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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What led to the radio act of 1912?
The sinking of the titanic
Movie with Leonardo and Kate
What was the most important outcome of the act?
Strengthened the rules regarding shipboard wireless, and required that wireless operators by licensed by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor
Two different parts to this answer
What were some of the early technical problems with radio in the 1920's?
Not enough frequencies
Radio was to popular
Major interference between signals
Station changed frequencies
Stations increased power at will
Many parts to this answer
What is the significance of the Zenith case?
The ruling stated that the secretary of commerce has no legal basis to impose any restrictions on broadcast operations, he could only grant licenses.
The FCC was created because of this case
Has to do with the secretary of commerce, and the FCC
What were the key provisions of the radio act of 1927?
It authorized broadcasters to use the channels, which belonged to the public, but not own them.
Has to do with the radio waves and who owns them
What is NTSC?
National Television System Committee
How is the channel width for television different from the channel width for AM radio?
Television is 600MHZ, compared to 10KHz for AM radio
MHz and KHz
How is the channel width for television different from the channel width for FM radio?
Television is 600MHz, compared to the 200KHz of FM radio
MHz and KHz
What led to the freeze of 1948?
The current standards were insufficient to meet the demand.
Only 12 channels
What are the three key provisions of the FCC's 6th report and order?
Added UHF band
City-by-city allotment plan
Educational Channels
What was one of the unintended side effects of the city-by-city allotment of the channels?
3 major networks arouse
Has to do with networks
What is the definition of a broadcast network?
An organization that distributes programs to it's affiliate stations so that he program can be aired at the same time
What is the key phrase in the broadcast network definition?
What is an independent station?
A broadcast station not affiliated with a big four network
What is an O and O station?
Owned and Operated
Major markets
Exhibit network programming
Who are the top two TV station owners based on revenue, and what is their reach?
2. Viacom, 39%
1. Fox TV, 38%
What are the broadcast station ownership regulations?
No company can own stations that reach more then a certain percentage of the national audience
Only congress can set limits
What is the current cap?
Has to do with the percentage of the US population stations can reach
Why does Porter suggest this is the cap?
So that CBS and FOX wouldn't have to sell stations
What is the rational for the existing system of broadcasting?
It's part Geography, part American Ideology (American broadcasting set up to serve the needs of the Local Community), and part Local Community
What are the major revenue streams for cable TV?
Monthly Fee per subscriber from system
National and local advertising
Beginnings of CATV in the United States?
In Mahoney City, PA, a local TV salesman, John Walson, set up a community antenna on top the of Panther Mountain, and created the Panther Mountain Cable Company
Mahoney City, PA
Panther Mountains
What were the goals for early CATV?
Improve signal quality
Import additional signals
How does the list of top cable networks (based on the number of subscribers) differ from the top cable networks based on gross revenue?
Subscribers: TBS (independent)
Revenue: NBC (network)
What are the three ages of cable television, based on changes in programming strategies?
Stage 1 - 1948-1975
- Clear signal, imported signals
- Community antenna TV
Stage 2 - 1975-1990
- HBO, TBS, ESPN, CNN all up link to satellite
- New basic cable channels
Stage 3 - 1990-2002
- Growth of narrow cast channels (Sci-Fi, Comedy)
- In '92 there were 87 cable networks, in 2002 there were 280
What is a demographic?
Has to do with your traits, sorta
What is a psychographic?
Has to do with your mind and what it makes you think and do, and how you act
What are the nine steps used for a program to get on the air?
Step 1 - Pitch the concept
Step 2 - Treatment
Step 3 - Concept testing
Step 4 - Contract for script
Step 5 - Contract for pilot
Step 6 - Pilot testing
Step 7 - Contract for 6 - 13 episodes
Step 8 - Set air date
Step 9 - Renew or cancel contract
What is a license fee?
Money the network pays the producer for the broadcast rights
What is deficit financing?
The producer/production house borrows money to cover the costs
Producer/production house sells programs at a deficit
What is the definition of syndication?
The licensing of a program to individual outlets on a market by market basis
What are the two different types of program syndication?
Off Network - Programs originally aired on network in prime time, most are stripped
First Run - Programs designed originally for syndication, growing market, talk shows or game shows or court room shows
Off or first anyone?
What is Stripping?
Showing the same program at the same time Monday through Friday
Not like taking your clothes off
What is the compatibility principle?
Programming must complement the daily life cycle and activities of the audience
24 hour news, weather, sports
What is audience flow?
Making sure the audience stays with the network
Flowing in, not flowing out
What is block programming?
Scheduling similar programs back-to-back
Cop show, cop show, cop show
What is counter programming?
News vs sitcom
Talk vs action
Drama vs sitcom
Who is known as the father of radio?
Guglielmo Marconi
What is the audion tube?
A vacuum tube that improved and amplified wireless signals
How many radio channels are there?
Wow, it's a lot
What percentage of radio stations are AM? FM?
AM - 4,727
FM - 6,501
4 and 6
What is the date of the historic, first commercial radio broadcast? What were the call letters of the station? What was the information broadcast?
November 2nd, 1920
Announced the results of the presidential election
What is the trustee model of regulation?
The idea that broadcasters serve as the trustees or fiduciaries
What do broadcasters serve as?
What is a duopoly?
One person or company owning and managing multiple radio stations in a single market
What was the Biltmore agreement?
An agreement that limited radio to brief reports at specific times of the day, ensuring the dominance of newspapers as a journalistic medium
Limiting radio
Who invented FM radio?
Edwin Armstrong
Are your arms strong?
What influence did Lucille Ball have on the television industry?
Lucy transformed the business and look of television
- Filmed reruns were now possible
- The television industry moved form New York’s stage drama, to Hollywood with it’s entertainment film mindset, more action and more flash came to the screen
- Weekly series could now be produced relatively quickly and inexpensively
Which TV program was the first one to be produced live, in front of a real audience with three simultaneously running film cameras?
I Love Lucy
What are overnights in terms of TV ratings?
Instant ratings gathered from homes in several major urban centers
Instant, and urban
Why do local affiliates carry network programs?
- Networks make direct payments to affiliates for airing their programs
- Networks allow affiliates to insert locally sold commercials in a certain number of specified spots in their programs. The affiliates are allowed to keep the money they make from these spots
- Financial risk resides with the network, not with the affiliate
- Affiliates enjoy the prestige of their networks and use this to their financial advantage.
- Affiliates get network-quality programming
There are 5 reasons, most financial, and quality related
What is the difference between grazing and channel surfing?
Grazing - Watching several programs simultaneously
Channel Surfing - Traveling through the channels neither on specific programs nor on the commercials they house
Think about it, retard
When did DirecTV begin DBS service? How many channels did they offer?
DirecTV began DBS service in 1994, offering over 150 channels
Initially, what was the problem with DBS service?
Local channels weren't carried, but in 1999 DirecTV was ordered to carry them
When will the FCC require that all TV stations convert to completely digital transmission?
What is an MSO?
A multiple systems operator
What is a pass-by rate?
The number of homes pass by or with the potential to take cable
What is density?
The number of households per mile of cable
What is penetration?
The number of homes passes by that cable that actually subscribe