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### 7 Cards in this Set

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 What are some limitations of sampling? - there are many different ways that you can pick your sample, but not many will allow direct generalisations to the entire population - Regardless of how 'big' your sample is, if it is chosen badly or inadequately covers the general population, it remains a biased sample and this will need to be recognised What are 5 different sampling methods? Random sampling Systematic sampling Cluster sampling Snowball (chain referral) sampling Convenience sampling What is Random sampling? - Each person within the population of interest has an equal chance of being selected for the study - Does not ensure that the characteristics of the sample & population will coincide exactly, but can be used with statistics to determine the range within which they are the same - Number of ways to do this, but often involves a computer program picking random numbers which match up to assigned numbers for the population What is Systematic sampling? - Using a predetermined system to pick participants - Usually requires a list of partcipant, and you invite every nth person to be involved in the project - If the list is not arranged in a particular order (e.g. alphabetically) can be considered equivalent to random sampling. What is Cluster sampling? - The unit of sampling is a group (or cluster) of people rather than individuals - Clusters may include villages, apartment buildings, classes, families etc - Convenient method that has a problem because often 'like people stick together' What is Snowball (chain referral)sampling? - People who meet the criteria for inclusion in a study are asked to name others they know whom also fit the criteria for inclusion. - Can be useful to identify hard-to-find individuals (e.g. those with illegal behaviours, homeless people etc) What is Convenience sampling? - People chosen because the investigator presumes that they are typical of the population - Often chosen in a haphazard fashion, or because that they are 'handy' or easy to obtain - Often find researchers will approach only people that they do not feel threatened by, believe may be interested in the research etc - rarely reflect the true population - important to think about how truly your sample might reflect the actual population and discuss this