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7 Cards in this Set

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What are some limitations of sampling?
- there are many different ways that you can pick your sample, but not many will allow direct generalisations to the entire population
- Regardless of how 'big' your sample is, if it is chosen badly or inadequately covers the general population, it remains a biased sample and this will need to be recognised
What are 5 different sampling methods?
Random sampling
Systematic sampling
Cluster sampling
Snowball (chain referral) sampling
Convenience sampling
What is Random sampling?
- Each person within the population of interest has an equal chance of being selected for the study
- Does not ensure that the characteristics of the sample & population will coincide exactly, but can be used with statistics to determine the range within which they are the same
- Number of ways to do this, but often involves a computer program picking random numbers which match up to assigned numbers for the population
What is Systematic sampling?
- Using a predetermined system to pick participants
- Usually requires a list of partcipant, and you invite every nth person to be involved in the project
- If the list is not arranged in a particular order (e.g. alphabetically) can be considered equivalent to random sampling.
What is Cluster sampling?
- The unit of sampling is a group (or cluster) of people rather than individuals
- Clusters may include villages, apartment buildings, classes, families etc
- Convenient method that has a problem because often 'like people stick together'
What is Snowball (chain referral)sampling?
- People who meet the criteria for inclusion in a study are asked to name others they know whom also fit the criteria for inclusion.
- Can be useful to identify hard-to-find individuals (e.g. those with illegal behaviours, homeless people etc)
What is Convenience sampling?
- People chosen because the investigator presumes that they are typical of the population
- Often chosen in a haphazard fashion, or because that they are 'handy' or easy to obtain
- Often find researchers will approach only people that they do not feel threatened by, believe may be interested in the research etc
- rarely reflect the true population
- important to think about how truly your sample might reflect the actual population and discuss this