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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aesthetics
the study of how we look at something, how we judge it
Media Art
term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century
Zettl's Five Fields
Light
2D
3D
Time/Motion
Sound
Applied Media Aesthetics
the focus of how our senses react to fundamental image elements in television, film, and other electronic audiovisual media.
Context
the enviornment in which we perceive and evaluate specific perceptual phenomena.
Perception
process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information
Light
radiant energy that behaves commonly as electromagnetic waves
Lighting
the control of light for the purpose of manipulating and articulating the perception of an event
Attached Shadows
shadow that is on an object itself. It cannont be seen indepent of the object
Cast Shadows
shadow produced by an object and thrown onto a surface
Object-Connected Shadow
cast shadow touches the object producing it
Object-Disconnected Shadow
cast shadow does not touch the object producing it
Independent Shadow
cast shadow detached from the object causing it
key light
principle light source of directional illumination falling on an area of subject
outer orientation lighting
lighting to show the outer enviornment
spacial outer orientation lighting
reveals the basic shape of an object
tactile outer orientation lighting
reveals the texture of something
time outer orientation lighting
alerts us of the time of day
inner orientation lighting
our feelings and emotions
mood/atmosphere inner orientation lighting
high-key for upbeat mood
low-key for depressed feelings
predictive inner orientation lighting
lighting changes from one mood to another, signaling an impending occurence
lighting as a dramactic agent
lighting becomes an action within a scene
side light
usually directional light coming from half the side of the object. Acts as additional fill light and provides contour.
kicker
directional light that is positioned from low and from the side and back of the subject
photographic principle
also called triangle lighting, key, fill, back
chiaroscuro
lighting for light/dark contrast to emphasize volume and specific areas
rembrandt
all types of chiaroscuro lighting in whihc only specifica areas are light and dark
cameo
lighted object set off against a plain background
hue
the color attribute that indicates the actual color of an object
saturation
the color atribute that indicates color richness
brightness
the color attribute that indicates how light or dark the color appears
additive mixing
the mixing of colored light
subtractive mixing
the mixing of color pigments or filters. the filter subtracts a specific color while passing others
additive primaries
RGB; red, green, blue
subtractive primaries
CMY; cyan, magenta, yellow
complementary colors
colors the eliminate each other when mixed addivitely, white light on TV
achromatic
without color
chromatic
with color
mixed mixing
mixing color on a saturated object to give it another appearance
color relativity
how a color appears the way it does
color energy theory
the energy we perceive from a color; the energy a color emits within its contextual field, red is warm, blue is cold
use of color energy
create a setting to be more exciting with color and energy
color symbolism
symbolic associations that people learn. symbolism is different between cultures and time periods
hue
the color attribute that indicates the actual color of an object
saturation
the color atribute that indicates color richness
brightness
the color attribute that indicates how light or dark the color appears
additive mixing
the mixing of colored light
subtractive mixing
the mixing of color pigments or filters. the filter subtracts a specific color while passing others
additive primaries
RGB; red, green, blue
subtractive primaries
CMY; cyan, magenta, yellow
complementary colors
colors the eliminate each other when mixed addivitely, white light on TV
achromatic
without color
chromatic
with color
mixed mixing
mixing color on a saturated object to give it another appearance
color relativity
how a color appears the way it does
color energy theory
the energy we perceive from a color; the energy a color emits within its contextual field, red is warm, blue is cold
use of color energy
create a setting to be more exciting with color and energy
color symbolism
symbolic associations that people learn. symbolism is different between cultures and time periods
informational function of color
tell us more about an event that would be possible w/out color, clarity
expressive function of color
make us feel a certain way
essential quality, essential color
tell us about the quality of something by the color, new vs old
Regular TV
1.33:1
Wide Screen
1.78:1
HDTV
1.85:1
Panavision
2.35:1
Four Ways to Judge the Relative Size of an Object
1. knowledge of the object
2. relation to the screen size
3. environment and scale
4. relation to a person
Magnetism of the Frame
the pull that the frame exerts on objects within the frame
Attraction of Mass
graphic mass attracts graphic mass. the larger an object, the larger it's attraction power
Assymetry of the Frame
the right and left side of the video screen are unequal in visual prominence. The right side is said to command more attention than the left.
Uphill/Downhill Diagonals
We seem to read diagonals from left to right
Screen Left & Right Assymetry
we tent to pay more attention to that on the right then left. we move from middle to left to right with out eyes
Figure/Ground (light)
tendency to organize a scene into figures hat lie in front of a grbacground. We perceive the ground as being more stable than the figures
psychological closure
mentally filling in nonexistant information to arrive at a stable pattern
gestalt
the configuration we perceive through closure. the pattern is complete here
vector
a perceviable force with a direction and magitude. a element that leads us to a specific space/time direction
graphic vector
vector created by a line or elements ina way that suggest a direction
index vector
vector that is created by something that points unquestionably
motion vector
vetor created by object actually moving a specific direction
vector magnitude
degree of directional certainty and force, the amount of energy we perceive an object to have, screen size, graphic mass, and speed
continuing vectors
vectors that suceed each other in the same direction
converging vectors
vectors that move towards each other
diverging vectors
vectors that move in opposite directions
stages of balance
stablie, neutral, labile
labile balance
imbalance created by graphic weight, frame magnetism and vectors pushed to structural limit
Golden Section
divisions of the screen, cutting the screen into 5 parts
rule of thirds
dividing the screen into thirds, acheives a pleasing composition when object lies on the thirds
illogical closure
tendency to smooth continuity of vectors, by grouping objects together to stablize a picture, eeven if they don't belong together
premature closure
Premature closure occurs when the upper or lower edges of a screen coincides with the natural dividing lines.
depth of field
the area along the z-axis that is in focus
z-axis
the axis in the coordinating system that defines depth, the imaginary
graphic depth
the illusion that creates the 3D space on a 2D surface, overlapping planes, relative size, height in plane
height in plane
assuming the camera is shooting parallel to the ground, you will perceive an object as being more and more distance the higher it movse up in the picture field until it has reached the horizontal line
linear perspective
horizontal linear lines that coverge towards the distance at a vanishing point
aerial perspective
slective focus in a shallow depth of field only a shoer section of the z-axis is in forcus, while rest is blurry
selective focus
emphasizing an object in a shallow depth of field through focus while keeping its foreground and background out of focus
articulating the z-axis
the place objects or people along the z-axis to serve as 3D space modulators
blocking along the z-axis
placing people and their movement towards and away from the camera. intenfiying the 3D element
negative volume
empty space that surrounds, or is descibed by positive volumes, ex: empty room that is surrounded by walls
positive volume
objects that have substance and can be touched and weighed.
dominant negative volume
a lot of space with nothing in it , a lot of objects in a small space. The effects of a dominant positive volume give a sense of emptiness
dominant positive volume
a lot of mass, a lot of objects in a small space. The effects of a dominant positive volume give a sense of a crowded area
importance of context
allows us to decide how to visualize out shots, whether it be standard tv, hdtv, or movie....
medium skills
your ability to understand the technical and aesthetic limitations and potentals of the medium
animatic
series of images edited together
previsualization
using computer graphics, low cost,(usually 3D) to create rough versions of the shots in a movie sequence.
deductive visual approach
moving from general to the specific
inductive visual approach
moving from specific to general
looking at an event
report what's going on, news
looking into an event
telling the viewer what is going on, providing insight, sports
creating an event
use effects to change an original event, football fireballs
Subjective Camera - being discovered
screen action is aimed directly at us, we feel we are discovered by the action, linked with the event
Subjective Camera - direct address
performer speaks directly to the camera, to the audience
objective time
time measured by the clock, clock time
subjective time
duration we feel
event density
relative number of event details that occur within a brief clock time period
event intensity
relative energy and relative significance we perceive about a specific event
experience intensity
number of relevant experiences to which we are subkective simultaneously or in rapid succession
aethetic entropy
the energy present at the live time of an event, but decresses as time passes
film motion
an illusion, makes us see things that move in our mids
video motion
the constant moving electron beam that scna many phosphorus dots on the inside of a television set of individual pixels
basic structure of film
an assembly of still frames that when put together with others and enlarged, create motion
basic structure of video
digital consistant movement
the film look
softer look, stark colors, contrast with light and dark, less in your face @ theatre than home tv
motion paradox
whenever an object is simultaneously in motion and at rest, riding in a car or airplane
figure/ground reversal
illusion created when two objects are in motion, but one moves faster than other
perceived speed
how fast or how slow we sense something is moving on screen
z-axis motion
determined by the focal length, you can misjudge where an object may be
perceived object speed: wide angle lens
exaggerates the perceived z-axis speed with which an object appears to move toward or away from the camera, image size changes considerably
perceived object speed: narrow angle lens
slow perceived z-axis speed with which an object appears to move toward or away from the camera, image size doesn't change considerably
looking up/down motion
ground level makes object appear fast
aerial view makes object appear slower
aesthetic effects of slow motion
allows us to see better, frees an object from gravity, anticipation, surreality
accelerated motion
show that not only is the obeckt faster than normal, but also erratic
aethetic effects of accelerate motion
comic effect, dramatic effect,
scene time
length of a scene, subdivision of a sequence
story time
fictional or developmental time, period of the screen event
primary motion
event motion, motion in front of the camera
secondary motion
the camera motion; pan, titlt, boom, dolly, truck, arc...
tertiary motion
sequence motion, movement and rhythm influcence through shot changes
editing
selecting and sequencing those aprts of an event that contribute most effectively to its clarification
continuity editing
the structuring of on-and-off screen space and on establishing and maintaining the viewer's mental map
mental map
helps you make sense of where things are on and off screen, where they are going, or where they are supposed to be in on and off screen space
index vector line
line of conversation, one eighty line, important for maintaining the established vector continuity
complexity editing
used to intensify an event and reveal its complexity, diving deep into the event
Montage
juxtaposition of two or more separate images that together create a gestalt
analytical montage
anaylize the event for it's thematic elements
sequential montage
shows the order in action, cause & effect
sectional montage
analyizes one specific progression in the event from several viewpoints
idea-associative
juxtaposes two seemingly disassociated events to create a third-principal idea or concept
comparison montage
two shots that put together reinforce a theme
collision montage
takes two opposits events, puts them together, and colides them for you to connect them
metric montage
rhythmic structuring device, consists of images tht are flahsed on screen in equal intervals
literal sound
referential sound, refers to its original source
non-literal sound
does not refere to the sound originating souce, music not dealing in source
sound vs noise
sound has purpose
noise is random
three fuctions of sound
informal, outer orientation, inner orienation
information fuction of sound
communication specific info verbally, dialouge, direct address, narration
outer orientation of sound
communicate space, time, situation and ecternal event conditions,
inner orientation of sound
relate to mood, internal condition, energy, structure
predictive sound
signal a happening or situational change
leitmotiv
short musical phrase or specific sound effect that porentds the apperance of a person, ex, jaws
figure/ground principal of sound
organize the important sound to be the figure, while other sounds become background
sound perspective
match close-up pictures with "close" sounds, and long-shots with distant sounds
sound continuity
sound maintains its intended volume and quality over a series of edits