either direct quotations or paraphrases
for background: the corporate employee may be quoted directly, but his or her name may not be used
for deep background: the info may be used but may not be attributed to the individual
off the record: the journalist may not use the info
Is a journalist's verbal promise of confidentiality enforceable?
yes, under the principle of promissory estoppel, if justifiably relied upon by the prson to whom the promise is made
What does the text suggest you should have the journalist repeat?
the confidentiality agreement and to use the word "promise"
Why would a tape recording be helpful as to promises of confidentiality?
in case the promise of confidentiality is broken
How does the text define public relations, and what does it involve?
the explanation of business or institutional concerns to the public
How has PR law been described? Is it really an area of law?
plain, old business law polished with a veneer of 1st amendment protections
A close symbiotic relationship exists between PR law and what?
the general laws of business