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12 Cards in this Set

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What are the symptoms of GIT pathology?
Appetite
Nausea
Vomiting
Haematemesis
Dysphagia
Heart burn/reflux
Abdominal pain
Weight loss
Bowel habit
Stool characteristics
Blood/malena
Fevers
Overseas trips
What is Haematemesis?
Hematemesis (American English) or haematemesis (International English) is the vomiting of fresh red blood. The source is generally the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients can easily confuse it with hemoptysis (coughing up blood), although the former is more common.
What is malena?
In medicine, melena or melaena refers to the black, "tarry" feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The black color is caused by oxidation of the iron in hemoglobin during its passage through the ileum and colon.
What are the transverse planes related to the GIT?
T9 - Xiphisternum
L1 - transpyloric
L3 - subcostal
L4 - Iliac crest
What are the quadrants related to the GIT?
R & L upper and lower quadrants

9 segments
R hypochondrium, epigastrium, L hypochondrium
R lumbar, umbilical, L lumbar
R inguinal, suprapubic, L inguinal
Where is the localisation of pain?
Foregut - epigastrium
Midgut - umbilical
Hindgut - suprapubic (hypogastric)

Diaphragmatic - shoulder tip
Gall bladder - tip of scapula
Ureteric - inguinal canal
What needs to be done on examination of the GIT?
- Consent, privacy, warm hands, comminate
- Should have observed general appearance, face & hands - jaundice, anaemia, xanthalesma, halitosis, teeth, tongue, leukoplakia, pharynx, salivary glands & lymph nodes, leukonychia, clubbing, palmar eytherma, dupytrens contracture, flapping tremor, bruising, tendon xanthomata, spider naevi, scratch marks
- Inspection
- Palpation
- Percussion
- Auscultation
What needs to be looked for on Inspection during examination of GIT?
Scars
Striae
Distension
Contours
Umbilicus
Veins
Pulsations
Visible peristalsis
What needs to be felt on palpation of the GIT?
- point to site(s) of tenderness
- light palpation starting furthest from pain sites
- Deep palpation
> guarding, cross tenderness, rebound tenderness, pain on cough, pain on striaght leg raising
- palpation for organs
> liver, spleen, kidneys, aorta, colon, uterus, ovaries, bladder
What needs to be percussed for the GIT?
liver
spleen
bladder
ascites - shifting dullness
What needs to be auscultated for the GIT?
Bowel sounds
Aortic & renal bruits
What is ascites?
In medicine (gastroenterology), ascites (also known as hydroperitoneum or more archaically as abdominal dropsy) is an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Although most commonly due to cirrhosis and severe liver disease, its presence can portend other significant medical problems. Diagnosis of the cause is usually with blood tests, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen and direct removal of the fluid by needle or paracentesis (which may also be therapeutic). Treatment may be with medication (diuretics), paracentesis or other treatments directed at the cause.