• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First Amendment
Right to Complain about government
Circles of Intimacy - Louis Hodges

Invasion of privacy occurs when you lose control of the circles
center: You
2nd inner layer: you + one
3rd inner layer: you + close friends
4th inner layer: casual acquaintance
outside: public
Trial Balloon
Let it slip to see how it floats; didn't officially come from the candidate
Media leak
Purposeful, as opposed to trial balloon
Watch Dog
Expose corruption
Where does our tax money go?
Who is breaking their campaign promises?
Guide Dog
Provide info- like election supplement
Make sense of complicated information debates
Evolution of Media Economics
Then: Paper owned by indiv. / had own personalities

Now: Conglomerates

Newspaper / mags / news stations
make $ by (subscriptions & ads- have been down for the past 15-20 years) --> cause layoffs, shrinking newspapers, publication closure

Media conglom neg.: layoffs, everything sounds the same, interest conflict

Conglom.: AOL Time Warner, NBC Universal Comcast

Newspaper: USA Today,Asbury Park Press, Courier Post (Gannett)

Fewer reporters watching politicians

Radio: Clear channel, CBS, Sirius
Ethics of photo/video

Balance the right to privacy v. newsworthiness
4 Q's A Photographer Should Ask Before Submitting Photo (Used to be Shoot):
- Should this moment be made public?
- Will being photographed cause the subject further trauma?
- Am I the least obtrusive distance possible?
- Am I acting with compassion and sensitivity?

Internet (ENIAC 1940's) --> developed for the military so they could talk privately

1960s- scientists began to talk to each other

1980s- Microsoft, Apple, PC


1995-1997: newspapers go online

Right to know- Has to do with the law
Need to know- If the perpetrator is a member of authority
Want to know- Tiger Woods
4 Ways Privacy = Guarded Legally
(legal standards of privacy)

- AGAINST INTRUSIONS of one's home or solitude (home; diary)
- Public DISCLOSURE of embarrassing facts when there's no bearing on the present
- Publicity in a FALSE LIGHT for $ (Using pix of Britney Spears in Starbucks ads, saying that it's the only thing she drinks)
- MISAPPROPRIATION of person's name or likeness
Secrecy - blocking information intentionally
Privacy - individual has control over who can see info and when

Need privacy to develop sense of self / protection from the state
Legal Definition
Public figure- LASTING spotlight seeker
Limited public figure- seek the spotlight but won't last
Accidental public figure- person who is thrown into the spotlight
Private figure
Need for privacy

(necessary component for society)
- Develop a sense of self
- Privacy: shield against the state
Positives / negatives of privacy:

Notions of privacy have shifted over time
"I" reporting: you can upload pics / stories
Breast Cancer
Erectile Dysfunction
Gay marriage / homosexuality
Colonoscopy (Katie Couric?)

24/7 news cycle
invasion of privacy - many media outlets
happens so quickly
paparazzi - "off time"
"I" reporting
Public Relations
Modern PR: began early 20th century
- coal miners w/ door problems
- PA railroad hired Ivy Lee

Public Relations Society of America- has own code of ethics

Pseudo event: fake staged presentations, (ribbon cutting)

The relationship between PR / journalists is symbiotic and strained
Journalist like:
finding stories themselves
negative stories
PR people like:
stability (status quo)
providing stories
positive stories
Journalists need to bear moral witness. It's okay to drop objectivity for...
War, terrorism, genocide
Problems with political reporting
- All candidates supposed to be equal in a democracy but they're not
- Journalists treat front runners differently than other sources
- Front runners: candidate is ahead
- Too much focus on horse race
- Most political reporting focuses on character / personality instead of the issues
Photo Ethics

Do not ADD, DECEIVE (Photoshop / digitally manipulate)

Don't zone in: Butt, gutts, herpes
Eyewash - stock photos / film

If something is a reenactment or illustration, must be labelled
Sissela Bok
Consult your conscience
Seek expert advice or alternatives
Conduct a public discussion
Golden mean
Virtue lies at the mean of 2 extremes
Cowardice - Courage - Foolish
Focus on the act
Ethics - rational process based on agreed upon principles

Ethics pick up where morals leave off
Morals- realm of religion (10 commandments, Torah)
Immannuel Kant
Focus: Act

Categorical Imperative - An individual should act as if his choice could become universal law

Golden Rule - Do unto others as others would do unto you
Utilitarianism - Jeremy Bentham / John Stuart Mill
Focus: outcome
The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few
Deni Elliott

Conduct ethical discussion
- Morally relevant factors of the case?
- Is a greater evil being prevented or punished?
- Is the actor in a position to prevent / punish the evil OR is that a better role for another person of profession?
- As a journalist, how would you react if someone in another profession did what you are thinking of doing?
- What a rational uninvolved person think? Can a journalist defend action?
SMAB (how you should act)

Seek truth and report it
Minimize Harm
Act independently
Be accountable
SPJ Code
Journalists should:

— Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
— Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing.
— Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources' reliability.
— Always question sources’ motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise made in exchange for information. Keep promises.
— Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.
— Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
— Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it.
— Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story
— Never plagiarize.
— Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so.
— Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others.
— Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status.
— Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.
— Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid.
— Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting. Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context.
— Distinguish news from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two.
— Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public's business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.

Minimize Harm
Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect.

Journalists should:

— Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
— Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
— Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance.
— Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy.
— Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity.
— Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
— Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.
— Balance a criminal suspect’s fair trial rights with the public’s right to be informed.

Act Independently
Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know.

Journalists should:

—Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived.
— Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility.
— Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity.
— Disclose unavoidable conflicts.
— Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.
— Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage.
— Be wary of sources offering information for favors or money; avoid bidding for news.

Be Accountable
Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other.

Journalists should:

— Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct.
— Encourage the public to voice grievances against the news media.
— Admit mistakes and correct them promptly.
— Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media.
— Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.
Ethical News Values (recipe for a good story) - 8 of them
At the dinner, Rachel successfully eats divided crabs.

Tenacity - knowing when a story requires extra effort
Dignity - leave someone w/ self respect
Sufficiency - adequate sources
Equity - consider all sides / justice for all
Community - values social cohesion
Diversity - cover all pop segments equally
Advertising Ethics

Balance Theories- product restores balance of a person
Is/Does the ad...?

T- Truthfulness (ad claims true?)
A- Authenticity (does it stereotype?)
R- Respect
E- Equity (do you have to be hip or smart to get the ad?)
S- Socially Responsible (if everyone in the world used product, would world be better or unaffected?)
To what/to whom are you loyal?
Ethical probs arise when loyalties conflict

code of ethics
Thomas Hobbes
1st Western philosopher to assert that God did not have to be focus of loyalty; people can have competing loyalties
Josiah Royce
Loyalty could become the single guiding ethical principle but this has a problem
Potter Box- Ralph Rotter
Understand the FACTS of the case
Articulating LOYALTIES
Outlining VALUES
Applying philosophical PRINCIPLES